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"See, e. g., Prov. I : 14; 16:33; 18 : 18 ; 30 : I; 31 : 1.

Cf. Wisdom of Solomon 8 : 8.

* 6 See, e. g., Matt. 27:35; Mark 15:24; Luke 1:9; 23:34; John 19:24; Acts
1 :26; 7 :38; 8 : 21; Rom. 3:2; Heb. 5 : 12 ; I Pet. 4:11.

4 ? See, e. g., WIEDEMANN, Religion of the Ancient Egyptians, see Index, s. v.
"Oracle, etc."

48 See references to Pinches, Strong, and Jastrow cited in 157.

49 See references to W. R. Smith and Wellhausen cited in 157.

s See, e. g., WARRE CORNISH, Concise Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities,
s. v. " Sortes."



LAWS AND USAGES CONCERNING PRAYER 145

article "Oracle," Encyclopedia Britannica (1875); WELLHAUSEN, Prolegomena, p.
130 ; T. G. PINCHES, " The Oracle of Ishtar of Arbela," Records of the Past, Vol.
XI (1878), pp. 59-72; see also ibid., Vol. V, new series (1891), pp. 129-40; S. F.
HANCOCK, "The Urim and Thummim," Old Testament Student, Vol. Ill (1884), pp.
252-56; KONIG, Religious History of Israel (1885), pp. 107 ff.; W. R SMITH, Rel. of
Sem., s&t Index, s. v. "Oracles, etc.;" KIRKPATRICK, The First Book of Samuel (Camb.
Bible, 1891), pp. 217 f.; H. E. DOSKER, "The Urim and Thummim," Presbyterian
and Reformed Review, 1892, pp. 717-30; S. A. STRONG, "On Some Oracles to Esar-
haddon and Assurbanipal," Beitrdge zur Assyriologie, Band II (1894), PP- 627-45 ;
J. F. McCuRDY, op. cit., see Index, j. v. "Oracles;" G. F. MOORE, Judges (Inter-
national Critical Commentary, 1895), P- 3^1; HOMMEL, Ancient Hebrew Tradition
(1897), pp. 28off.; S. R. DRIVER, article "Ephod," HASTINGS' Dictionary, Vol. I
(1898); JASTROW, op. cit., see Index, s. v. "Oracles;" T. C. FOOTE, "The Biblical
Ephod," Johns Hopkins University Circulars, XIX, No. 145 (1900), p. 40; O. C.
WHITEHOUSE, article "Lots," HASTINGS' Dictionary, Vol. Ill (1900); W. Muss-
ARNOLT, " The Urim and Thummim," American Journal of Semitic Languages and
Literatures, Vol. XVI (1900), pp. 193-224; C. H. PRICHARD, article "Oracle,"
HASTINGS' Dictionary, Vol. Ill (1900) ; G. F. MOORE, article " Ephod," Encyclopedia
Biblica,Vo\. 11(1901).

BRAUN, De vestitu sacerdotum (1698), pp. 462 ff.; BELLERMANN, Die Urim und
Thummim (1824); BAHR, Symbolik des mosaischen Cultus, Vol. II (1839), pp. 131-41;
G. KLAIBER, Das priesterliche Orakel der Israeliten (1865); KOHLER, Lehrbuch der
biblischen Geschichte des Alien Testamentes, Vol. I (1875), pp. 349 f.; STEINER, article
"Urim und Thummim," SCHENKEL'S Bibel-Lexikon, Vol. V (1875); RIEHM, Hand-
worterbuch (ist ed. 1884, 2d ed. by Baethgen 1893 f.), articles "Ephod" and "Licht
und Recht;" KAUTZSCH, article "Urim," Realencyklopddie (2d ed. 1885); STADE,
Geschichte, Vol. I (1887), pp. 466, 471 ; WELLHAUSEN, Reste arab. Heidenthums, pp.
126 f., 133, 167, etc.; BAUDISSIN, Geschichte des alttestamentlichen Priesterthums (1889),
pp. 70 f., 205 ff.; LAGARDE, Mittheilungen, Vol. IV (1891), p. 17; SELLIN, Beitrdge
zur israelitischen und jiidischen Religionsgeschichte, Heft II (1897), p. 119; WIL-
HELM LOTZ, article "Ephod," Realencyklopddie, Vol. V (3d ed., 1898); VAN Hoo-
NACKER, Le sacerdoce levitique (1899), pp. 370 ff.

