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740. Classes 0/ by-products — The principal by-products used as feeding
stuffs have the following origin : —

(a) From the milling of wheat and other grains.

(3) From the manufacture of oatmeal and other breakfast foods,

(r) From the manufacture of beer and other alcoholic drinks.

(</) From the manufacture of starch, and sugars, chiefly from corn.

(*) From the extraction of oils, chiefly from cottonseed and linseed.

(0) By-products derived from the milling of grains — By far the most
important of the by-products coming under this class are those produced

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in the manufacture of flour from wheat. The most important among these
are wheat bran and wheat middlings. Both of these consist chiefly of the
outer coats of the wheat kernel. These outer coatings of the wheat kernel
are much richer in mineral matter, in protein, in crude fiber, and in fat
than the interior or starchy portion which enters into the' flour. The flour
manufacturer does not, however, succeed in effecting complete separation
between the starchy interior and the exterior coatings. Both bran and
middlings, therefore, contain some starch. Bran is the coarser of the two
and ordinarily contains less starch. Middlings contain more of the finer
parts of the kernels. Both bran and middlings are subject to considerable
variation. Middlings appear to be somewhat superior in average compo-
sition to bran, containing about the same amount of protein, somewhat less
fiber, and considerably more nitrogen-free extract and fat. Both bran and
middlings are among the most valuable and widely used cattle foods.

(3) By-products from breakfast foods — In the manufacture of breakfast
foods which are now so widely used, a number of different by-products are
obtained. These are put upon the market as cattle foods. Among the differ-
ent foods the various grades of oatmeal are most generally used. These
can be produced only from the finest grain. In the manufacture of these
foods the oats must be first screened for the separation of the largest and
heaviest kernels and from these the hulls are removed. These hulls and
the smaller grains separated by screening, and, in addition in some cases,
bran which is obtained by polishing the hulled grain, are commonly put to-
gether,* finely ground, and then put upon the market as oat feed. ' Oat feeds
are subject to much variation and they cannot be safely bought without
careful previous inquiry as to their quality.

Barley and hominy feeds are other products coming under this class.
Barley feed consists chiefly of the hulls with a small proportion of the grain
and of course contains more fiber and less starch than the original grain.
Hominy feed consists of the skin, the germ, and a portion of the starchy
part of the corn kernel. This material is more valuable than the feeds
obtained from oats and barley, containing less fiber and being accordingly
far more digestible.

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(c) By-products from the manufacture of alcoholic beverages — The
most important among the food stuffs included in this class are those pro-
duced in the manufacture of beer. Two feeds of considerable value come
from this source, — malt sprouts and brewers' grains. The initial step in the
preparation of barley for malting is placing the barley under such conditions
of moisture and temperature that it will germinate* When the sprout has
grown to such length as experience indicates will give the best results, the
sprouted grains are dried rapidly, and the sprouts, which are now brittle,
broken off by shoveling over the material and then separated by fanning
mills. Malt sprouts are perfectly dry and will keep indefinitely. They are
not as palatable as some other feeds but are very rich in protein and often
sell at a price which makes their purchase expedient. The grain after the
separation of the sprouts is ground and crushed and in the process of brew-
ing the sugar produced from the starch during germination is separated.
The remnant is known as brewers' grains. It is comparatively rich in pro-
tein. Brewers' grains in their natural condition are very wet and will keep
but a short time. They can be fed only in the immediate neighborhood
of the breweries. At the present time a large proportion of these grains is
rapidly dried, after which they can be sent to any distance and will keep in-
definitely. They are a perfectly wholesome food and may often be em-
ployed with advantage.

(d) By-products from starch and glucose manufacture — Within com-
paratively recent times the manufacture of starch and glucose (which is a
kind of sugar) from Indian corn has become very extensive and by-products
from these manufacturing industries are of much value as feeding stuffs.
Among these, gluten meal, gluten feed, and corn bran are among the most
important. In the process of manufacture the corn, either before or after
soaking in warm water, is crushed into a coarse powder. The hulls float on
the surface, the germs sink to the bottom. It is the starch which the
manufacturer is after and this remains in suspension in the water. This is
slowly conducted through long troughs, where the starch settles to the bot-
tom and the more glutinous portions float off and are finally recovered.
Should the hulls be kept by themselves this would constitute corn bran ;

