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centes populum tuum cum om-
ni pietate et sanctitate. Me-
mento Domine, Presbyteriihu-
jusce et cujuscumque alterius
loci, Diaconatus in Christo,
omnisque ministerii et omnis
ordinis EcclesiasticiP.

P Liturgia Jacobi Syr. Re-
naudot, torn. ii. p. 35.

( i Liturg. Chrysostomi,Goar,
p. 78.

r Liturgia Cyrilli Copt. Re-



CONSTANTINOPLE. '

Ka\ovfj,fV ere, p,vr)(rdr)Ti Kvpie Trd-

<TT)S eTrtOTCOTJTJS Op6od6oV, TOiV Op-

0OTOfj.ovvTo>v TOV \oyov rrjs (rrjs
d\T]6eias, navrbs TovTrpecrftvTfpiov,
rrjs fv Xptorw 8iaKOvias, Kal irav-
TOS IfpariKOv rdyp.aTOs^l.

ALEXANDRIA. After prayer
for the patriarch. " Memento
Domine Episcoporum ortho-
doxorum in quocumque loco
sint, Sacerdotum, Diaconorum,
&c." r

ROME, MILAN. Offerimus
pro Ecclesia tua . . . una cum
famulo tuo Papa nostroA^, et
Pontifice (vel Antistite) nostro
N.

The liturgies of Ceesarea,
^Ethiopia, and the orthodox
of Jerusalem and Alexandria,
contain prayers which do not
materially differ from those
cited*.



naudot, torn. i. p. 43.

s Sacramentar.GregoriiMe-
nard. p. 2. Miss. Ambros. Pa-
mel. Liturgic. torn. i. p. 301.

t Liturgia Basilii, Goar, p.



The holy Communion, or Liturgy.



CHAP. IV.



FOR THE PEOPLE.



The petitions contained in this part of the prayer
are found in almost all the liturgies of the primitive
church. In addition to prayers for the whole peo-
ple, and the congregation then present, it was also
common in primitive times to pray by name for
those persons who had contributed liberally to the
support of God's ministers and of the poor u .



ENGLAND. And to all thy
people give thy heavenly grace,
and especially to this congre-
gation here present ; that with
meek heart and due reverence
they may hear and receive thy
holy word ; truly serving thee
in holiness and righteousness
all the days of their life.



ANTIOCH. Rursus meminisse
dignare eorum qui nobiscum
in oratione consistunt, patrum,
fratrum, magistrorumque nos-
trorum, et eorum qui absunt v .



C-SISAREA. MvTja-0T)Ti Kvpie TOV
irapf(TT>Tos \aov, Kal T>V 81 fv-
\6yovs curias diroXfKpdevT&v, Kal
e'Xer/croj/ avrovs Kal f]p.as Kara TO
TrXfjdos TOV f\6ovs crov. TO. Tupelo.
avTcov e/wrX;croi/ iravTos dyadov,
TUS o~vvyias avTaiv Iv eiprjvr] Kal
Ofj-ovoia 8iaTT)pr)O-ov, Ta vrjia f<-
Opeif/ov, TTJV vtoTTjTa 7rai8ay<ayrj-
trov, TO yrjpas TrepiKpaTr/crov, K.
T. X.w

MILAN, ROME. Memento
Domine famulorum famula-
rumque N. et N., et omnium
circumadstantium, quorum tibi
fides cognita est, et nota de-
votio x .

There is a prayer of the
same kind in the liturgy of
Alexandria Y.



173. Jithiop. Renaudot, torn,
i. p. 514. Jacobi Graece, Asse-
mani, Codex Liturg. torn. v.
p. 41. Marci, Renaudot, torn,
i. p. 140.

u See Bona, Rer. Liturg.
lib. ii. c. 8.

v Liturg. Jacobi Syr. Re-



naud. torn. ii. p. 35.

w Liturgia Basilii, Goar, p.
171.

x Sacramentarium Gregorii
Menard, p. 2. Miss. Ambros.
Pamel. Liturg. torn. i.p. 301.

Y Liturgia Cyrilli Copt. Re-
naudot, torn. i. p. 44.



SECT. x. Prayers for those in Calamity. 93

FOB THOSE THAT ARE IN CALAMITY.