158. Supplementary Study on Consultation with the Deity or Super-
natural Powers through Magic, Divination, Sorcery, Witchcraft.

1. The early period. 51

(a) Magic and divination. Gen. 44:5, 150); Exod. 22:17; Numb.
22 : 7 (J); 23 : 23; i Sam. 6:2; 28 : 8 ; Mic. 3 : 6 f ., 1 1 ; Isa. 2 : 6.

(b) Sorcery and witchcraft. Exod. 22 : 18 ; i Sam. 15:23; 2 Kings 9 : 22.

2. The middle period. 58

(a) Magic and divination. Deut. 18:9-14; Jer. 8:17; 14:14; 27:9;
29:8; Ezek. 12:24; 13:7-9, 23; 2i:2ifL, 29; 22:28; 2 Kings
17:17; Isa. 44:25; Mic. 5:12.

S 1 References in bold-face type are from the Covenant Code.

s 2 References in bold-face type are from the code of laws contained in Deuter-



146 PRIESTLY ELEMENT IN THE OLD TESTAMENT

() Sorcery and witchcraft. Deut. 18:10; Mic. 5:12; Nah. 3 : 4 ; Jer.
27:9; Isa. 47:9, 12; 57:3.

3. The late period. 53

(a) Magic and divination. Josh. 13:22; Lev. 19 : 26, 31 ; 20 : 6, 27; Zech.
10:2.

(b) Sorcery and witchcraft. Exod. 7:11; Mai. 3:5; 2 Chron. 33 :6 ;
Dan. 2 : 2.

159. Questions and Suggestions.

Examine the various means of consultation with higher powers
which seem always to have been regarded as improper and illegitimate,
viz., magic, divination, sorcery, and witchcraft, noting (i) the various
circumstances under which such consultation is held ; (2) the under-
lying motive in each case; (3) the relative frequency in different
periods ; (4) the various methods thus employed ; (5) the external
sources of these influences ; (6) any internal source from which they
may have sprung; (7) the prophetic attitude in the different periods;
(8) the explanation of this attitude; (9) the relation of all this to
idolatry; (10) the essential element of injury which it contributed;
(i i) the gradual disappearance, and the occasion of this disappearance.

Consider (i) the significance of references in the Psalms; 5 -* (2)
in the wisdom literature ; ss (3) in the apocryphal literature ; 5<s (4) in
the New Testament. 57

Consider the use of these methods among (i) the Egyptians; 58 (2)
the ancient Arabs; 59 (3) the Assyrians and Babylonians;* (4) the
Greeks and Romans. 61

1 60. Literature to be Consulted.

F. W. FARRAR, article "Divination," SMITH'S Dictionary of the Bible (ist ed.
1863, 2d ed. 1893); SCHULTZ, op. fit., Vol. I, pp. 250 ff., 281 ff., 283 ff.; E. B.TYLOR,
article "Divination," Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. VII (1878); IDEM, article

53 References in bold-face type are from the Priestly Code.
s* See, e. g., Ps. 58 : 5. & See, e. g., Prov. 16 : 10.

s* See, e. g., Ecclus. 34 : 2-7.

57 See, <?.-., Acts 8 : 9, 1 1 ; 13:6,8; 16:16; Gal. 5 : 20 ; Rev. 9:21; 18:23;
21 : 8 ; 22 : 15.

s 8 See, e. g., BUDGE, Egyptian Magic.

