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The International Critical Commentary



CRITICAL AND EXEGETICAL
COMMENTARY



ON



AMOS AND HOSEA



WILLIAM RAINEY HARPER

PROFESSOR OF SEMITIC LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES
IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO




NEW YORK

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS

1905



J>'^^






/>°



REESE



COPYRIGHT, 1905, BY
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS



Published March, 1905



J. 8. Gushing & Co.— Berwick & Smith Co.
Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.



^0
ELLA DAVIDA HARPER

WHOSE DEVOTION TO HER HUSBAND AND TO HIS WORK

HAS BEEN HIS GREATEST SOURCE OF HELP AND STRENGTH

DURING THIRTY YEARS



PREFACE

The agreement to prepare the volumes on the Minor Prophets
for this series was entered into in 1890, — fourteen years ago.
I did not then anticipate the serious obligations which were
shortly to be assumed in other directions. But in all these
years of administrative concern I have had recourse for change,
comfort, and courage to my work on the Twelve Prophets.
A large portion of the work had been finished as early as
1897, when the essential results on the structure of Amos
appeared in The Biblical World. It is a significant fact that
during these fourteen years there have been given to the world
the noteworthy contributions of Oort (1890), Mitchell (1893,
1900), Miiller (1896), Cheyne (in W. R. Smith, Prophets'^, 1895),
Nowack (1897, 1903), George Adam Smith (1896), Volz (1897),
Driver (1897), Wellhausen (3d ed., 1898), Budde (1899), Lohr
(1901), Sievers (1901), Baumann (1903), Meinhold (1903), and
Marti (1903).

The plan originally included two volumes for the Minor
Prophets ; this has been enlarged to three, of which the pres-
ent volume, containing Amos and Hosea, is the first. Vol. il.
will include Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Obadiah ;
Vol. III., Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, Joel, Jonah. It is hoped
that the second and third volumes will appear within the next
two years.

It cannot be said that the Twelve Prophets lack, either in
the comprehensive relation which they sustain to the entire
history of Hebrew life and thought, in the interest of the prob-
lems which they suggest, or in the almost infinite variety of
these problems. In every field of study, the textual, the literary,
the historical, the archaeological, and the theological, they fur-
nish facts and suggest questions than which few others, perhaps,
possess greater significance. One need only mention, by way



VIU PREFACE

of illustration, the questions involved in determining the place
of Amos in the development of Hebrew thought, the problems of
criticism and interpretation which are suggested by the early
chapters of Hosea, the text and historical distribution of the
chapters now joined together under the name of Micah, the
complexity of the data included in the several portions of
Zechariah, not to speak of the fragmentary character of Oba-
diah, the peculiar phenomena presented in Jonah, and many
other equally puzzling but significant aspects of literary and
theological inquiry. These facts and problems connect them-
selves with every important phase of the Old Testament activity
between 900 B.C. and 300 B.C., in other words, with the entire
creative period.

The books which occupy our attention in this first volume go
well together, not only because one follows the other chrono-
logically, but also because one supplements the other logically,
the two presenting a totality of expression in the light of which
each receives a clearer interpretation. It seemed necessary to
take up, in connection with these first two of the immortal
Twelve, many questions that concern just as closely the others.
Especially was the force of this point felt in the Introduction ;
for an introduction to Amos and Hosea is really an introduction
to Prophecy.

Nowhere is it more necessary to distinguish sharply between
the actual words of an author and those that have been added
by later writers than in the case of Amos and Hosea. The his-
tory of the Messianic idea, in whatever sense we employ that
term, is fundamentally involved in this distinction. Care has
been taken, therefore, to keep separate the quite considerable
proportion of material (ascribed by tradition to these authors)
which may confidently be treated as of later origin. This in
the case of Amos is about one-fifth of the whole, and in the case
of Hosea about one-fourth.