Such petitions as these occur abundantly in the
eastern liturgies of Constantinople, Csesarea, An-
tioch, and Alexandria. But they are not found in
the ancient liturgies of Milan and Rome. It is a mat-
ter of some surprise, that the western churches, who
borrowed so many things from eastern liturgies, did
not adopt these prayers, which breathe the very
spirit of that "pure and undefiled religion" described
by the apostle James.

ENGLAND. And we most CONSTANTINOPLE. Mvf)o-0r)Ti
humbly beseech thee of thy Kvpie ir\f6vTa>v, odoiiropovvrav, vo-
goodness, O Lord, to comfort (TOVVTO>V, Kapvovruv, m^/iiaAooTcoi/,
and succour all those who, in KCU rf/s o-arrfpias avra>v z .
this transitory life, are in trou- ALEXANDRIA. Solve capti-
ble, sorrow, need, sickness, or vos, salva eos qui necessita-
any other adversity. tern patiuntur, esurientes sa-

GSSAREA. XrjpS)v irp6(TTr)6i, tia, conforta pusillanimes, lap-
optyavwv virepda-TTHrov, atx/zAw- sos erige, stantes confirma, er-
TOVS pvcrai, vowovvras wcrat, TWI* rantes converte, perdue eos
ev ftr]p.aTi, Kal egopiais, KOI irdo-r) omnes ad viam salutis tuae,
6\fyei KOI avaynrj na\ TrepuTrdo-fi numera illos omnes cum po-
OVTCHV fj,vr)p.6vev(rov 6 Qf6s a . pulo tuo^*.

The liturgies of Antioch and
Ethiopia contain prayers which
scarcely differ from the above 6 .

COMMEMORATION OP THE DEPARTED FAITHFUL.

We proceed, lastly, to a general commemoration
of all the servants of God who have entered into



z Liturgia Chrysost. Goar, naudot, torn. i. p. 45.
p. 79. c Liturgia Jacobi Syr. Re-

a Liturgia Basilii, Goar, p. naud. torn. ii.p. 34. ^Ethiop.

171. torn. i. p. 515.

b Liturgia Cyrilli Copt. Re-



94 The holy Communion, or Liturgy. CHAP. iv.

their rest since the beginning of the world. Here,
though we name them not, we commemorate the
patriarchs, the prophets, apostles, martyrs, and all
the departed righteous, and testify our belief in the
immortality of the soul, and in life everlasting.

In primitive times these commemorations were
accompanied by prayers for the departed. When
the custom of praying for the dead began in the
Christian church has never been ascertained. We
find traces of the practice in the second century, and
either then, or shortly after, it appears to have been
customary in all parts of the church d . The first
person who objected to such prayers was Ae'rius,
who lived in the fourth century ; but his arguments
were answered by various writers, and did not pro-
duce any effect in altering the immemorial practice
of praying for those that rest. Accordingly, from
that time all the liturgies in the world contained
such prayers. These facts being certain, it becomes
a matter of some interest and importance to ascer-
tain the reasons which justified the omission of these
prayers in the liturgy of the English church for the
first time in the reign of king Edward VI. Some
persons will perhaps say that this sort of prayer is
unscriptural ; that it infers either the Romish doc-
trine of purgatory, or something else which is con-
trary to the revealed will of God, or the nature of
things. But when we reflect that the great divines
of the English church have not taken this ground,



J Prayers and offerings for xv. ch. 3. . 15, &c. Bp. Tay-

the departed faithful are men- lor's Dissuasive from Popery,

tioned by Tertullian, Cyprian, part 2. book ii. . 2. Arch-

Origen, Cyril of Jerusalem, &c. bishop Usher's Answer to the

See Bingham's Antiquities, b. Challenge, &c.



SECT. x. Reasons for omitting Prayers for the departed. 95

and that the church of England herself has never
formally condemned prayers for the dead, but only
omitted them in her liturgy, we may perhaps think
that there are some other reasons to justify that
omission 6 .