59 See, e. g., W. R. SMITH, Rel. ofSem., Index, s. v. " Omens," etc.; WELLHAUSEN,
Reste arab. Heid., pp. 135-64.

60 See, e. g., LENORMANT, Chaldaan Magic; L. W. KING, Babylonian Magic and
Sorcery.

61 See, e. g., E. B. TYLOR, article " Magic," Encyc. Brit.



LAWS AND USAGES CONCERNING PRAYER 147

" Magic," ibid., Vol. XV (1883); W. R. SMITH, Rel. ofSem., see Index, s. v. " Charms,"
"Omens," " Magic," " Witches; " SCHURER, A History of the Jewish People in (he Time
of Jesus Christ, Div. II, Vol. Ill, pp. 151-5; ERMAN, Life in Ancient Egypt (transl.
1894), see Index, s. v. " Magic Art," etc.; MENZIES, op, fit., pp. 72, 91, 153 ; McCuRDY,
op. cit. (1895-1901), 644, 851 n., 858; L. W. KING, Babylonian Magic and Sorcery,
Being " The Prayers of the Lifting of the Hand" (1896); T. W. DAVIES, Magic,
Divination and Demonology (1898); JASTROW, op. cit., see Index, s. v. "Magical
Texts," " Sorcer, etc.," "Witchcraft;" F.B.jEVONS, article "Divination," HASTINGS'
Dictionary, Vol. I (1898); O. C. WHITEHOUSE, article "Exorcism," ibid.; T. W.
DAVIES, article " Divination," Encyc. Bib., Vol. I (1899); E. A. W. BUDGE, Egyptian
Magic (1899); RAMSAY, The Expositor, July, 1899, p. 22; O. C. WHITEHOUSE, arti-
cle "Magic," HASTINGS' Dictionary, Vol. Ill (1900); DUFF, op. cit., Vol. II, see
Index, s. v. "Divination;" CHEYNE, article "Exorcists," Encyc. Bib.,Vo\. II (1901);
DAY, op. cit., pp. 185 f., 220, 222 ; ANDREW LANG, Magic and Religion (1901).

BRECHER, Das Transcendentale, Magie, und magische Heilarten im Talmud
(1850); P. SCHOLZ, Gotzendienst und Zauberwesen bei den alien Hebrdern und den
benachbarten Vblkern (1877); MAYBAUM, Die Entwickelung des israelitischen Pro-
phetenthums (1883), pp. 7-29; STADE, Geschichte, Vol. I, pp. 503 ff.; WELLHAUSEN,
Reste arabischen Heidenthums (" Skizzen und Vorarbeiten," III), pp. 126, 135-64,
215; SMEND, op. cit., see Index, s. v. " Wahrsagung," "Zauberei;" TALLQVIST,
Assyrifche Beschwbrungsserie Maqlu (1894); DILLMANN, op. cit., see Index, s. v.
"Wahrsager;" ZIMMERN, Beitrdge zur Kenntnis der babylonischen Religion (1896,
1899); MARTI, op. cit., p. 45 ; FREY, Tod, Seelenglaube und Seelenkult (1898), pp. 180,
202 ; LEHMANN, Aberglaube* und Zauberei: BLAU, Das aU-jiidische Zauberwesen.

1 6 1 . Supplementary Study on Mourning Customs.

1. The early period.

Amos 5:16; 8:10; Mic. i : 8, 16 ; Isa. 3 : 24 ; 15:2; 22:12;
2 Sam. 3:31; 21:10; i Kings 21:27; 2 Kings 19: if.; Gen.
37:34(E), 35(J); cf. I Kings 20 : 31 f.

2. The middle period.

Deut. 14:1!; Jer. 16:6-8; 41:5; 47:5; 49:3; 48:37; 4:8;
6 : 26 ; Ezek. 24 : 16-17; 29 : 18 ; 27 : 31 ; 7 : 18.

3. The late period.

Lev.ig:27f.; 21 : 5 ; Joel i :8 ; Jon. 3: 5 ff.; Ezra 9:3; Dan. 9:3.