It is unquestionably the first duty of a commentator to recon-
struct the text as best he may. The contributions to the text-
criticism of Amos and Hosea, made within two decades, are
striking; but not more so than the unanimity with which the
more important emendations have received acceptance. More-



PREFACE ix

over, many of the changes originally suggested, perhaps on
one or another basis {e.g. grammar, history, the versions, or the
strophic structure), have later received corroboration on other
grounds than those on which they rested primarily. This has
frequently occurred in my own experience ; and when I recall
how often a twofold or even threefold substantiation of a con-
jecture has thus taken place, I am compelled to defend myself,
and others like myself, against Professor Driver's suggestion
that " it is precarious to base textual and critical inferences "
upon the " strophe." * I venture to suggest that in the near
future this comparatively new phase of critical study will be
"brought forth into a large place."! It is worthy of notice
surely that nearly every important piece of work on the Twelve
Prophets in fifteen years has taken into consideration the ques-
tion of the measure and strophic arrangement (pp. clxv f .).
My own interest in this subject was aroused in 1887 by the
articles of Professor Briggs in Hebraica. No one can doubt
the good results in general which have followed the turning of
attention in this direction. It is unnecessary, and in a com-
mentary impossible, to take up this phase of treatment in all
the detail worked out by Sievers ; but it is equally impossible
now to study the thought of these prophetic sermons without
recognizing fully this fundamental factor in their form of com-
position. As a matter of fact, " strophic structure " is only
another name for " logical structure."

The textual notes preceding the general treatment and the
grammatical and philological notes following it have been in-
tended to furnish the student of ordinary advancement the
more important data with which to reach his own conclusions.
I fear that in some cases these suggestions are too elementary
in their character ; but I have had in mind that student of
Sacred Scripture who, with such help, might enter into a fairly
critical appreciation of the points raised ; and I have felt that I
might advantageously omit a portion of this kind of material in
the succeeding volumes. The presentation of different read- 1
ings which are not accepted, as well as of all the principal!

* Joel and Amos, p. 116. f K. p. clxix.



X PREFACE

interpretations in every case, seemed to me to be required by
the emphasis which the editors of the series have placed upon
the importance of providing the history of the interpretation.
I am perfectly aware that the history of interpretation does not
consist in placing one after another a series of differing interpre-
tations ; but it is quite clear that space would not permit a fuller
discussion in every place, nor was such discussion necessary.
At the same time, upon the basis of the interpretations as thus
given, even when no comment is added, it is not difficult for
one to construct the history. I have endeavored to note all
opinions really worthy of consideration ; and I trust that the
I'ulness of citation in some passages may not prove too weari-
some to the reader who is not a student.

It is a source of great satisfaction to make acknowledgment
of the indebtedness which I owe to those who have preceded me ;
and especially to Baur, Wiinsche, Cheyne, Wellhausen, W. Rob-
ertson Smith, Nowack, Driver, George Adam Smith, Budde,
and Kautzsch (v. his article, "Religion of Israel," in Hast-
ings's Dictionary of the Bible). I have tried in each important
instance to indicate the position taken by those who have dis-
cussed that particular case ; and likewise to recognize the
author who first suggested a reading or interpretation after-
ward adopted by others. I regret that my manuscript was
already almost wholly in type before the appearance of No-
wack's second edition and of Marti's commentary. Use has
been made of these volumes in the revision of the sheets. I
ought perhaps to mention that a considerable portion of my
manuscript has been thrown out because I had transgressed the
limits set for the volume.

A word more concerning the Introduction seems to be neces-
sary. It appeared to me that a brief summary of pre-prophetism
was required as the basis on which to place the work of Amos
and Hosea. This would have been unnecessary if it were cer-
tain that all Hebrew thought really began with Amos. But this
view I cannot accept, and so I have enlarged the Introduction
to include a r^sum^ of the pre-prophetic activity. In the pres-
entation of this I have found myself greatly embarrassed for
lack of space.



PREFACE XI

The list of literature will be found fairly exhaustive as far as
half a century back. Lists of the literature before that time
are accessible in Gunning's De Godsprakoi van Amos, Driver's
article on Amos in Smith's Dictionary of the Bible (2d ed.),
Wiinsche's Hosea, and in Lange's Comme7itary, Vol. XVI. The
reader is requested to note the Addenda and Corrigenda on
pp. XV, xvi, as well as the abbreviations on pp. xvii fT.

In conclusion, I wish particularly to acknowledge the help
which has been given me in the preparation of the volume
by my former pupil, now my colleague, Dr. John M. P. Smith.
The assistance which he has rendered in gathering material,
in verifying references, and in revising the manuscript and the
printer's sheets, and the suggestions which he has made from
time to time upon the subject-matter itself, have been of the
greatest value. Without this help I doubt whether I should
have been able to bring the work to a completion. My thanks
are due also to my former pupil, Professor George R. Berry
of Colgate University, for aid furnished, and to my colleague,
Professor George S. Goodspeed, for important suggestions in
connection with the historical material in Amos.