The true justification of the church of England is
to be found in her zeal for the purity of the Chris-
tian faith, and for the welfare of all her members.
It is too well known that the erroneous doctrine of
purgatory had crept into the western churches, and
was held by many of the clergy and people. Prayers
for the departed were represented as an absolute
proof that the church had always held the doctrine
of purgatory f . The deceitfulness of this argument
can only be estimated by the fact, that many persons
at this day, who deny the doctrine of purgatory,
assert positively that the custom of praying for the
departed infers a belief in purgatory. If persons of
education are deceived by this argument, which has
been a hundred times refuted^, how is it possible

e It has been indeed thought the communion-service ? The

by some great and respectable commemoration that closes

characters, that prayers for the the prayer which is the subject

dead are not entirely omitted of the present section, was not

in the liturgy and offices of the introduced until the last review

English church, but this is not in 1661.

clearly or satisfactorily proved f " Prayer for the dead pre-

in my opinion ; and it appears supposethyurgatory."Ilardmg's

almost certain., that if the Answer to Jewel's Apology,

prayers in the liturgy, and the f. 1 19. Antwerp, 1565. " Ora-

office for burial of the dead, tio pro mortuis quse purgatorii

may imply some petition for doctrinam invehit necessario."

the departed, such a petition Renaudot, Liturg. Oriental,

was not intended by the re- torn. i. p. 296.
visers of the English liturgy in & See the writings of almost

the year 1551; for had they every divine who has argued

designed to retain prayers for against the doctrine of purga-

the departed, how are we to tory. For instance, Burnet on

account for their omission in the Thirty-nine Articles, art.



96 The holy Communion, or Liturgy. CHAP. iv.

that the uneducated classes could ever have got rid
of the persuasion that their church held the doctrine
of purgatory, if prayers for the departed had been
continued in the liturgy ? Would not this custom,
in fact, have rooted the error of purgatory in their
minds ? If, then, the church of England omitted pub-
lic prayer for the departed saints, it was to remove
the errors and superstition of the people, and to pre-
serve the purity of the Christian faith. According to
scripture, they that die in the Lord are "blessed,"
and "rest" from their labours, although, as St.
James saith, " in many things we offend all." Ac-
cording to the doctrine of the catholic Fathers, these
souls rest in peace, and joyfully await the time of
their resurrection and perfection in eternal glory ;
and if all prayers for them were omitted, they
could not be made unhappy, nor would their felicity
and refreshment be diminished. But, on the other
hand, the living, who were yet in perils and tempt-
ations, might have been led astray, if prayers for
the departed had been continued, and thus being
brought into dangerous and presumptuous super-
stitions, might finally have offended God and been
condemned.

Granting the doctrine of purgatory to be false, I
think it is impossible to deny, that the danger which
would have arisen to the living, had prayers for
those that rest continued, would have been greater
than any advantage that the souls of the blessed
could have derived from those prayers. The satis-
factory and sufficient reason, therefore, for the omis-
sion of such prayers in the English liturgy is, that

xxii ; Bp. Taylor's Dissuasive admirable Defence of Arch-
from Popery; Bp. Stillingfleet's bishop Laud, p. 643, &c.



SECT. x. Reasons for omitting Prayers for the departed, 97

they were inexpedient. Considering the circum-
stances of the times, more evil than good would have
been the result of the continuance of this practice.
It was therefore relinquished, and the happy conse-
quence was, that all the people gradually became
free from the error of purgatory. Thenceforward
the catholic doctrine prevailed in England, that the
righteous after death are immediately translated
to a region of peace, refreshment, and joy ; while
the wicked are consigned to a place of torment from
whence there is no escape. And when the doctrine
of purgatory had been extirpated, the English
church restored the commemoration of saints de-
parted in the liturgy, which had been omitted for
many years from the same caution and pious regard
to the souls of her children.

ENGLAND. And we also bless ALEXANDRIA. "OTTO? av KOI

thy holy name, for all thy ser- ij/xeTs /iera irdvrcov dyia>v, T>V air

vants departed this life in thy alS>vos <rot evapeo-rrjadvTow, yevat-

faith and fear ; beseeching thee peda ^ro\ot r>v ala>via>v vov dya-

tO give US grace SO to follow 6S>v, <t>v ^roi/xatray rois dycnr>(rl

their good examples, that with <re Kvpie h .

them we may be partakers of ANTIOCH. Dignos effice ut

thy heavenly kingdom. Grant omnium illorum qui a sseculo

this O Father, for Jesus Christ's tibi placuerunt, memoriam a-

sake, our only Mediator and gamus. Patrum sanctorum et

Advocate. Amen. patriarcharum, prophetarum et

GffiSAREA. LToijjo-ais ii/a eupa>- apostolorum, Johannis preecur-

pev e\eov nal x^piv fiera navrav soris et Baptist*, sancti Ste-

ra>v dyimv, TO>V an al>v6s o-ot eu- phani primi diaconorum, et

apfa-TTjvdvTuv, TrpoTraToptov, ira- primi martyrum, et sanctae 0eo-

Tpiapx&v, irpo<pT)T>v, aTroo-ToXwv, TOKOV semperque virginis beatee

KT)pvK<ov, evayyeXtorwj', papTvpav, Mariae, et omnium sanctorum.



h Liturgia Basilii, Alexandrina. Renaudot, tom.i, p. 75. Marci,
ibid. 150.