162. Questions and Suggestions.

Study the references given to mourning customs, and note (i) the
custom of weeping and its significance, in contrast with the modern
conception ; (2) the more intense expression of grief, termed wailing;
(3) the beating of the breast, tearing of the hair, rending of clothes,
putting on sackcloth, and mutilation of the body, as expressions of
mourning ; (4) the putting away of food to (or for) the dead (Deut.
26 : 14); (5) fasting (cf. i Sam. 31 : 13).

Consider, in connection with these customs, (i) to what extent they



148 PRIESTLY ELEMENT IN THE OLD TESTAMENT

are survivals from the age in which ancestor-worship prevailed ; (2) to
what extent, therefore, they had their origin in the effort to propitiate
the spirit of the dead, which was supposed to have power for good or
evil, rather than in the desire to express grief for the loss that had been
incurred; (3) the reasons for forbidding certain of these customs (cf.
Deut. 14:1; 26:14; Lev. 19:28); (4) changes which seem to have
come about in the progress of history.

Consider the representations made concerning mourning customs
in the Psalms, 68 (2) in the wisdom literature, 63 (3) in the apocryphal
literature, 64 (4) in the New Testament,' 5 (5) among other ancient
nations. 66

163. Literature to be Consulted.

THOMSON, The Land and the Book (1859), see Index, s. v. "Manners and
Customs;" H. W. PHILLOTT, article "Mourning," SMITH'S Dictionary of the Bible,
(ist ed. 1863, 2d ed. 1893); MASPERO, Egyptian Archeology (transl. 1887), pp. 108-
63; W. R. SMITH, Rel. of Sent., pp. 322 f., 336, 370, 430; A. P. BENDER, "Beliefs,
Rites, and Customs of the Jews, Connected with Death, Burial, and Resurrection,"
Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. VI (1893-94), PP- 3!7~47. 664-71 ; Vol. VII (1894-95),
101-18, 259-69; ERMAN, Life in Ancient Egypt (transl. 1894), PP- 306-27; E. A.
WALLIS BUDGE, The Mummy (2d. ed. 1894); H. C. TRUMBULL, Studies in Oriental
Social Life (1894), pp. 143-208; MENZIES, op. cit. (1855), see Index, s. v. " Funeral
Practices;" JASTROW, op. cit., see Index, s. v. "Dead/' etc.; PERITZ, "Woman in
the Ancient Hebrew Cult," Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. XVII (1898), pp
137 f.; T. NICOL, article " Mourning," HASTINGS' Dictionary, Vol. Ill (1900) ; DUFF
op. cit., Vol. II, see Index, s. v. " Mourning and Bewailing ;" DAY, op. cit., pp. 204 ff.;
WlEDEMANN, The Realm of the Egyptian Dead.

PERLES, " Die Leichenfeierlichkeiten des nachbiblischen Judenthums," Monats-
schrift fur Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenthum s, Vol. X (1861), pp. 345-55,
376-94 ; M. GEIER, De Ebraeorum luctu lugentiuntque ritibus (3d ed. 1868) ; Ros-
KOFF, article "Klage," SCHENKEL'S Bibel-Lexikon,Vo\. Ill (1871); OORT, "De
doodenvereering bij de Israeliten," Theologisch Tijdschrift,Vo\. XV (1881), pp. 350ff.;
KAMPHAUSEN, article "Trauer," RIEHM'S Handworterbuch,Vo\. II (1884) ; LEHRER,
article "Trauer bei den Hebraern," Realencyklopddie, Vol. XV (2d ed. 1885) ; STADE,
Geschichte, Vol. I, pp. 387 ff.; G. A. WILKEN, Ueber das Haaropfer (1886 f.); WELL-
HAUSEN, Reste arab. Heidenthums (1887), pp. 159 ff., 178 f.; GOLDZIHER, Muhamme-
danischeStudien(l&%8),Vo\. I, pp. 229-63; SCHWALLY,Z?<W Leben nach dent Tode(lSgz);
SMEND, op. cit., pp. 153 f.; WELLHAUSEN, Israelitische und jiidische Geschichte (ist ed.