The publishers have cooperated most generously in securing
a typographical excellence which, I am confident, will be greatly
appreciated.

I think that I realize most keenly some of the defects of
this commentary. Doubtless many that I do not perceive will
be pointed out to me. I shall hope to make good use of all
such criticisms and suggestions in connection with the two
remaining volumes.

Chicago, November Twenty-four,
Thanksgiving Day, 1904.



CONTENTS.



Preface ....
Addenda and Corrigenda
Principal Abbreviations .



PAGB

vii-xi

XV

xvii



INTRODUCTION



xxxi-clxxxi



A. Factors in the Pre-prophetic Movement.

§ I. The Pre-prophetic Movement in General .

§ 2. Pre-prophetic Participation in the Revolt of Jeroboam I.

§ 3. Pre-prophetic Manifestation under Elijah's Leadership

§ 4. Pre-prophetic Influences in the Time of Elisha

§ 5. The Pre-prophetic Societies

§ 6. The Older and Younger Decalogues .

§ 7. The Book of the Covenant ( = CC) .

§ 8. The Judaean (Pre-prophetic) Narrative (= J)

§ 9. The Ephraimite (Pre-prophetic) Narrative ( = E)



B. The Basis and Character of the Pre-prophetic
Movement.



§ 10. The Relation of Pre-prophetism to Mosaism
§11. The Essential Thought of Pre-prophetism .



XXXI

XXX ii

XXX iv

xli

xlix

Iviii

Ixiv

Ixix

Ixxix



. Ixxxiv
Ixxxviii



C Amos.

§ 12. The Personal Life of Amos c

§ 13. The Message of Amos ex

§ 14. The Ministry of Amos . cxxiv

§ 15. The Literary Form of Amos cxxx

D. Hosea.

§ 16. The Personal Life of Hosea cxl

§ 17. The Message of Hosea cxlvi

§ 18. The Ministry of Hosea civ

§ 19. The Literary Form of Hosea clviii



xiv CONTENTS

E. Amos and Hosea.

• PAGE

§ 20. The Poetical Form of Amos and Hosea ..... clxiv

§ 21. The Language and Style of Amos and Hosea .... clxx

§ 22. The Text and Versions of Amos and Hosea .... clxxiii

§ 23. The Literature on Amos and Hosea ..... clxxviii

COMMENTARY. On Amos 1-200

On Hosea 201-417

Index

I. Subject . . . • 419

II. Geographical . . . . . . . . . 423

HI. Hebrew 423

Chronological Table Facing 1

Map At end of volume



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA.



p. Iv, line I. The first mention of Phoenician prophets is found in the report
of Wenamon, an Egyptian envoy to Byblos, in the reign of Ramses XII.,
probably about i lOO B.C. See J. H. Breasted, " The Report of Wena-
mon," AJSL. XXI. (Jan. 1905), pp. loi f., 105.

p. Ixxxix, line 14. For " Ju. 5*V' read "Ju. 5^*^^."

p. ex. On the teachings of Amos, Hosea, and preceding prophets of the
eighth century, see Koberle, Silnde und Gnade im religiosen Lebeii des
Volkes Israel bis auf Christum (1905), pp. 96-153.

p. 4, line 12. For ^<\Uil, read ^vLs-l.

pp. 15 ff. On the nations dealt with in Am. 1^-2*, see the article "Semites,"

in DB. v., by J. F. McCurdy. ^ ^ , ^ , ,

p. 42, line 6 (from bottom). For ■ ^ n m iV?, read ^.t-am:^).
p. 257, line 4. Omit against me, with S, as a gloss; see p. 256.
p. 277, note J. For GVL, read GI.
p. 280, lines 27-29. The text of strophe I, lines 7 and 8, is better arranged

as in the translation on p. 283, viz. :

: vjoS n^mi ijC|i>

p. 281, lines I, 2. Transpose "6"" is, of course, a gloss," to follow "In
strophe 4 (6^^-72)." Dele "(i) v."* is suspected, but v.i" For
«v,"S" read "v."*."

p. 287, line 2 (from bottom). For >cu^1, read >a^^|.

p. 291, line 15. For "also rejects," read "rejects all of."

p, 313, line 20. Orelli reads NJnS; see p. 320.

p. 329, line I. Insert it after eat.



