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Introductory Hebrew method and manual online

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•'No lietter books, introductory to Hebrew, exist."— Prof.
T. K. Chetne, Oxford University.


By ^^^. R. HARPER, Ph.D.,

Professor of Semitic Languages in Yale College; Principal of
Schools of the American Institute of Hebrew.

Net £2.00.



Ket $2.00.


Net $2.00.


Net $1.00.



By harper and WEIDNER.
Net $2.50.

^VV^ ^, Vw QA^ Uw-v


BREW Method








coptright 1886 by
The American Publication Society of Hebrew







0.0^9 -v^



The student of a language must acquire three things: (1) a
working vocabulary of the language, (2) a knowledge of the gram-
matical principles of the language, (3) an ability to use this vocab-
ulary and to apply these principles, so as to gain the best results,
whether for a literary or an exegetical purpose.

While all agree as to the end desired, the method of attaining
this end is a question in dispute. According to one view, the
student is first to learn the principles as they are laid down in the
grammars, and then apply them to selected words, or short senten-
ces. And after a short preliminary training of this sort, he is
plunged headlong into a text without notes of any kind, and
expected to make progress, and to enjoy the study. His vocabu-
lary is to be learned by looking up the words in the Lexicon, until
they become familiar. Different phases of this method are in use
among teachers of Hebrew, but all follow practically the same
order, (1) study of grammar, (2) application of grammar.

It is the purpose of this volume to furnish a text-book, which
shall assist in acquiring the Hebrew language by a different meth-
od. The method employed may be called an inductive one. The
order of work which it advocates is, first, to gain an accurate and
thorough knowledge of some of the "facts" of the language; sec-
ondly, to learn from these facts the principles which they illustrate,
and by which they are regulated; thirdly, to apply these principles
in the further progress of the work. A few words of explanation
are needed at this point : —

(1) The method is an inductive, not the inductive method ; and
while, upon the whole, it is rigidly employed throughout the
course, a slight departure is made at times, in order to make more
complete the treatment of a subject, for some detail of which an
example has not occurred.

(2) The term "facts," as used, includes data from whatcvrr
source gathered; not merely the grammatical forms fourd i:i tlie

8 Preface.

passages studied, but also the paradigms which contain these and
other forms systematically arranged.

(3) It is not to be supposed that a long time must elapse before
the beginner is ready to take hold of principles. On the contrary,
he is taught important principles, and that, too, inductively, dur-
ing the first hour's work. The three processes are all the while
going on together. lie is increasing the store of "facts" at his
command, and, at the same time, learning from the facts thus
acquired new principles, and applying these principles to the new
forms continually coming to his notice. Great care must be exer-
cised, however, that the correct order be followed. Let him at-
tempt to learn no principle of which he has not had several illus-
trations. Let him be required to apply no principle the application
of which he has not already learned from familiar cases.

(4) The memorizing of the '''facts" of a language, before a
knowledge of the principles has been acquired is, indeed, a piece
of drudgery, yet not so great as is the memorizing of grammar
without a knowledge of the "facts." Nor will it long remain
drudgery ; for very soon, the student will begin to see analogies, to
compare this word with that, and, in short, to make his own
grammar. From this time, there will be developed such an inter-
est in the work, that all thought of drudgery w'ill pass away.

The question is frequently asked. How is the first lesson given ?
A brief statement must suffice : —

The first word of Genesis I. 1 is written on the board, and the
English equivalent of eacli consonant and vowel-sound indicated
to the student. The word, as a whole, is then pronounced, and its
meaning given. The student is called upon to pronounce it, and
to give its meaning. The second word is taken np and treated in
the same manner. Then the two words are pronounced together,
and their meaning given. After this, each remaining word is
considered ; and with each new word a review of all the preceding
words is made. When he has learned thus to pronounce the entire
verse, and to give a Hebrew word when its English equivalent is
named, the student is shown the "Notes" on pages 13, 14 of the
" Method," where, for his private study, he will find, for sub-
stance, the aid already given orally. His attention is also directed
to the "Observations," with most of which he has been made
familiar by the previous work. He is now informed that at the
following recitation he will be expected (1) to pronounce the