62 See, e. g., Pss. 35 : 14 ; 38 : 6 ; 42 : 9 ; 43 : 2 ; 88 : 9.

*3 See, e. g., Prov. 29 : 2 ; Job 2 : 1 1 ; 5 : 1 1 ; 30 : 28 ; Eccles. 3 : 4.

** See, e. g., Ecclus. 7 : 34 ; 22: ill.; 38 : 16 ff.; 41 : I ff.

6 s See, e g., Matt. 2 : 18 ; 5:4; 9:15; 1 1 : 17 ; 24 : 30 ; Mark 16 : 10 ; Luke 6 125 ;
7:32; I Cor. 5:2; 2 Cor. 7 :7; Jas. 4:9; Rev. 18:8, n.

66 See especially the references to the works of W. R. Smith, Wellhausen,
Menzies, Jastrow, and Trumbull cited in 163.



LAWS AND USAGES CONCERNING PRAYER 149

1894), p. 143; NOWACK, op. cit., Vol. I, pp. 187-98; BENZINGER, op, tit., pp. 102,
165 ff., 428 ; MARTI, op. cit., pp. 37, 40 ff., 1 16 ; FREY, Tod, Seelenglaube und Seelen-
kult im alten Jsrae/(i8()8) ; BERTHOLET, Die israelitischen Vorstellungtn vom Zustand
nach dem Tode (1899); KREHL, Religion der Araber; F. J. GRUNDT, Die Trauerge-
brduche der Hebraer.

164. Supplementary Study on Circumcision.

1. The early period.

Exod. 4 : 24 ff. (J); Josh. 5 : 2 f., 9 (J); Judg. 14:3; 15:18; i Sam.
14:6; 17:26, 36; i8:25ff.; 31:4; 2 Sam. 1:20; 3:14.

2. The middle period.

Deut. 10:16; 30:6; Hab. 2:16; Jer. 4:6; 6:10; 9:24 f.; Josh. 5 14-8;
Ezek. 28 : 10; 31:18; 32:19, 21, 24-32; 44 : 7, 9; Isa. 52: i.

3. The late period. 67

Lev. 12 :a; 19 : 23 ff.; 26 =41 ; Gen. 17 : 10-14, 23-27 ; 21:4; 34:14 f.,
17, 22, 24; Exod. 6 : 12, 30; 12 : 44, 48 ; i Chron. 10:4.

165. Questions and Suggestions.

Study the references to circumcision, considering (i) the more
interesting narratives concerning instances of circumcision, e. g., (a)
Moses' son and Zipporah, (6) the circumcision at Gilgal, (f) the cir-
cumcision of Abraham's family, of Shechem and his family; (2) the
characterization of other nations as uncircumcised ; (3) the early
origin, how shown.

Consider (i) the explanation of the origin which makes it sanitary,
i. e., instituted as a preventive of certain diseases ; (2) the explanation
which connects it with marriage, as thereby promoting fruitfulness ;
(3) the explanation that makes it a tribal badge, /. e., a mark of initia-
tion into full membership in the tribe (which included religious
privileges), and therefore an act of sacramental communion, an act of
sacrifice, a dedication.

Consider (i) the place of circumcision in the early period, viz., of
young men {e.g., Gen., chap. 34; Josh. 5:2f.; Exod. 4: 25), and as a tribal
distinction (cf. Gen., chap. 34; Ezek. 31: 8); (2) its place in the middle
period : (a) not mentioned in history or in the older laws, not regarded
as important ; (b) circumcision of heart called for (Jer. 9 : 24, 25), while
the circumcision of Israelites is placed on the same plane with that of
Edomites, Ammonites, and other nations; (c} the spiritualization by the
prophets furnishing the basis for more extended use in the next period ;

^ References in bold-face type are from the Priestly Code.



