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C P b'^i .15.^



I^arbarti College l.itiraio



FBOM THB BSqyEST OF



JAMES WALKER, D.D., LL.D.

(CUm of 18x4)

FOKMBR PRBSIDENT OF HABVARD COLLKOB



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Intellectual and Moral Sciences'*



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THE BIBLICAL WORLD



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THB UNIVBRSITT OF OmOAGO PRESS
OHIOAGO, ILLINOIS



THE CAMBBIDGE UNIVEBSITT PRESS



THE MARUZEN-EABUSUIKI-KAISHA

TQKTO, 081KA, XTOIO, FUKUOKA, UBMl

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The Biblical World

FOUNDED BY WILLIAM RAINEY HARPER

The Hebrew Student - - Vols. I-n, 1882-1883

The Old Testament Student - Vols. m-VIII, 1883-1888
The Old and New Testaiont Student, Vol. K-XV, 1889-1892
The Biblical World - New Series, Vols. I-L, 1893-1917

SHAILER MATHEWS, Editor

With the Co-operation of the Members of the Divinity

Conference of the University of Chicago



NEW SERIES. VOL. L



JULY— DECEMBER, 1917



THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS



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Published
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Conpotedaad Printed Bjr

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Roman numerals preceding the page reference indicate the number of each instalment in the series.



How Old Were Christ's Disciples? 3 Otis and Frank Cory

Is Fear Essential to Well-Being? 13 Frederica Beard

Rival Interpretations of Christianity. V, 18, loi; VI, 334 . . George Cross

Modem Creed-Building. 26 W. Harvey-Jellie

St Paul's View of the Resurrection Body. 39 A.E. Whaiham

The Psychology of Religion. V, 53 Edward S. Ames

The Problem of Suffering in the Old Testament. IV, 58 . . . /. M. Powis Smith

Gentile Forms of Millennial Hope. 67 Shirley Jackson Case

Bedrock in Religion. 86 U. M. McGuire

The War's Challenge to the Church. 94 Robert W.Shaw

The Family Altar. 108 ... H.G.W. Smith

The Gospel of the Kingdom. 129 Frederick Clifton Grant

The Book of Revelation. 1, 192; n, 257; m, 321; IV, 382 Shirley Jackson Case

Back to Pentecost. 203 Washington Gladden

The Present Status in Religion. 212 Henry Berkowitz

Mr. H. G. Wells's "Modem Religion." 220 Walter F. Adeney

Luther and Paul. 226 Charles J. Ritchey

The Bible in Our Religious Life. 232 Henry B. Robins

Good Thoughts m Bad Times. 267 Henry Churchill King

The Revolutionary Attitude of Jesus. 276 Samuel Dickey

The Prophets and the Social Question. 282 Alexander R. Gordon

"The Sacrament of Misery." 290 Francis A. Christie

The Religion of Childhood. I, 292; II, 353 Henry B. Robins

In Memoriam. 300

Church and Community. I, 318; n, 376 Allan Hoben

A Service for Use in Time of War. 331

The Offense of the Cross. 342 Richard Roberts

The Missionary Enterprise as the Moral Equivalent of War. 348 Samuel McCrea Covert



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THE



BI LICAL
WORLD

A Journal of the Awakening Church



Volume L JULY 1917 Number 1



Editorial: Christianizing Patriotism

How Old Were Christ's Disciples? Otis and Frank Cary

Is Fear Essential to Well-Being? Frederica Beard

Rival Interpretations of Christianity. V. Evangelictsm

or Modernized Protestant Christianity George Cross

Modem Creed-Building W. Harvey- Jellie

St PauFs View of the Resurrection Body. (Concluded)

. A. E. Whatham
The American Institute of Sacred Literature

The Psychology of Religion Edward 5. Ames

The Problem of Suffering in the Old Testament

J. M. Fowls Smith



THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, U.S.A.