Pkeface. 9

verse without hesitation from the pointed Hebrew {Manual^ p. 7) \
(2) to pronounce it, and write it on the board, from the English
translation {Manual, .-p. 18); (3) to pronounce it, and write it on
the board from the unpointed text {Ilanual, p. 29) ; (4) to write
the transliteration of it, as given in the " Notes " or in the Manual,
p. 39. The absolute mastery of the verse is, therefore, the
first thing. There will remain to be taken up, (1) the "Notes,"
for all of which the student is held responsible; (2) the "Obser-
vations," which he is expected to recall, at the suggestion of the
word on which the observation is based ; (3) the "Word-Lesson,"
which, at first, includes few words not contained in the verse or
verses of the Lesson, and which is to be learned in such a manner
that when the English word is pronounced, the Hebrew equiv-
alent will be given; (4) the "Exercises," which are to be v/ritten
on paper beforehand, copied on the board in the class-room,
criticised by instructor and class, and corrected by each student on
his paper.

The "Topics for Study" are intended to furnish a resum^ of
the more important points touched upon in the Lesson. By
their use, a rapid and helpful review of the hour's work is accom-

In subsequent " Lessons," a "Grammar-Lesson" is assigned.
In every case, however, the instructor should read and explain
each reference to the class before asking them to prepare it.

The "Lessons" cover chapters I- VIII. of Genesis, and include
a formal study of almost every important portion of the grammar,
except the Accents, the Euphony of Vowels, the Euphony of Con-
sonants, the Verb with Suffixes, the Irregular Nouns, and the
Inflection of Feminine Nouns, to all of which, hov/ever, numer-
ous allusions and references are made in the "Notes."

All the help possible is given the student in the first fifteen
"Lessons." But from this point he is led gradually to rely more
and more upon himself. The "Lessons" will be found to contain
more, perhaps, than some classes can prepare for a single recita-
tion, although this will depend largely upon the character of the
class and the number of recitations during a week. It was deemed
best, however, to make them thus, since it is an easy matter for
the instructor to indicate that a certain portion of the exercises
may be omitted. The author himself will feel inclined to require
everything in the " Lessons."

10 Preface.

Special attention is invited to the "Review-Lessons," in the
study of each of which two or more recitations may profitably be

The " Method " is understood to include also the " Manual,"
although the latter, for a sufficient reason, is paged separately, and
given a title-page and preface of its own.

For tlie material contained in these Lessons, and for its
arrangement, the author is indebted to no one. The book, as it
now appears, presents the results of five years' experience, during
which it has been his privilege to teach not less than five hundred
men their first lesson in Hebrew.

Many valuable hints have been received from Mr. Frederic J.
Gurney, by whom great assistance has been received in the work
of the Correspondence School of Hebrew. He has also kindly
helped in the preparation of manuscript for the printer, and in
revising the proof-sheets. For similar service the author is in-
debted to Mr. C. E. Crandall, and to Rev. John W. Payne. To the
latter credit is also due for his painstaking care in the typograph-
ical work of the book.

With a faith in the Inductive Method, which grows stronger
every year, and with the hope that the time may soon come wlien
many others shall have an equally strong faith in it, the author
commits the "Method" to its friends.

W. R. H.
Morgan Park, September 1, 1885.


Several corrections have been made, but no changes of any
consequence. The author cannot but feel gratified that the
"Method" has so well stood the practical test of the class-
room. For suggestions and criticisms, to be used in the prepa-
ration of future editions, he will be under obligations.
New Haven, Conn., July 1st, 1887.