PRINCIPAL ABBREVIATIONS





I. General.




abs.


absolute.


lit


literal, or literally.


ace.
adv.


accusative.

adverb, or adverbial.


m., or masc.


masculine.


apod.


apodosis.


Ni.


Niph'al.


art.


article.


om.


omits, omit, etc.


Ass., or Assyr


., Assyrian.


P-


person.


ca., or cir.


circa, about.


pass.


passive.


of.


confer, compare.


pf.


perfect.


circ.


circumstantial.


Pi.


Pi' el.


cl.


clause.


pi.


plural.


cod., codd.


codex, codices.


prec.


preceding.


cog., or cogn.


cognate.


pred.


predicate.


com.


commentators, or com-


prep.


preposition.




mentaries.


pron.


pronoun, or pronominal.


cons.


consecutive.


ptcp.


participle.


cont.
cstr.


continue, continuing, etc.
construct.


rel.
rm.


relative,
remark.


dat.

d.f., or dag. f.


dative,
dagesh forte.


sg.
Stat.


singular,
stative.


f. or fem.


feminine.


str.


strophe.


fol.


following, follows, etc.


subj.


subject.


freq.


frequentative.


suf.


suffix.


gen.


genitive.


sugg.
s.v.


suggest, suggestion, etc

sub voce.


Hiph.


Hiph'H.


trans.


transitive.


impf.


imperfect.


V.


verse.


imv.


imperative.


V,


vide, see.


indef.


indefinite.


vb.


verb, verbal.


inf.


infinitive.


v.i.


vide infra, see below.


intrans.


intransitive.

X)


in


vide supra, see above.



XVIU



PRINCIPAL ABBREVIATIONS



2. Text and Versions.



A.V. Authorized Version ( 1 6i I ).

'A. Aquila's translation, cited

from Field's Hexapla.

Bab. Cod, Propheiarum posteriorum
codex Babylonicus Pe-
tropolitanus auspiciis
augustissimi Imperatoris
Alexandri II. Edidit
H. Strack (1876).

Gimplut. The Complutensian Poly-
glot.

(5 The Septuagint, cited from

The Old Testament in
Greek acco7-ding to the
Septuagint; edited by
H. B. Swete; Vol. Ill

(1894).
(5*< Codex Sinaiticus.

<@^ Codex Alexandrinus.

(S^ Codex Vaticanus.

(gQ Codex Marchalianus.

©^ Lucian's Recension,

Kt. K<=thtbh.

3L The Old Latin Version,

cited from Oesterley's



O. T.

Qr.

RV,
RV.m,



Studies in the Greek and
Latin Versions of the
Book of Amos (1902) and
"The Old Latin Texts of
the Minor Prophets,"
Journal of Theological
Studies, V. 76-88.

The Massoretic Text.

Old Testament,

Q«ri.

Revised Version (1885).
Revised Version, margin.



The Syriac translation, cited
from the Paris Polyglot,

S, Symmachus's translation,

cited from Field's Hex-
apla,

Syr.-Hex. Syro-Hexaplar.

ST The Targum, cited from tha

Paris Polyglot.

9. Theodotion's translation,

cited from Field's Hex-
apla.

U The Vulgate, cited from tho

Paris Polyglot.



3. Authors and Books.

Abar. or Abarb. Abarbanel (f 1508).

ABL. Assyrian and Babylonian Literature. Selected Transla-

tions. Edited by Robert Francis Harper (1901).

AE, Aben Ezra(t 1167).

AJSL. American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures,

edited by William R. Harper.

AJTih). American Journal of Theology, edited by the Divinity

Faculty of the University of Chicago.



AUTHORS AND BOOKS



XIX



Ba.
Bach,
Bach. Pr.
Bad.

Baethgen,

Sem. Re I.
Earth, NB.

Barth, ES.
BAS.



Baud. Einl.

Baud. Rel.

Bauer,

Baumann,
BDB.



Benz.

Benz. Arch.
BL.



Bl. Einl.

Bockel,
Bottcher,

Briggs, Hex.
Brugsch, Hist.



Briill,
BSZ.



Baur, Der Prophet Amos erkldrt (1847).
Bachmann, Alttestamentliche Untersuchungen (1894)
Praeparationeti zu den kleinen Propheien (1890).
Badecker's Handbuch 2. Palastina und Syrien (5th ed.