VOL. IT. H



98 The holy Communion, or Liturgy. CHAP. iv.



ofto\oyr)Ta>v, SiSao-KoAow, /cm irav- Rogamus te, Domine multae

TOS Trvevparos diicaiov tv TrtWfi misericordise, qui impossibilia

TtT\eia>pfvovi. veluti possibilia creas, consti-

MILAN. Nobis quoque mi- tue nos huic ecclesiae, statue

nimis et peccatoribus famulis nos per gratiam tuam inter

tuis, de multitudine misericor- electos illos qui scripti sunt in

diae tuae sperantibus, partem coelis k .

aliquam et societatem donare ALEXANDRIANORTHODOX.'H-

digneris cum tuis sanctis apo- \uv TO. T\T) rrjs fwJJs xP tcrrtai/ * a '

Stolis et martyribus . . . . et evdpeara, KOI dvapAprriTa Smprja-at'

cum omnibus sanctis tuis : in- KOI Sbs rjfjuv pfpiBa *cal K\rjpov ex. flv

tra quorum nos consortium, /xcra irdvrw T&V ayiav o-ou 1 .

non estimator meriti sed ve- ROME. Nearly the same as

niee quacsumus largitor ad- Milan m .
mitteJ.

POSITION OF THE PRAYERS AND COMMEMORATIONS.

The general prayers and commemorations which
we have been considering, occupied very different
places in the different liturgies of the primitive
church. In the patriarchates or exarchates of An-
tioch, Caesarea, and Constantinople, these prayers
followed the consecration of the elements 11 . In the
patriarchate of Alexandria and ^Ethiopia they pre-
ceded the consecration, and occurred in the middle
of the thanksgiving, between Sursum corda and the
hymn Tersanctus . In the Roman patriarchate, the
exarchate of Italy or Milan, and probably in Africa,
the solemn prayers for the living occurred before
the consecration, and for the departed after conse-
cration, but both within the canon which followed

* Liturgia Basilii, Goar, p. * Liturgia Marci Renaudot,

170. torn. i. p. 150.

J Miss. Ambros. Pamel. Li- m Sacrament. Gregorii, Me-

turg. torn. i. p. 303. nard. p. 3.

k Liturgia Jacobi Syr. Re- n See vol. i. p. 28, 65, 77.
naud. torn. ii. p. 86. Vol. i. p. 98.



SECT. xi. The Exlwrtatwn. 99

Tersanctus?. It appears from this, that the gene-
ral prayers may be placed as well before the conse-
cration as after it. None of these liturgies, how-
ever, afford an exact parallel to the order of the
English liturgy, where the living and departed are
commemorated not merely before consecration, but
before the canon or more solemn part of the liturgy
begins. We are not, however, without an ancient
(I had almost said an apostolical) example of this
practice. In the ancient liturgies of Gaul and
Spain, the solemn commemoration of living and
departed was made in exactly the same place as it
is in the English liturgy. There, after the gifts of
bread and wine were laid on the table, and before
the canon, the names of the living and dead,
including the names of kings, bishops, clergy,
benefactors, &c. and of apostles, martyrs, and the
departed faithful, were recited ; and then the
officiating priest offered a prayer for alii.

SECTION XI.

THE EXHORTATION TO THE PEOPLE.

An exhortation or address to the people at this
part of the liturgy did not generally occur in the
rites of the Christian churches during the very first
ages ; we cannot therefore claim for it the antiquity
which belongs to most other parts of our liturgy.
However, exhortations delivered to the people dur-
ing the divine liturgy, at a different time from the
sermon, are not without parallel in very ancient
rites. In the primitive Gallican and Spanish
liturgies an address to the people called Pr&fatio

P Vol. i. p. 122. 127. 137. <l Ibid. p. 160. 174.