Lesson I Genesis I. 1 J3- 15

Lesson II Genesis I. 2a 1(5-19

Lesson III Genesis I. 3b, 3 19- 22

Lesson IV Genesis I. 4 22-25

Lesson V Genesis I. 5 26-29

Lesson VI Genesis I. 6 29-33

Lesson VII Genesis I. 7, 8 33-35

Lesson VIII Genesis I. 9, 10 35-39

Lesson IX Genesis I. 11-13 39-42

Lesson X Genesis I. 14, 15 43-45

Lesson XI Genesis I. 16-19. 46-49

Lesson XII Genesis I. 20, 31 49-53

Lesson XIII Genesis I. 23-35 53- 57

Lesson XIV Genesis I. 26-28 57- 61

Lesson XV Genesis I. 29-31 61-64

Lesson XVI Review e4r- 67

Lesson XVII Genesis II. 1-3 67- 71

Lesson XVIII Genesis II. 4-6 71- 75

Lesson XIX Genesis IT. 7-9 76-79

Lesson XX Genesis II. 10-14 80-84

Lesson XXI Genesis II. 15-18 84-88

Lesson XXII Genesis II. 19-21 88- 92

Lesson XXIII Genesis II. 33, 23 92-95

Lesson XXIV Genesis II. 24, 25 96-99

Lesson XXV Review 99-103

Lesson XXVI Genesis III. 1-3 102-105

Lesson XXVII Genesis III. 4-6 106-109

Lesson XXVIII Genesis III. 7-10 110-113

Lesson XXIX Genesis III. 11-14 113-117

Lesson XXX Genesis III. 15-17 117-121

Lesson XXXI Genesis III. 18-::i 131-124


Table of Contents.

Lesson XXXII Genes

Lesson XXXIII Genes:

Lesson XXXIV Genes

Lesson XXXV" Genes:

Lesson XXXVI Genes

Lesson XXXVII Genes

Lesson XXXVIII Genes

Lesson XXXIX Revie

Lesson XL Genes

Lesson XLI G enes:

Lesson XLII Genes

Lesson XLIII Gengs

Lesson XLIV Genes

Lesson XLV Genes

Lesson XLVI Genes:

Lesson XLVII Genes

Lesson XLVIII Genes

Lesson XLIX Genes

Lesson L Genesis

in. 23-24 124-127

IV. 1-4 128-130

IV. 5-8 130-132

IV. 9-12 132-134

IV. 13-17 134-137

IV. 13-22 137-139

IV. 23-23 140-142


V. 1-10 144-147

V. 17-3.: 147-150

VL 1-8 150-153

VI. 9-15 153-155

VL 16-22 155-158

VIL 1-8 158-160

VII. 9-10 160-163

VII. 17-24 162-164

VIIL 1-7 165-167

VIII. 8-14 167, 168

VIIL 15-22 169.170



[To the stwlent:—'Let it be understood from the outset that nothingr short
of complete mastery, and that, of everything in the Lesson, will accomplish
the end in view. Not a needless word or statement has been inserted. Let it
be a matter of principle to do just what is assigned,— no moi-e, no less.]

7. D/OTES.

1. n*tJ^'j*?'^3 — b're'-sitli (two syllables) — In-heginning:

a. Six letters: — 3 (b); "1 (r); i^, called aleph,- not pronounced, but
represented by ' ; tJ^' (s,= s7i); * (y), here silent after -^; jH (tb, as
in thin).

h. Three vowel-sounds: — — (") under 3, pron. like e in below, see
? 5. 6. a;3 -^ (e), like ey in thcij; ^ (i), like i in machine.

2. K"1!3 — ba-ra' (two syllables) — (he) created:


a. 7^/i/-ec ?e//ers.-—^ (b); ^ (r) ;{<(') called 'aleph,2 see above.
L. Two vowel-sounds: — Both ~ (a), like a \n father.

3. D^ti^.J^— "lo-him (two syllables)— 6?of? (literally Gods):

a. Five letters:— i^ ('); '^ (1); ,1 (h); '> (y), silent after — ; D (m).
h. Three voicel-sounds: — ~ C), like e in met^ quickW uttered, § 5.

&. c; -^ (6), like o in note; ♦ (i), see 1. Z>.*

c. The accent -^, with ^, marks this word as the middle of the verse.

4. n^ — ^th — not translated, but represented in translation by )(.

5. O'DtiTf^has-sa-ma-yim (four syllables) — the-heavens :

a. Five letters: — pf (h); ^ (s, — sh), but tJ,' (with a dot in its bosom)
is s doubled; ^ (m) (written so at beginning or in middle of a
word); * (y), not silent as before but like i/ in year; Q (m), written
so at end of a word, ^ 3. 2.

h. Four vowel-sounds: — •"-" (a), like a in hat, I 5. 1; ^r, see 2. h \
-^ (a); "^ (i), like i in inn, \ 5. 2.