150 PRIESTLY ELEMENT IN THE OLD TESTAMENT

(3) its place in the 'later period : (a) the representations of its origin;
() the regulations for the performance of the rite; (t) its position as
one of the two distinctive ordinances of Judaism, the other being the
sabbath ; (*/) its significance as a rite of purification.

Consider representations concerning circumcision (i) in the apoc-
ryphal literature j 68 (2) in the New Testament, 69 and the lack of allusion
to it in the Psalms and in the wisdom literature. (3) Consider the prac-
tice of circumcision among the Egyptians, Arabs, and other nations. 70

1 66. Literature to be Consulted.

T. T. PEROWNE, article "Circumcision," SMITH'S Diet, of the Bible (ist ed. 1863,
2d ed. 1893); EWALD, op. cit., pp. 89-97; SCHULTZ, op. cit,, Vol. I, pp. 192 ff.; II, pp.
7-70; KUENEN, Religion of Israel (1869 f., transl. 1874), Vol. I, pp. 238, 290;
ASHER, The Jewish Rite of Circumcision (1873); E. B. TYLOR, Primitive Culture,
Vol. II (1874), pp. 363 ff.; T. K. CHEYNE, article "Circumcision," Encyclopedia
Britannica, Vol. V (1877); E. B. TYLOR, Early History of Mankind (3d ed. 1878),
pp. 214-19; KALISCH, Bible Studies, Part 11(1878), pp. 4-11; WELLHAUSEN, Prole-
gomena, p. 340; RENAN, History of the People of Israel, Vol. I (1887, transl. 1894),
pp. 104-9 ; W. R. SMITH, Rel. of Sem., p. 328; BANCROFT, Native Races (1890), Vol.
Ill, see Index; P. C. REMONDINO, History of Circumcision from the Earliest Times to
the Present (1891); H. C. TRUMBULL, The Blood Covenant (1893), pp. 79,215-24,
351 f.; ERMAN, Life in Ancient Egypt (transl. 1894), pp. 32 f., 539; SCHECHTER,
Studies in Judaism (1896),' p. 343; A. H. SAYCE, Expository Times, November, 1897;
I. J. PERITZ, "Woman in the Ancient Hebrew Cult," Journal of Biblical Literature,
Vol. XVII (1898), p. 136; MACALISTER, article "Circumcision," HASTINGS' Dictionary,
Vol. I (1898); BENZINGER, article "Circumcision," Encyc.Bib., Vol. I (1899).

BORHECK, 1st die Beschneidung ursprilnglich hebrdisch ? (1793); COHEN, Dis-
sertation sur la circoncision (1816); AUTENRIETH, Ueber den Ursprung der Beschnei-
dung (1829); LUBKERT, "Der jiidische &rT7ra07x<5s," Theologische Studien und
Kritiken, 1835, pp. 657-64; COLLIN, Die Beschneidung (1842); S. HOLDHEIM,
Ueber die Beschneidung in religids. Beziehungen; BERGSON, Die Beschneidung
(1844); SALOMON, Die Beschneidung histor. und medizin.dargeslellt (1844); BRECHER,
Die Beschneidung (1845); STEINSCHNEIDER, Ueber die Beschneidung der Araber
(1845); G. EBERS, Aegypten und die Bucher Moses, VoL I (1868), pp. 278-84 ; STEINER,
article "Beschneidung," SCHENKEL'S Bibel '- Lexikon, Vol. I (1869); AUERBACH,
Berith Abraham, oder, der Beschneidungsfeier (2d ed. 1 880); WEBER, Die Lehren
des Talmud (1880), p. 373; PLOSS, Das Kind in Brauch und Sitte der Vdlker (ad
ed. 1882), pp. 360 ff.; RIEHM, article "Beschneidung," Handwbrterbuch (1884);
STADE, Zeitschrift fur die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, Vol. VI (1886), pp. 132-43;
WELLHAUSEN, Restearab. Heidenthums (ist ed. 1887), pp. 154, 168, 215 ; HOLZINGER,

68 See, e. g., I Mace. 1: 14, 48, 60 f.; 2 Mace. 6 : 10.

69 See, e. g., Luke 1 : 59 ; John 7:22!.; Acts 15:5; 16:3; 21:21; Rom. 2 : 25 ff.;
I Cor. 7 : 18 f.; Gal. 5 : 2 f.; 6:13; Col. 3:11; Phil. 3 : 5.