H 2



100 The holy Communion t or Liturgy. CHAP. iv.

occurred very nearly at this place, immediately before
the general prayers for all men, while the address
in our liturgy occurs immediately after them. In
this exhortation they were informed of the principal
events which they were assembled to commemorate,
and thus were prepared to listen with more atten-
tion and devotion 1 ". In the liturgy of Antioch,
used for a great length of time by the Syrian mo-
nophysites, there is an address from the deacon to
the people, which nearly corresponds in position with
our exhortation. It is placed before the salutation
of peace and the beginning of the solemn thanks-
givings and prayers 8 . It consists chiefly of praises
and thanks to God, and prepares the minds of the
faithful, by speaking of the body and blood of
Christ then shortly to be received. What may
be the antiquity of this address I know not, but
many reasons induce me to think that it is more
recent than the separation of the monophysites and
orthodox in A. D. 451.

It appears, therefore, that the position of our
exhortation is not by any means without parallel
in ancient liturgies ; and in the exhortation itself
we recognise the very life and soul of primitive
devotion and orthodox faith.



SALUTATION OF PEACE.



As we have now entered on a part of the liturgy
which must be regarded as peculiarly preparatory,
it may be well to remark, that the preparation of
the people in ancient liturgies was generally of three
kinds : first, the preparation of repentance ; secondly,

r Vol. i. p. 160. 174. naudot, torn. ii. p. 29. see also

9 Liturgia Jacob! Syr. Re- p- 75



SECT. xi. The Apostolical Kiss of Peace. 101

of faith ; thirdly, of charity. The English liturgy
provides for the first in the confession and benedic-
tion, or absolution of penitents, which will be re-
viewed in the next section. The second is provided
for by the repetition of the Constantinopolitan Creed.
The third is accomplished by us in the exhortation
to charity, which occurs in the middle of the ad-
dress, which I consider in the present section. In
the primitive church it was customary for the faith-
ful to testify their charity by mutual salutations
some time before the distribution of the sacrament e .
In early ages, the common salutation of friendship
was a kiss ; even within our own age such a cus-
tom has (I apprehend) existed in some foreign coun-
tries. In the eastern churches, the men sat at one
side of the church, the women at the other ; so
that when the kiss of peace was given, according to
the apostle Paul's directions, no sort of impropriety
could occur u . In the west, whatever might have
been the original custom, certainly in after-ages

* Kai 6 8taKovos elrraTO Tcaviv, est signaculum orationis

dairdcrao-de a\\r]\ovs ev (pi\rjp.aTi quale sacrificium est, a quo

dyla>, Kal do"tra(<rdc0<rav of TOV sine pace receditur." Tertul-

KXrjpov TOV (irio-KOTTov, ol AaiVcot lian. de Oratione, c. xiv. p. 135.

ai>8pfs TOVS AatVcoiiy, at yvvaiKes ed. Rigaltii.

ras yvvaiKas. Const. Apost. lib. u Ets TO eTtpov fiepos ol AaiVcot

viii. c. II. p. 398. ed. Clerici. Ka6fe'o-0<oo-av /xera 7700-17?

ILiff OVTWS TTJV elprjVTjv 8i8oo-0ai, Kal evraf-ias' KOI at yvvaiKfs

Kal p.fTa TO 7rpfO~l3vTepovs 8ovvai pio~[i.tva>s Kal avrai K

T& firi&KOTTto, TTJV flprjvrjv, Tore Apost. Const, lib. ii. C. 57'

TOVS \a'iKovs rrfv elpr)vr)v Sidovai. Ei KexAeiarat TJ tKK\T)o-la Kal TTO.V-

Concil. Laodicen. canon 19. ret vpels evSov, dX\a 8ifo-TaX6(o

Bevereg. Pandect, torn. i. p. TO irpdynaTa, &v8pcs fifTa dv8pS>v,

46 1 . 'AAAijAovs (pi\r]p.aTi do~Tra- Kal yvva'iKfs utra yvvaiK&v. Cy-

foftida Travo-a/xei/ot TO>I> fi>x>v. rill. Hierosolym. Praef. ad Cat.