1 The text of Gen. 1:1 will be found on page 7 of the "Hebrew Manual,"
2d ed. ; the transliteration, on page 39; the translation, on page 18.

2 This word is pronounced as If spelled Ah-lef, the aft having the sound of
a in father.

3 References preceded by § are to the "Elements of Hebrew," 6th ed.
i References without § are to preceding Notes in these Lessons.

14 Lesson 1.

c. The sign tt under 12 is used arbitrarily in these Lessons to indi-
cate the syllable which is to receive the accent when, as in this
word, it is the penult.

6. riNI — W'eth (one syllable) — and-)[, see 4 :

a. Three letters: — 1 (w), like ?o in water; |^ ('); H (th).
h. Tico voicel-sounds: — ~r ('), see 1. l>; -^^ (e), see L b.

7. I r'lf^Jn—lia-a-reg (three syllables) — the-earth:

a. Four letters.— n (h); K('); ^ (r); y (9), like ts in gets, § 2. 7.
6. Three vowel-sounds: — t' (a); "r (a); ^r (e), like e in mef.
c. The accent -p, under J<, marks this word as the end of the verse;
the \ is equivalent to a period.

2. Observations.

1. The letters in this verse are :— (1) K, (2) 3, (3) H, (4) 1, (5) ♦,

(6) •?, (7) n, (8) D, (9) ]'•, (10) n, (11) ^, (12) ^'^ (13) n.

2. The vowel-sounds :-(l)— , (2) - , (3) -tt-, (4) ~, (5) ^, (6) ^,

(7) '>_, (8) TT, (9) -

3. To be carefully distinguished in pronunciation are : —

(1) - {% - n - (g), - (e) ; (2) - (a), - (a); (3) - (1), ^ fi)-

4. Above the line, a dot is 6 (as in note); below the line, it is i

5. The Hebrew is written from right to left. [(as in pin).

6. The plural ending of masc. nouns is Q^ (im), as in D^H'^fC

(lit., Gods); cf. the English cheruh-im, and seraph-im.

7. r\H (t^tli), not translatable, is a sign placed before the object
of a verb, when that object is both direct and definite.

8. The preposition in (3) and the conjunction and [\) are never
written separately, being always prefixed to the following word.

9. When it is desired to pronounce a letter tivice in succession,
the letter is written but once, and a dot inserted (see ti^) in its bosom.

10. The letter of the Definite Article [tlic) is H (h)-

11. Most words are accented on the ultima ; those which, are
accented on the penult, have, in this book, the sign t.

12. Every syllable begins with a consonant.

Lesson 1. 15

3. Word-Lesson.

(DD^rf^NG^o^ (5) '2 in (9) ^^ry-he-ruled

(2) ^'0'^'^ l^e-said (6) ^n^i/ze-crra^eJ (10) iTi:^'N*")6eom?mm

- T TT ...

(3) pj!<n the-earth (7)n,-n ^/ie (H) D*0^' /i^i-e"*

(4) nk )( (8) 1 a«cZ (12) -^rZW^ he-kept

: * T

4, Exercises.

1. To be translated into Hebrew : — (1) And-heginning ; (2) And-
heavens; [2,) He-created )( the-earth and-)[ the-heavens; (4) God hept
(Hebrew order : Izept God) )( the-heavens; (5) God (is)^ in-heaven[s) ;
(6) (?ot? rwZecZ (Hebrew order : rtJecZ God); (7) In-heginning God
said; (8) jTAc [T\)-heginn{ng ; (9) Me (n)-G^o<:Z; (10) And-the-earth.


2. To be translated into English :—(l) D^P^'HI; (2) l^ti'

pN? riiNj D^n'??\;; (3) dw? D^n'?iv ':'TO; u) n^ti^Knm;

(5) D^'n'^Kn n^DN*.

v: T - T

3. To be written in English letters :— (1) '^W, (2) "1DK, (3)

bm, (4) 3, (5) 1, (6) D^p*f n, (7) «-;5, (s) Asn, o) D'ri'??^,
(10) pN*n.