7 See especially the references to the works of Tylor, Bancroft, W. R. Smith,
Wellhausen, Ploss, Ebers, Erman, and Reitzenstein, cited in 166.



LAWS AND USAGES CONCERNING PRAYER

Einleitung in den Hexateuch (1893), PP- J 33> 3&5> 437; SMEND, op. cit., pp. 37 f., 116;
NOWACK, op. cit., pp. 167-71 ; BENZINGER, op. cit., pp. 153 ff.; BUDDE, Zeitschrift fur
die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, Vol. XIV (1894), p. 250; GLASSBERG, Die Beschnei-
dung (1896); KRAETZSCHMAR, Die Bundesvorstellung im Alien Testament (1896),
pp. 165, 174; BERTHOLET, Die Stellung der Israeliten und der Juden zu den Frem-
den (1896), see Index, s. v. " Beschneidung ; " MARTI, op. cit., pp. 43, 163 f.; J.
JAEGER, " Ueber die Beschneidung," Neue kirchliche Zeitschrift, July, 1898, pp. 479-91;
ZEYDNER, " Kainszeichen, Keniter und Beschneidung," Zeitschrift fur die alttesta-
mentliche Wissenschaft, Vol. XVIII (1898), pp. 1 20-25; REITZENSTEIN, Zwei religions-
geschichtliche Fragen (1901).



PAET FOUETH



THE LITERATURE OF WORSHIP -THE LEG-AL
LITERATURE

XII. THE DEUTERONOMIC CODE.

XIII. EZEKIEL'S CONTRIBUTION.

XIV. THE PRIESTLY CODE.



CHAPTER XII.

THE LEGAL LITERATURE THE DEUTERONOMIC CODE OF LAWS.

167. The Literature of Worship includes that portion of the Old
Testament literature which concerns itself with the subject of worship
in any of its forms, or was written by men imbued with the priestly
spirit. Here belong :

1. The legal literature (cf. 9), or codes of laws and regula-
tions dealing with the various elements in worship ; these codes
include more than can properly be classified under the head of
worship, but everything in them may be said to be priestly in its
character.

2. The historical literature (10), viz., Chronicles, Ezra, Nehe-
miah, and the priestly history in the Hexateuch (=P).

3. The hymnal literature ( 8), as found in the book of Psalms.

A marked spirit of unity characterizes all this literature, and dis-
tinguishes it from the prophetic and the wisdom literature ( 2).

168. The Legal Literature of the Old Testament
is found in four groups or codes of legislation, viz.:

1. The covenant code (20), the earliest form of Exod. 20:23
legislation, ordinarily called the prophetic code, because 23 - I9>34 -
it is incorporated in literature of a prophetic charac-
ter.

2. The Deuteronomic code ( 25-28), so called Deut. 12:126:19;
because it forms the principal part of the book of
Deuteronomy.

3. Ezekiel's system of worship ( 31), which is, Ezek., chaps,
strictly speaking, priestly and legalistic, although the

work of a prophet.

4. The Levitical code ( 41-44), so called because
it is found in the book of Leviticus (with portions of
Exodus and Numbers).

169. The Covenant Code ( 20), or prophetic code,
is the codification of law and usage in Israel down to
about 650 B. C. Concerning this code there may be
noted:



156 PRIESTLY ELEMENT IN THE OLD TESTAMENT

judg. 17:7 ff- i. Its prevalence is synchronous with the period in

which the order of priests does not occupy the place of
power in Israelitish thought. When the priests take a
more influential place in the affairs of the nation, an-
other code appears (the Deuteronomic), in which this
higher position is recognized.