Justin. Martyr. Apolog. i. ed. N. 8. p. n. ed. Milles. See

Thirlby, p. 95. "Jejunantes Bingham's Antiquities, book

liabita oratione cum fratribus viii. chap. 5. .6.
subtrabunt osculuui pacis,quod

H 3



102 The holy Communion, or Liturgy. CHAP. iv.

men and women prayed indiscriminately in the
churches. This circumstance, combined with the
alteration of the habits of common life, and the
decline of Christian sanctity in the great body of
the faithful, rendered it no longer possible to con-
tinue the apostolic kiss of peace. But instead of
substituting some other salutation, which would
have at once suited the manners of the age, and
fulfilled the apostolic injunction, an entirely differ-
ent course was adopted. A relic or picture, entitled
the osculatorium, was passed from one person to
the other ; and all that part of the congregation'
who kissed this memorial, thought only of venerat-
ing it v . Thus the apostolical custom became ex-
tinct both in letter and spirit ; and all that remained
at the period of the English reformation was the
name of the osculum pads. If our reformers omit-
ted a name, which had long been connected with a
practice that led to superstition, and often to idola-
try, they at least substituted in its place an exhorta-
tion, which was intended to promote that internal
charity which the apostolical salutation of peace
was meant to express. The salutation occurred be-
fore the Anaphora or solemn prayers and consecra-
tion in the patriarchates or exarchates of Antioch,
Cassarea, Constantinople, Alexandria, and Ephesus,
and in Gaul and Spain w . In the English liturgy,



v See Ducange, Glossar. vo- biscum/ diaconi vel subdiaconi

c\busosculatorium,osctthtm. He imaginem quandam adstanti-

says of the salutation of peace bus clericis, et plebi, osculan-

in the west, "Abrogatus de- dum porrigant, quam vulgar!

inde osculorum pads in ecclesia vocabulo pacem appellamus."
usus, inductusque alius, ut dum w See vol. i. p. 31, 65, 77,

sacerdos verba haec profert, 98, 108, &c. 161, 174.
' Pax Domini sit semper vo-



SECT. xri. The Address, Confession, and Absolution. 103

the exhortation, which at present supplies the place
of this salutation, occurs exactly in the same posi-
tion as the salutation did in the ancient Gallican
and Spanish liturgies, namely, after the commemo-
ration of the living and dead, and before the form
Sursum corda, " Lift up your hearts*." In the
liturgies of Milan, Rome, and Africa, the salutation
of peace followed the solemn prayers and consecra-
tion, and immediately preceded the actual commu-
nion y. In most of the eastern liturgies, and in
those of Gaul and Spain, a prayer for peace and
charity followed or preceded the salutation. But it
is more than doubtful whether such prayers were
used in the most primitive times, though in some
churches they may be traced back with a degree of
probability to the fifth or fourth century.

SECTION XII.

THE ADDRESS, CONFESSION, AND ABSOLUTION.

Independently of the self-examination and repent-
ance which the primitive church required from the
faithful, preparatory to the reception of the sacra-
ment of Christ's body and blood ; we find that in
some churches there was a general confession of
sins made by the people during the liturgy ; after
which, the bishop or priest pronounced a benedic-
tion or absolution of the penitents. I shall con-
sider this more at large, by viewing separately the
forms of confession and absolution which occur at
this part of the English liturgy.

x See vol. i. p. 161, 174. y Vol. i. p. 123, 128, 130, 135.

H 4



104 The holy Communion, or Liturgy. CHAP. iv.



THE ADDRESS.



It was generally the office of the deacon, in the
primitive church, to make proclamations in the as-
sembly, to command silence, to invite to prayer or
psalmody, and to direct the attitudes which befitted
attention or reverence 2 . However, if the deacon
was not present, the priest himself might very
properly fulfil this office. In the liturgy of the
church of Jerusalem, the deacon addressed the people
thus before communion : " Draw near with the fear
"of God, with faith, and charity a ." This address
plainly resembles the commencement of our own,
to which we have added an exhortation to the
people to confess their sins.

CONFESSION.

It has been very anciently the custom in many
churches for the priest or the people to confess their
sins in the liturgy, either aloud or in silence. In
the liturgies of Rome and Milan, in early times, the
priest made a long confession of his sins in silence,
after the catechumens had been dismissed, and the
linen cloth laid b ; and at the same time the people



Online LibraryWilliam PalmerOrigines liturgicæ : or, Antiquities of the English ritual : and a dissertation on primitive liturgies (Volume 2) → online text (page 8 of 26)