4. To be written in Hebrew letters :— (1) la, (2) las, (3) hil, (4) be,
(5) ra, (6) yim, (7) im, (8) 1", (9) 1% (10) le.

5. Topics for Study.

(1) The sounds represented by the letter e as variously printed.

(2) The plural ending ; the preposition in; the conjunction and.

(3) The sign jl^l^ ; the method employed to indicate the doubling of
a letter.

(4) The article ; the usual place of the accent ; the difference be-
tween f2 and Q.

1 A verb in the past tense 3d person singular masculine.

2 Parentheses ( ) enclose words which are not to be rendered into Hebrew,

16 Lesson 2.


7, Notes.

8. T*"n5^n"l — w'ha-'a-re§— an(Z-</ie-earC7i.- see 7, preceding Lesson.

9. nn^n — Ha-ytha (two syllables) — (she) was:

T : |T

a. 1st syllable, PT (ba), ends in a vowel-sound, I 26. 1.


h. 2d syllable, Hn* (y'tha); the final H is silent, as always at tlie

T :

end of a word ; the "t is a vowel-so«/JicZ, but not a vowel, and
goes with what follows.
c. The sign i" with v indicates a secondary accent, § 18.

10. ^nn — tho-hu (two syllables) — {si)-desolation :

a. 1st syl., n (th), -^ (o, not 6), ends in a vowel-sound, ? 26. 1.

b. 2d s}^., n (li)) ^ (u); like oo in fooZ, ends in a vowel-sound, 'i 26. 1,

11. )r\y\ — wa-bho-hu (three syllables) — and-{si)-waste :


a. 3 is not b O), but bh, pronounced like v in vote.

b. Each syllable ends in a vos i\iG future (3 masc. sing.).

27. 1 connects, but -V a stronger form, connects and converts.
L^ 28. Roots have three letters (see IJ^J^ he said, J^^^ he created),

- T TT

all other letters are prefixes or suffixes.

29. The gutturals }^, H, Hi ^i *^i causing many seeming irregu-
laiities in the forms of words, deserve special attention. [vowel.

30. Daghes-forte^ is in every case immediately preceded by a

31. The vowel of open sj^llables is long, of closed, short ; of
accented syllables it may be either long or short.

32. The letter of the article is ,1 \ its vowel is regularly -^\ it
usually has D. f.^ in the first letter of the word to which it is pre-
fixed. But note Hi in riJ^H-

T I -.-IT T -

4. Grammar-Lesson.

Learn in the " Elements of Hebrew" the following sections : —

1. Under I 4. 1, The gutturals ^$, PT, H, ^, and \ cf. Obs. 29.

2. § 13'. 1, Daghes-forte, cf. Obs. 30.

3. I 2S. 1, 2, Quantity of vowels in syllables, cf. Obs. 31.

4. § 47. 1, The writing of the preposition 3 [in). i

5. Word-Lesson.

(22) "|\V light (25) ^r2><^y and-he-said (28) DfiniD brooding

(23) tr'\^ »»«'i (26) ^1»1 a?!cZ-(there)-M;as (29) T)^'^ lie -saw

(24) 0^f2 vsaters (27) ^'^^ ?e^(there)-5e (30) tTl"] spirit

1 The a in this word is pronounced as o in father; the 6 like ey in they. The
main accent is on the syllable ghes.

2 D. f . = Daghes-forte.


22 Lesson 4.

Jfotes. — (1) T|}< means light or light-of; \^'^^, man or man-of;
tTr\, spirit or spirit-of; (2) The word for waters is □\^, but at the
end of the verse, where the voice rests upon the word, it is written

6. Exercises.

1. To be translated into Hebrew: — (1) Darkness [mdi&Y upon-\-
the-waters, and-upnn-\-[ihe)-faces-ofthe-earth; (2) In-heginning [iho)
spirit-of God (was) hrooding upon-{-tlie-waters ; (3) God saw )( the-
hcavens, and-)[ the-ivaters; {4:) [Th.e)-man-of God,{th.e)-Iight-of the-
heavens; (5) And-he-said^ he-said, he-will-say ; he-was^ she-was, let-
(there)-&e, an(^-( there )-i<;as; (6) he-saw, he-created, he-was.