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7 I2


but the bran is now generally mixed with the glutinous portion ana ground,
when it is put upon the market under the name gluten feed. If the harder
and flinty portions of the corn be kept by themselves and ground the
product is gluten meal. The hulls and the germs mixed together consti-
tute the product known as starch feed. Sometimes the germs, separated
by themselves, are pressed for the extraction of oil. The resulting by-
product in this case is known as germ oil meal. All these by-products are
valuable feeds though there is much difference between them. Corn bran
contains the least protein and most fiber ; gluten meal contains the most
protein ; gluten feed and germ oil meal come between these two. These
products differ so widely and there is, moreover, such diversity in the
application of names to different products that it is necessary to inquire as
to the composition before purchase.

(e) By-products from the manufacture of oils — A large number of
different seeds are used for the production of oil but the only ones which
are of much importance in the United States are cotton seed and flax seed.
The by-products of both of these are valuable food stuffs, containing a larger
proportion of protein than any others which are available. Cottonseed meal
is the richer of the two. It is not, however, as safe food as linseed meal.
It can be used only in rather moderate quantities. If fed in too large
amounts it disturbs digestion and is likely to cause inflammation of the udder
in case of milch cows. When fed to milch cows it tends to make their butter
hard and it is likely to cause constipation, if largely fed. Linseed is much
safer. Its tendency is laxative. When fed to milch cows the butter from
their milk is rendered comparatively soft. Cottonseed meal is' an unsafe
food for pigs.

741. Classification of concentrates according to the proportion of nutri-
ents — In the making up of rations it will be found convenient to have at
hand a classified list of concentrates in order that one may the more readily
find a food which is rich, poor, or medium in protein as may be needed to
bring the ration to the desired standard. Undoubtedly one of the best
classifications which has been .proposed is the one by Lindsey *, which recog-
nizes two divisions and four classes, as follows : —

* Bulletin 71, Hatch Experiment Station.

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DIVISION I — Protein Feeds.




Class I.

3°~45% protein.
50-60% carbohy-
75-90% digestible.

Class II.
20-30% protein.
60-70% carbohy-
80-85% digestible.

Class III.
14-20% protein.
70-75% carbohy-
00-75% digestible.

Class IV.
8-14% protein.
75-85% carbohy-
75-90% digestible.

Cottonseed meal.

Cleveland flax meal.

N. P. and O. P. lin-
seed meals.

Chicago, Cream, and
King gluten meals.

Buffalo, Davenport,
Golden, Rockford,
Diamond, Wau-
kegan, and other
standard gluten

Atlas meal, dried
brewers' grains,
and malt sprouts.

Wheat middlings,
mixed feed, and
wheat bran.

H. O. Dairy feed.

Wheat, rye, barley,
oat, corn, and hom-
iny meals.

Oat, corn and oat,
and corn, oat, and
barley feeds.

Quaker dairy and
H. O. horse feeds.

• Including fat reduced to carbohydrates.

By reference to these groups one can at once see about what effect the
particular food stuff will have upon a ration ; to what extent, for instance,
it will serve to enrich in protein a mixture of materials consisting chiefly of

742. What feeds to buy — The farmer must of course consider cost as
well as composition in his purchase of food stuffs, and relative cost differs to
some extent from time to time according to the laws of supply and demand.
Recognizing this fact, Lindsey has devised a key whereby it is believed the
farmer may, for himself, knowing the prices, determine which of any number
of feeds it will be best for him to purchase. This key follows : —


Cottonseed meal 152

Cleveland flax meal 134

O. P. linseed meal ..138

Gluten meal 140

Wheat middlings! 107-1 14

Corn meal 100

Hominy meal 105

Ground oats 90

Oat feed (best grades) 70

Oat feed (excessive hulls). . .40-50 ,

> Protein feeds.




Mixed feed*. . . '. 9°-95

Wheat bran 86

Malt sprouts 95

Dried brewers' grains 100

H. O. dairy feed 96

Quaker dairy feed 84

Corn and oat feed 90

Corn, oat, and barley feed .... 92
H. O. horse feed 90

* Estimated but not actually determined.

t Fine, light-colored middlings with 18 to 20 per cent, protein.