2. Its form, contents, a-nd character are rather pro-
Exod. 30:34 . phetic than priestly, since, although (i) the act of wor-
Exod. 33:14-17. ship is recognized ( 73, i), (2) provision is made for
Exod. 23:18. feasts and offerings ( 96), (3) reference is made to magic

and sacrifice to other gods (158, i), all this is of the
simplest character, and no tendency exists toward the
development of a priestly system, there being no men-
tion even of a priest or a priestly order ( 59, i).

3. It furnishes a formulation under prophetic influ-
ence of the old Semitic usage, and, at the same time,
the basis on which the later codes are developed.

4. Its relation to these later codes has been shown in
the comparative examination of various usages (59-
166).

a Kings 33:3- J 7- The Story of the Discovery of Deuteronomy

a3:a5 ' (25)-'

3 Kings 3i:i-a6. i. Consider the conditions of the times in which this
event occurred, viz., the preceding reigns of Manasseh
and Amon, their character, the forms of worship
encouraged, the prophetic attitude (2 Kings 21 : 10-
15), the particular royal acts regarded with disfavor
(*4).

See KITTEL, History of the Hebrews, Vol. II, pp. 370-79 ;
BUDDE, Religion of Israel to the Exile, pp. 161-9 ; KENT, A History
of the Hebrew People, Vol. II, pp. 159-64; WELLHAUSEN, Prolego-
mena to the History of Israel, pp. 485 ff.

1 It is generally acknowledged by interpreters that the original story of the dis-
covery of Deuteronomy has been edited from the point of view of later times. The
account, as it now stands, conies from three sources: (i) the early narrative, (2) the
pre-exilic redaction, (3) the post-exilic redaction. The parts that show the clearest
evidence of the work of the post-exilic editor are 2 Kings 22 : 14-20 ; 23 : 8 ff., 16-18,
21-23, 25^-27 ; the work of the earlier editor appears in 23 : 3, 13, 24 f.; while 22 : $b,
6, 8 ("the high-priest") ; 23 : 6,b, 5, yb, 14, 16-20, seem to be minor glosses. The pur-
pose of these additions and modifications was to furnish an explanation, from the later
point of view, of the disaster that fell upon Judah so soon after this reform.



LEGAL LITERATURE - DEUTERONOMIC CODE 157

2. Study the principal details of the discovery, e, g.,
(i) the chief agent, the priest; (2) the phrase "the book a JJPg.J 14 ' 8>
of the law;" (3) the strange effect of the reading upon a Kings aa.-s.



the king; (4) the consultation with Huldah her oracle, a ^ ngs M: "-

' a Kings aa : 14-30.

its original form and meaning; (5) the convocation of a Kings 33: if.

the nation and the public reading; (6) the covenant

entered into; (7) the phrase "his commandments, and

his testimonies, and his statutes;" (8) the phrase "with a Kings 33:3.

all his heart and all his soul;" (9) one by one, the a Kings 33 : 4-20.

various acts of reformation instituted by Josiah ; (10) a Kings 33 : 31-33.

the observance of the passover; (n) the purpose of 3 Kings 33 = 8;

33:3,31,34.

these acts, viz., to confirm "the words of this covenant
which were written in this book," etc.

3. Consider ( 26) the immediate results of the find- 3 K" 1 * 8 2 3:4-4.
ing of this book, and compare these results with the
actual provisions of the book of Deuteronomy, and
determine : (i) whether Deuteronomy commands any
essential thing which Josiah did not try to do; (2)
whether Josiah undertook any act of reformation for
which Deuteronomy does not make provision.


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Online LibraryWilliam Rainey HarperThe priestly element in the Old Testament, an aid to historical study, for use in advanced Bible classes → online text (page 15 of 28)