2. To be translated into English :—(l) D^^£)n ; (2)"l1^}5; (3)

pKH ; (4) tr^xn ; (5) D^H'^Kn ; (6) tJ'^Nl ; '(7) m\ ; (8) DID ;

(9) D^on ; (10) -nun ; (n) ni^^nr

■J- - T T :

3. To be written in English letters :— (1) HJ^I, (2) tJ^>J<, (3) >rT»,

(4) D^p, (5) n^. (6) nni, (7) n^^<, (s) »nn.

4. To be written in Hebrew letters : — (1) sith, (2) ru, (3) ne, (4)
yim, (5) 'is, (6) m-'ra, (7) m'ra, (8) sal, (9) mar, (10) ham.

7. Topics for Study.

(1) Prep. ^. (2) Gutturals. (3) Quantity of vowels in syllables.
(4) Daghes-forte. (5) Sign of the feminine. (6) Sign of the participle.
(7) Writing of the article. (8) Sign of the future. (9) Koot. (10) *j
and •*). (11) Sharpened syllable.

v^ u^ '':: • ■ ■



22. ^{*^^"^ — way-yar' (two syllables) — and-{h.e)-saw, cf. 18. c, 21. a :
a. The conjunction • 1, forming, with ♦, a sharpened syllable, § 26. 3.
h. The letter * indicates the future, ii'y = he-will-see, cf. 18. 6.

1 Words in parentheses are not to be rendered in Hebrew.

Lesson 4. 23

c. S'wa under *1 silent, § 11.; }< here without force, ? 43. 1. K. 1.

23. nl?<n~D^— eth+ha- or (three sy]]ah]es)—){-\-t7ie-h'ght:


a. In V. 1 iljij is an accented closed syl.; here «n-accented, because
joined by Maqqeph to following word, § 17. 1; hence -^ (e) be-
comes ~ (e), I 36. 1. a.

b. Article here is n> as in t^'lXn; hut cf . 'jl in D^^ti^Hi D^pH*

c. 1st syl., unaccented closed ; 2d, unac. open ; 3d, accented closed,
S 28. 1, 2.

d. The is 6, not o, same sound, but different value, § 7. 4.

24. ilD'*3— ki+tobh (two syllables)— ^Aai+S'oofi :

a. Three consonants : ^ (k), cf. ^ (kh) ; tO (t), cf . H ; ^ (bh).

b. Two unchangeable vowels : * (i), i (6), ? 30. 7. Notes 1, 2.

c. On the use of letters to indicate vowel-sounds, § 6. 2, 3.

25. 7'l]3*V~way-yabh-del — and-[he)-caused-to-divide, I 28. 1, 2 :

a. *7 (d) a new letter ; without the dot ("7), it is dJi (= </i in tlie).

b. 1st and 2d syl's unaccented closed {short vowel); 3d, accented
closed {Io77g vowel).

c. S'wa under ^ is silent, and is called a syllable-divider, § 11. 1.

26. ]^^— hen— betioeen, ?? 3. 2 ; 5. 3; 6. 3; 12. 1: ^-
o. The letter n at the end of a word is written 7, not J, ^

b. Both e C. ) and e ( ) are pronounced as ey in they. '

c. The vowel here is unchangeable (e), not changeable (e).

d. There is a dot in *J, as there was in ^ of fl^C^N'^^*

27. ]^y\—uhhen—and-between, U 12. 1; 49. 2:

(I. Before the labial '2, the word for aiid is written V
b. Note that between is ten, but and-between is u-67ien.

28. Tlti^nn— ha-ho-sekh — the-darkness; (cf. 12. a, Z>, c) :

a. The article in this case is H i iiot • Hj nor H,

b. Three syllables, first and second ending in a vowel, third, in a

c. Note that )*7 appears to be an unaccented open syllable with a
short vowel.


Lesson 4.

2. The Occurrence of Aspirates in Genesis I. 1—4.


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Online LibraryWilliam Rainey HarperIntroductory Hebrew method and manual → online text (page 1 of 16)