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In making up this key, corn meal has been taken as a standard, and its
value is placed at ioo. In explaining the use of this key we cannot do better
than to quote Lindsey.

"How to Use tht Key.

il It is not possible in this connection to show the relative effects of the
various feed stuffs on the flow of milk or the production of beef. The
figures are offered rather as a key to the comparative commercial values of
the different feeds based on the digestible nutrients contained in them.
Thus, if wheat bran is worth 86, cottonseed meal would be worth 152.
These figures can be easily converted into dollars. Thus, if corn meal is
worth $20.00 per ton or 100, wheat bran would be worth 86 per cent, of
$20.00 or $17.20, the amount the farmer can afford to pay for the bran.
Again, with cottonseed meal worth $25, what can the farmer afford to pay
for old process linseed meal? Cottonseed meal equals 152, or $25, and
linseed meal 138. We have a case in simple proportion : 152 : 138 : :
$25 : x = $22.70, the value of a ton of linseed meal. It must not be for-
gotten that these figures do not take into consideration the mechanical
condition, or the particularly favorable effect which some feeds are supposed
to exert upon the general health of the animal."

At the present time (and the same has been true as a rule for some
years), the following are among the most economical concentrates which are
rich in protein: cottonseed meal, corn gluten meal, gluten feed, dried
brewers' grains, malt sprouts, and fine middlings.

Discussing the topic "expensive feeds," in Bulletin 71, Lindsey says : —

4< Wheat bran and mixed feed contain only 13 per cent, of digestible
protein, and 35 to 40 per cent, of indigestible matter. The long distance
transportation of substances containing such a large amount of inert material
is an important factor in making the nutrients they contain relatively ex-
pensive. While they are safe to feed and are most excellent for diluting or
' lightening up ' the more concentrated by-products, it is believed that
farmers often feed them in excess to their pecuniary disadvantage. For
milkmen they often 'furnish a partial and cheap substitute for hay, when the
latter is expensive. The above remarks apply to New England conditions,

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as these products are undoubtedly among the very cheapest feeds for West-
ern farmers. Linseed meal, while a desirable producing feed, is as a rule
an expensive one. It is not economical for the average farmer to purchase
corn meal foF milk production ; it should be grown upon the farm. Milk
producers, who are obliged to purchase all of their feed, can on the contrary
often feed grain mixtures containing one-third corn or hominy meal to
advantage. Among other expensive concentrates may be mentioned oat
feeds, and the various mixtures containing considerable quantities of oat
offal. For obvious reasons it is generally decidedly more economical for
farmers to make their own mixtures. ' '


743. General considerations — In the feeding of the horse and the hog
the practice of most men need not be materially different in summer from
that in winter, although these animals might doubtless be pastured in many
cases to a greater extent than is usually the case. Sheep, of course, as a
rule, depend exclusively upon pasture in summer. The same is true oi
young cattle under ordinary conditions. Milch cows in many cases are
made to depend almost exclusively upon pasture for summer feed. If the
pasture furnishes abundance of sweet, nutritious grasses, it leaves little to
be desired, so far as its influence upon product is concerned, and but a
comparatively small amount of concentrates can, with advantage, be fed in
connection with such pasture. In the New England states the proportion
of steep and rocky hillsides furnishing a large amount of rich herbage is so
great that cows are for the most part pastured ; but in localities where a
larger proportion of the farm areas is tillable, or under an intensive system
of farming, soiling is becoming increasingly common. In many localities,
it is true, pastures may be insufficient either throughout or during only a
part of the season, and partial soiling is practiced.

744. The advantages of soiling — Among the more important of the
advantages connected with soiling are the following : —

1st. More feed is produced per unit of area than by pasturage. An
experiment by Armsby showed that two soiling crops in one season (rye fol-

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lowed by corn) yielded five times as much digestible matter on a given area
as good pasture sod.

2d. Grazing is wasteful because a considerable proportion of the grass
produced is trampled down and rendered unpalatable by dung and urine.

3d. There is a great saving in the matter of fencing.

4th. The animals can be kept in greater comfort, better protected from
flies, and from the intense heat of the sun*

5th. The supply of manure is increased.