Agmntm:
THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS. London and Edinburgh
THE MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA. Tokyo, 0»aka, Kyoto, Fukuoka, Sendai
THE MISSION BOOK COMPANY. Shanghai



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The Biblical World

FOUNDED KY WILLIAM RAINEY HARPER

TifK Hkbrbw Student, Vols. I, H. 1888-1883 ' Tmb Old and Nkw Tsstambnt Stddent, Vol*. IX-XV, x889-i89a

The Old Tbstambst Studbnt, Vols. III-VIII, 1883-1888 The Bibucal World, New Series, Vols. I-XLIX, i893'-x9i7

SHAILER MATHEWS, EcJItor

With the Co-operation of the Members of the Divinity Conference of the .University of Chicago



Vol. L CONTENTS FOR JULY 1917 ^ > No. 1

EDITORIAL:^ CHRISTIANIZING PATRIOTISM i

HOWOLD WERE CHRIST'S DISCIPLES? . . - - Otis and Frakk Caky 3

IS FEAR ESSENTIAL TO WELL-BEING? Prederica Beard is

RIVAL INTERPRETATIONS OF CHRISTIANITY. V. EVANGELICISM

OR MODERNIZED PROTESTANT CHRISTIANITY - George Cross, Ph.D. 18

MODERN CREED-BUILDING W. ftARVEY-jELLiE, Dr. £s Let. 26

ST. PAUL'S VIEW OF THE RESURRECTION BODY {Concluded) Rev. A. E. Whatham 20

CURRENT OPINION 35

THE CHURCH AND THE WORLD : ^

Missions - - 40

Religious Education - - -41

Church Efficiency - - - . - -43

BOOK NOTICES . - - 48

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF SACRED LITERATURE :

The Psychology of Religion. V Edward S. Ames 52

The Problem of Suffering in the Old Testament. IV (Concluded) J. M. Powis Smith 5S



Th* BibUcal Vodd is publ'iKhed monthly by the University, of Chicago, at the Univcrsltv Press 5 The sobscription price
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Commonicationi for the editor and manuscripts should be Addressed to the Editor of The Biblical World» The
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Entered as second-class matter, January 38, 1893, at the post-ofhce at Chicago, Illinois, under the Act of March 3, 1879
Copyright, 19x7, by the University of Chicago



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University of Chicago Publications in
Religious Education

Edited by

ERNEST D. BURTON. SHAILER MATHEWS,

and THEODORE G. SOARES

The Constructiye Studies — A series of graded textbooks rep-
resenting biblical and ethical subjects, arranged to cover ail
grades from the kindergarten to adult years. Thirty vol-
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Principles and Methods of Religious Education — A

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Handbooks of Ethics and Religion — A series of text and
reference books suitable for use in college classes and for gen-
eral reading. Now ready: The Psychology of Rdigion, by
George A. Coe ; The Origin and Growth of the Hebrew Religion,
by Henry T. Fowler; The Story of the New Testament, by
Edgar J. Goodspeed; The Ethics of the Old Testament, by
Hinckley G. Mitchell; The Rdigions of the World,
by George A. Barton.

Outline Bible-Study G>urses — A continually increasing series
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For information concerning the above and one hundred other
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Education, Ethics, Theology, the Literature of the Bible, and
Social Sendee. Sent free upon request.

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The Biblical World for August



Gentile Forms of the Millennial Hope

By PROFESSOR SHIRLEY JACKSON CASE, of the University
of Chicago,

We are told hy people who claim to kpo^ that the world is coming to
an end This sort of prophecy » not new, bid it gives an interesting
background to this splendidly written article.



Bedrock in Religion

By the REVEREND U. M. McGUIRE, of Bicknell Indiana.

A searching article into the permanent elements of our faith, by a
wording pastor.

The War^s Challenge to the Church

By the REVEREND R. W, SHAW, of Cherryvale, Kansas,

An unconventional treatment of Bible matters, also by a wording
pastor.

The Family Altar

By the REVEREND R G. W. SMITH, of Ridgefield Park New
fersey.

A brief and pointed discussion of a matter of first importance, also
by a working pastor.

Editorial and Special Departments

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Textbooks vs. The Quarterly
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Thousands of Sunday schools are experimenting with the Constructive
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and are daily reporting their enthusiastic approbation. Acquaintance
with them may be secured by:

1. Studjring the illustration.

2. Sending for our 150-page Handbook giving speci-
men chapters from twenty-three volumes (send
ten cents for postage).

3. Sending for any volume for examination with the
privilege of retum.

You need this information NOW for use in the autumn



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CHICAGO ....... ILUNOIS



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THE BIBLICAL WORLD



VotuM. L JULY 1917 NuMBn 1



CHRISTIANIZING PATRIOTISM

Patriotism has generally been r^arded as a belligerent virtue.
Men have been ready to fight for their country when they dodged
taxes for its support. It has been easier to go to war than to go to
meetings of reformers. Men have decorated the graves of dead
soldiers while they were growing rich by imderpaying soldiers^
children.