I9CXD; English, 1894).
Baethgen, Beitrdge zur semitischen Religionsgeschichte

(1888).
J. Barth, Die Nominalbildung in den semitischen Sprachen

(1889-91).
Etymologische Studien (1893).
Beitrdge zur Assyriologie und semitischen Sprachwissen-

schaft, herausgegeben von Friedrich Delitzsch und Paul

Haupt (i89off.).
Baudissin, Einleitung in die BUcher des Alten Testamentes

(1901).
Studien zur semitischen Religionsgeschichte, I. (1876), II.

(1878).
G. L. Bauer, Die kleinen Propheten iibersetzt und mit Com-

mentarien erldutert, I., Iloseas bis Micha (1786).
Der Auf bail der Amosreden (Beihefte zur ZA W. VII. 1903)..
A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, with.

an Appendix containing the Biblical Aramaic, based on

the Lexicon of William Gesenius as translated by Edward

Robinson, edited by Francis Brown, with the cooperation

of S. R. Driver and Charles A. Briggs (1891 ff.). Eleven

parts have appeared thus far, extending as far as i3r.
I. Benzinger.

Hebrdische Archdologie (1894).
Schenkel's Bibel-Lexikon. Realw'drterbtich zum Handge-

brauch fur geistliche und Gemeindeglieder, 5 vols.

(1869-75)-
F. Bleek, Einleitung in das Alte Testament (5th ed, by

Julius Wellhausen, 1886).
Hoseas (1807).
Ausfiihrliches Lehrbuch der Hebrdische n Sprache, I. (1866),

II, (1868).
Chas. A. Briggs, Higher Criticism of the Hexateuch (1897).
Heinrich Brugsch-Bey, A History of Egypt under the

Pharaohs (1881),
" Beitrage zur Erklarung des Buches Hosea," fahrb. f.

judischen Geschichte und Litter atur, 1883, pp. 1-62.
"Wilhelm Gesenius' Hebrdisches una Aramdisches Hand-

worterbuch iiber das Alte Testament in verbindung mit

Prof. Albert Socin und Prof. H. Zimmern bearbeitet von

Dr, Frants Buhl. 13th ed. (1899).



XX



PRINCIPAL ABBREVIATIONS



Bu.

Bu. Rel.
Buhl, Pal.
Burkius,
Burney,
BW.

Cal.

Cap(pellus),



Che.



Co.

Co. Einl.



Karl Budde.

Religion of Israel to the Exile (1899).

Geographie des alien Palaestina (1896).

Gnovion in 12 Propketas Minores (1753).

Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Books of Kings (1903),

The Biblical World, edited by William R. Harper.

Calvin, Commentaries on the Twelve Minor Prophets;

transl. by J. Owen. Vols. I., II. (1846).
Critica sacra, sive de variis quae in sacris Veteris Testa-

menti libris occur runt lectionibus libri sex. Recensuit

multisque anitnadversionibus auxit Geo. lo. Lud.Vogel.

Tomus I. (1775), II. (1778).
T. K. Cheyne, Hosea with Azotes and Introduction (The

Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges, 1884). In

the commentary on Hosea, "Che." always means this

work, unless otherwise indicated.
C. H. Cornill.
Einleitung in das Alte Testament (1891; 4th ed., 1897).



Cornelius a Lapide (f 1637), Commeniarii (1664).

COT. The Cuneiform hiscriptions and the Old Testa/nent (1885;

English transl. oi KA T.^).
Crit. Bib. or CB. Critica Biblica or Critical Azotes on the Text of the Old

Testament Writings, by T. K. Cheyne. Part II., Ezekiel

and the Minor Prophets (1903).
Crocius, Johannis Crocii . . . hypotyposes concionum in Propketas

Minores, etc. (1673).
Cyril, Cyril of Alexandria (t444 A.D.).



Da.

Da. §,

Da. Theol.

Dahl,

Dathe or Dat.



DB.



DB?

De.
de R.



A. B. Davidson.

Hebrew Syntax (2d ed., 1896).

The Theology of the Old Testament {i<)Oj^,

J. C. Dahl, Amos neu iibersetzt und erldutert (1795).

Prophetae minores ex recensione textus Hebraei et versiotium

antiquarum latine versi notisque philologicis et criticis

illustrati a J. A. Dathio (1773).
A Dictionary of the Bible, edited by James Hastings. 4 vols.