745. Systems of soiling — From the fact that the labor cost of han-
dling green crops throughout the entire season is considerable and that the
work comes at a time when the forces of the farm are apt to be otherwise
fully employed, many have come to the conclusion that silage is the best
crop which can be used for such feeding and experience indicates no ap-
parent serious disadvantage from its continued use. There can be no doubt,
however, that animals as well as persons relish a change in diet, and to the
writer it seems desirable that fresh, green crops should be used for a part of
the summer at least. "A number of different systems for soiling, each of
which has many merits, have been proposed. Among these one suggested
by Phelps of Connecticut, another by Voorhees of New Jersey, and one
which has been carefully tried by Lindsey in central Massachusetts are
given : —


Specibs op Crop.

Time of Seeding.

Approximate Time of

Winter rye

Winter wheat


Grass (from meadows) . .

Oats and peas

Oats and peas

Oats and peas


Clover, rowen

Soy beans

Cow peas

Rowen grass (meadows).
Barley and peas

Sept. 1
Sept. 5-10
July 20-30

April 10
April 20
April 30
June 1

May 25
June 5-10

Aug. 5-10

May 10-20

May 20- June 5
June s- 1 s
June 15-25

June 2 5- July 10
July 10-20

July 20-Aug. 1
Aug. 1-10
Aug. 10-20

Aug 20-Sept. 5

Sept. 5-20

Sept. 20-30

Oct. 1-30

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SraciBs of Crop.

Winter rye

Winter wheat. . .
Crimson clover. .
Oats and peas . .
Oats and peas . .
Mixed grasses . .
Oats and peas . .

Cow peas


Japanese millet.

Cow peas


Soy beans

Japanese millet.


Barley and peas.
Barley and peas

Time of Seeding.

Approximate Time of


May 1-10


May 10-20


May 20- June 1
June 1- 10

April 1

April 10

June 10-20


June 20-30

May 10

July 1- 10

May 20

July 10-20

June 1

July 20- Aug. 1

June 20

Aug. 1-10

June 10

Aug. 10-20

June 20

Aug. 20-Sept. 1

July 10

Sept. 1-10

July 20
July i

Sept. 10-20

Sept. 20-Oct. 10

Aug. 10

Oct. 10-20

Aug. 20

Oct. 20-30

(Data for ten cows, entire toiling, Amherst)*


Wheat and winter vetch . .


Grass mixture and clover.


Oats and peas

Oats and peas

Oats and peas

Japanese barnyard millet

and peas

Japanese barnyard millet \
Corn and soy beans

Corn and soy beans

Barley and peas

Sbbd for an Ackk.

\% bush, wheat, 1

bush, vetch

2 bush

8 lbs. clover, 8 lbs.
tall oat grass, 6
lbs. orchard grass,
6 lbs. Kentucky

blue grass

15-20 lbs

\% bush, each

\% bush, each

\% bush, each

8 qts. millet, 1%

bush, peas

14 qts

10 qts. corn, 7 qts.


10 qts. corn, 7 qts.

\}i bush, each

Time of


Sept. 1
Sept. 1

% acre
yi acre


April 20
May 5
May 20

H acre

H acre

# acre

# acre
% acre

May 15
June 5

l A acre
Yi acre

May 15

)i acre

June 5
July 25-
Aug. 1

% acre
*A acre

Approximate Time
of Cutting.

May 25- June 8
May 2 5- June 8

June 10-June 25
June 10- June 25
June 2 5- July 6
July 6- July 17
July 1 7- July 28

Aug. 1 -Aug. 10
Aug. 10-Aug. 20

Aug. 20-Sept. 4

Sept. 4- Sept. 20

Oct. 5-Oct. 20

• It is understood that the time of seeding, area to be seeded, and yield to the acre will be governed some-
what by the weather conditions and the fertility of the soil.
•* Instead of wheat and vetct^if vetch is too expensive,
t In place of grass and cloverrt desired.
% Leave out peas in this sowing.

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746. Feeding for milk production — In what has preceded the rations
which have been hgured as illustrative examples of ration-making have been
for the dairy cow in most of the instances, and references have had relation
also to the feeding of this animal. Many of the points in connection with
feeding for milk must, therefore, have been made clear. There are a few .
special points, however, which must be briefly considered.