But patriotism is outgrowing its past.

Nations are less important than humanity^ but only super-
idealists can believe that patriotism is necessarily hostile to imiversal
brotherhood. A man loves ultimate ideals imwisdy when he
refuses to take a first step in their direction. We shall not reach
Utopia by a miraculous leap. We shall walk to it. Pictures of
terminal stations are of small value to people who refuse to travel.

Whatever may be the world of a thousand years hence^ the
road to imiversal brotherhood lies through the establishment of an
international morality.

In the present crisis we are patriots at war. But patriotism can
be made co-operative as well as belligerent.



Christian patriots can render many services to their country
these days, but none is more important than the evangelization of
patriotism. As we are learning to make denominations a basis for
interdenominationalism, can we hold nations to be elements of
internationalism. We must make patriotism a consecration of
our country to service in the world. We must prevent war from
deadening the sense of high mission with which we enter upon war.

We must make patriotism a devotion of our country to God, not
a demand that God shall always do our country's bidding.



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2 THE BIBLICAL WORLD

In time of war we must prepare for peace by instilling into
loyalty to our nation a sense of the nation's responsibility for
morality in foreign commerce.

Christians must help patriots to see that their nation has a right
to exist only as it ministers to imiversal human weal.



Morality grows by injecting higher ideals into existing con-
ditionSy customs, and institutions.

Sometimes these new ideals are destructive antitoxins. So it
was when ideals of htmoian brotherhood entered a world of slave-
holders. Such we hope will be the case when they fully enter
nations that wage war.

Sometimes they are transforming. So it was in the days when
nationalities replaced feudal fiefs.

So will it be as a truly Christian public opinion fixes the relation
of nations with each other.

Patriotism will then consist in loyalty to one's country as an
agent in establishing international friendship within which hmnan
brotherhood can be safe.

Democracy is one step toward this brotherhood.

Defense of democracy is another.

National co-operation in the defense of international law will
be another.

For a world imsaf e for democracy is a world unsafe for fraternity.



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HOW OLD WERE CHRIST^S DISCIPLES?



OTIS AND FRANK CARY
Kyoto, Japan



This article is interesting if far no other reason than thai U is the work of father
and son. But it is more interesting in the fact that it shapes up and answers questions
which must have occurred to every thoughtful student of the Scriptures. It is hard
indeed to realize how much biblical thought has been misled by the painters of unhistorical
pictures. It is hardly likely that all of our readers will agree with the condusions which
this article reaches, but that the disciples of Jesus were young seems well established.



Our mental pictures of the scenes
described in the Gospels are greatly
influenced by impressions that were
received from the illustrated books of
our childhood and by the way those
scenes have been depicted by the great
artists. Painters have been inclined
to represent most of the Twelve Dis-
ciples as heavily bearded men, appar-
ently in middle life if not beyond it,
Peter and some of the others being
bald-headed — a condition, it may be
incidentally remarked, that woidd be
strange in a fishennan accustomed to
an outdoor life unless he was far ad-
vanced in years. John, indeed, is
represented as being younger than
the others; but even he, as* usually
portrayed, appears to be well over
twenty.

Are such pictures true to the facts?
How old were these men? In examin-
ing the Gospels for answers to such
inquiries we need not trouble ourselves
much over questions of criticism. Even
if a book was not written by the one
whose name it bears, and even though
a particular passage may be an inter-
polation, all with which we have to



deal are of early date and show y^hat
was believed by those who, either by
personal acquaintance with the dis-
ciples or through what was still remem-
bered about them, were likely to have
right opinions on a matter of this kind.



It might help our study of this
subject if we could be sure what was
the fundamental nature of that group
of persons about Christ, what object
they had in view when they joined it,
and what was the relation that he and
they considered to be existing between
them. Did these men at first think
that they were joining a revolutionary
party whose aim was the restoration
of national independence? Was it the
thought that Jesus was possibly the
Messiah that first attracted them to
him — ^a supposition which, with the
current ideas, would mean very much
the same as the preceding one ? Rather
shall we not assent to what Hamack
says: "The relation of Jesus to his
disciples during his lifetime was deter-
mined, not by the conception of Mes-
siah, but by that of teacher"* ?



* Expansion of Christianity, Moffatt's tnms., 11, i.

3



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THE BIBLICAL WORLD



Teacherl Did the disciples think
of themselves as entering what was
literally a school — a school that, what-
ever were its peculiarities, was some-



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