(1898-1902) and an "Extra Volume" (1904), cited here

as Vol. V.
A Dictionary of the Bible, edited by Sir William Smith and

J. M. Fuller. 3 vols. (2d ed., 1893).
Franz Delitzsch.
de Rossi, Variae Lectiones Veteris Testamenti, etc.. Vol. III.

(1786), and Scholia Critica in Veteris Testamenti libros

(1798).



,



AUTHORS AND BOOKS



XXI



DHM. Proph. D. H. Miiller, Die Propheten in ihrer ursprtinglichen Form,

2 vols. (1896).
Di. August DilliTiann.

Di. Theol. Handbuch der Alttestatnentlichen Theologie (1895; edited

by Kittel).
DI. Friedrich Delitzsch.

DI. Pr. or Prol. Prolegomena eines neuen Hebr'disch-Aramdischen Worter-

buchs zum Alten Testament (1886).
Y}\. HWB. Assyrisches Handworterbuch (1896).

DI. Pa. or Par. Wo lag das Paradies (1881).
DI. Hebr. Lang. The Hebrew Language (1883).
Dr. S. R. Driver, Joel and Amos (The Cambridge Bible for

Schools and Colleges; 1897).
Dr. §, A Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew (1874; 3d

ed., 1892).
Ht. LOT. An Introduction to the Literature of the O. T. (6th ed.,

1897).
Dr. Dt. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Deuteronomy

(International Critical Commentary, 1895).
Dr. Sam. Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Books of Samuel (1890).

Dru. or Drus. Drusius, Commentary on Minor Prophets, in Critici Sacri:

s. doctissimorum virorum ad Sacra Biblia annott. et

tractatus (London, 1660).
Duhm, Theol. Bernhard Duhm, Die Theologie der Propheten (1875).
Dusterdieck, " Beitrage zur Erklarung des Propheten Amos, mit beson-

derer Riicksicht auf G. Baur, Der Prophet Amos"

Theologische Studien und Kritiken, 1849, pp. 869-914.



EB. Encyclopaedia Biblica, edited by T. K. Cheyne and J. Suther-

land Black. 4 vols. (1899-1903).

Ed. Meyer, GA. Geschichte d. Alterthums, Vol. I. (1884).

Eich. Eichhorn, Die Hebrdischen Propheten (1816 ff.).

Elh. H. J. Elhorst, De Profetie van Amos (1901).

Enc. Br. Encyclopaedia Britanuica.

Eph. Syr. Ephraem Syrus (t373)-

Ew. Heinrich Ewald, Die Propheten des Alten Bundes (1840;

2d ed., 1867; transl. as Commentary on the Prophets of
the Old Testament, 5 vols., 1875-81).

Ew,^ Ausfiihrliches Lehrbuch der Hebrdischen Sprache des Alten

Bundes (Sth ed., 1870).

Ew. Hist. Geschichte des Volkes Israel (3d ed., 1866), Engl, transl.

History of Israel (1871).

Exp. The Expositor, edited by W. Robertson Nicoll. (Superior

figures indicate the series cited.)

Exp. T, The Expository Times, edited by James Hastings.



xxu



PRINCIPAL ABBREVIATIONS



Fiirst, Lex. Hebr'disches und Chaldaisches Handworterbuch iiber das

Alte Testament (3d ed., 1876).



GAS.

GAS. HG.
Geb.

Geiger,



Ges.
Ges. Thes.

GFM.
GFM. Ju.
Giesebrecht

GK.

Or.



Gr. Gesch.
Grimm, Lit.

Grot(ius),
GSG, Hist.

Gu.



Gu. Gesch. or
Gun.

H.

Hal.



Har.



George Adam Smith, The Book of the Twelve Prophets

(The Expositor's Bible, Vol. I., 1896).
Lfistorical Geography of the Holy Land (1895).
Gebhard, Gricndliche Einleitung in die zw'dlf kleinen Pro-

pheten (1737).
Abraham Geiger, Urschrift und Uebersetzungen der Bibel

in ihrer Abhaiigigkeit von der innern Entwickelung des

Judenthums (1857).
Wilhelm Gesenius.
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Online LibraryWilliam Rainey HarperA critical and exegetical commentary on Amos and Hosea → online text (page 1 of 64)