The question as to whether variations in the nature or quality of the
food will lead to the production of milk of varying composition has been
much investigated. The opinion has been generally held that when the cow
is fed upon succulent feeds such as pasture grass, her milk will be less rich
in total solid constituents than when the animal is fed upon dry foods.
Acting upon this belief or influenced by the farmers, a different standard has
been fixed by the legislatures in some states for summer and winter milk.
It may be doubted whether such variation is wise. Careful investigation
indicates that, so long as the food of the cow is fairly sufficient in quantity
and in kind, the quality of her milk is not likely to vary materially in respect
to total amount of solids which it contains. Further, it has been held by
some that by variation in food it is possible to change the relative propor-
tion of the constituents, such as sugar, casein, and especially fat found in
milk. It has been thought that giving foods rich in fat might be a valuable
means of securing a milk rich in this element, and therefore more valuable
for butter making. Investigation has shown that increase in the proportion
of fat in foods does not permanently affect the percentage of fat in a milk.
On being given food exceptionally rich in fat, the cow may, for a time, pro-
duce milk abnormally rich in that constituent ; but in all cases the proportion
of fat soon decreases to about the normal proportion, and, since feeding foods
exceptionally rich in fat is attended with danger of derangement of digestion,
and other possible ill effects, it must be concluded that this plan of securing
milk rich in butter fat has nothing to recommend it. The quality of the
butter produced by cows, however, is influenced in marked degree by the
nature of the food. Allusion has been made to this point in speaking of
cottonseed and linseed meals. We may add here to the information already
given that gluten meal and feed tend to soften butter fats, and that corn meal

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usually produces butter fats of very satisfactory character. As a rule, a
mixture of grain feeds is safer than reliance upon any single feed. The effect
of foods having very distinctive and strong odors and flavors upon the flavor
of milk products is very marked. Silage, especially that which is poorly
made, turnips, cabbages, rape, and similar foods may all give their charac-
teristic flavors to milk. In many cases such flavors are acquired by milk by
absorption of the odors that are present in the air of the stable. They are by
no means always transferred through the body of the cow, although they
may be so transferred. Careful scientific experiments and the experience of
many practical men, however, indicate that, if any of these foods be used in
reasonable quantities, and given just after and not shortly before milking, little
influence on the flavor of the milk can be noted. The practical man, then,
will avoid handling silage, turnips, etc. , in a stable during milking or imme-
diately before milking, and he will take the precaution to give such foods
after instead of before milking.

Conclusive evidence is afforded by a recent bulletin from the Rhode
Island Experiment Station (No. 77) that farmers frequently feed unwisely,
using as a rule more corn meal than it is economical to employ, and feed-
ing accordingly a ration with- too wide a nutritive ratio. A large number
of rations as reported by farmers are published in the bulletin, side by side
with rations using, in most cases, the same roughage as modified on sug-
gestion of the experiment station workers. A few examples are given
below : — •-

Daily Ration from Bristol, R. I., for 750-PouND Cows.

As Reported.



7.2 pounds

» corn meal.


pounds corn meal.

2.9 4<





1.9 "

bran ("shorts").



Chicago gluten meal.

25.0 "

beets (supposed to




mangel-wurzels (beets)

12.5 "

corn fodder.



corn fodder.

40 "

mixed hay.



mixed hay.

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The ration contains : —
23.27 pounds dry matter.
1.73 " protein.
1 5 . 30 « « carbohydrates and fat .
Nutritive ratio, 1:8.9.

The ration contains : —
18.93 pounds dry matter.
1. 9 1 " protein.
11.09 " carbohydrates and fat.

Nutritive ratio, 1 : 5.8.

Corn fodder was fed twice each day and hay once.

Daily Ration from Jamestown, R. I., for 8oo-Pound Cows.

As Reported.

3.2 pounds middlings.

6.4 " corn meal.

12.5 M corn fodder.

4.0 " mixed hay.

The ration contains : —
18.80 pounds dry matter.
1. 31 " protein.
12.66 " carbohydrates and fat.
Nutritive ratio, 1:9.7.

As Modified.
3.0 pounds Chicago gluten meal.
4.2 " middlings.
4.0 " corn meal.
12.5 " corn fodder.
4.0 " mixed hay.

The ration contains : —
20.24 pounds dry matter.
2.24 " protein.
12.98 " carbohydrates and fat.

Online LibraryWilliam Penn BrooksAgriculture .. → online text (page 19 of 31)