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William Ralston Balch.

Life and public services of General Grant: online

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Online LibraryWilliam Ralston BalchLife and public services of General Grant: → online text (page 1 of 39)
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LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES



OF



General Grant:



A COMPLETE LIFE OF THE GREAT HERO, FOLLOWING HIS CA-
REER FROM THE CRADLE TO ITS CLOSE; WITH THE FULLEST
PARTICULARS OF HIS SHARE IN THE MEXICAN WAR AND
THE CIVIL CONFLICT OF 1861-65; HIS CAREER AS PRES-
IDENT OF THE UNITED STA TES FOR EIGHT YEARS;
HIS NOTABLE JOURNEY AROUND THE WORLD;
HIS TRIP TO MEXICO ; HIS LIFE IN NE W YORK,
AND THE SAD SCENES OF HIS LAST HO URS.



BY



^



"WILLIAM RALSTON BALCH

II
Author of " Lives of Gurfii-Id and Artliur," " GarfieM's Words," " Life of Winfleld Scott Haucock,'
" Lives <if Bluiiin and Logan," " The Red Jleii of America," "A Message from
the Sea," "The Battle of Gettysburg," etc., etc.



Ctopionsln Sllnstratcb.




PHILADELPHIA-

^TNA PUBLISHING COMPANY,

188S.



COPYP.IQHT BY WlI.I.IAM I'lALSTON BaLCH, 1885.



6 PREFACE.

praise. Success, power, fame, are the beacon liglits of ambition —
no one so humble as not to wish to wear them. And when each
and all of these are combined in the thread of one man's life, who
can tire of the story ?

It is this that makes Grant's life-history ever fresh and foscinat-
ing. It is the profound and universal interest awakened in him
because of the sorrows and shadows of his closing days that makes
it appropriate to tell the story now.

WILLIAM RALSTON BALCH.

Philadelphia, Summer of 1885.






PREFACE



rpiTE humblest citizen of the American nation needs no intro-
-^ (hiction to Ulysses S. Grant. His name, high graven on
tlie tablets of his country's honor, ranks inseparably with those
of Washington and Lincoln. It stands out far in the front, alone,
conspicuous, like some distant star of the first magnitude, so great
in itself as to overshadow and make commonplace its fellows.

Abraham Lincoln, who more than any monarch that ever wore
a crown deserved the title of " God-sent," found in the hour of his
country's greatest peril the instrument for his purpose — a soldier
equal for liis work, a warrior-leader able to save the State for which
he fought, able to direct to victory the mightiest armies the world
ever saw. Patient, unswerving, determined, Avise, Grant led the
liosts of the Union in the long and bloody road that led to the
altar of human liberty. No one opposed him successfully — none
detained liitu eventually ; destiny shaped his courage to the end
in view, and it was accomplished. He was the man for the crisis
—an instrumentality of the Divine purpose.

Grant's life combines every element of picturesque interest.
Valor and merit on the field of battle cannot fail to attract all men
—human courage is ever to be admired. Sagacity, gentleness,
generosity, determination, military genius, are qualities all can



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.



General Grant's ancestry — His father goes West — Marries— Ulysses born — The story
of the changed name — " Fick it again" — The school-boy — "Can't" not in the
dictionary — A load of logs — Home influences — The horse trade — Defending
Washington — " There's nothing like leather " — Enters West Point — A letter home
to mother — Impressions of Arnold's treason — Progress in studies — Offers to tan
hides — Graduates — A reminiscence — Enters the regular army — Is sent up Red
river — His modesty — A letter to Mrs. Bailey 25

CHAPTER II.

The Mexican war — Grant goes to Mexico — Palo Alto — Grant commended for
bravery — Resaca de la Palma— Monterey—General Scott enters the field — Vera
Cruz — Grant placed on the commander's staff — A letter home — Impressions of
Mexico — Mexican productions — Minerals — Birds — Battle of Molino del Rey —
Chapultepec — Brevet captain — A night of terror in the Mexican capital— Santa
Anna flees from the city — Scott takes possession — Peace 44

CHAPTER III.

Grant returns North — Is applauded in New York — Is sent to Detroit — Sackett's Har-
bor — Grant's love story — Meets Miss Dent — Engaged^Mnrried — Is .sent to Ore-
gon — Admiral Schenck speaks — Grant resigns — Becomes a farmer — An incident
— His attachment for his family — Words from a Southern clergyman — His library
— Turns collector — Wliy he failed to be a good one — His estimate of money —
Makes application for an engineer's oftlce — Becomes attached to the Custom
House — Removes to Galena — Politics — A pork story 55

CHAPTER IV.

Rumors of war — Votes against Lincoln — The fall of Sumter — Grant visits Mc-
Clellan — Is placed on the Governor's staff" — Is recommended for Brigadier-Gen-

(7)



8 CONTENTS.

cnl. but declines— Becomes Colonel of Twenty-first regiment— Becomes Brig-
adicr-Gcneral — Sent to southern Missouri — Takes possession of Paducah, Ken-
tucky — Advances against Belmont — Before Columbus — The " Cairo Expedition "
— (}rant protects property — Attack upon Columbus — Victory — On to Fort Donel-
son— A terrible fight— Floyd and Pillow make iheir escape — The surrender. 69

CHAPTER V.

Results of victory — Shiloh — A day of discouragements — A hard night's work —
IJeauregard retreats to Corinth — Victory for Grant — Slanderous reports — Halleck
shows his teeth — Advance against Corinth — Halleck snubs Grant — Halleck makes
a blunder — Grant establishes his head-quarters at Corinth — Suppression of the
Avitlanchf — Moves his head-quarters to Jackson — The struggle for luka — A Con-
federate letter — Grant thanks his soldiers — Hatchie river — Peace for western
Tennessee — A telegram from Lincoln 83

CHAPTER VI,

On to Vicksburg— The story of an important struggle — The defences of Vicksburg
—Base of supplfes at Holly Springs— Grant falls back to Grand Junction— Sher-
man and Porter proceed against Vicksburg— Unsuccessful attempts— Grant's de-
termination—An interview wi'ih Uncle Jesse— The man who wanted to see
Grant— A " brobosal "—Down the Mississippi— Badeau's description of a night
—Jackson captured— The siege of Vicksburg— The enemy in distress— Blowing
up the enemy's works— A flag of truce— Pemberton asks for Grant's terms of
surrender- Grant's reply— Pemberton offers an amendment— " Unconditional
•urrendcr " the only terms— Pemberton accepts— His treatment of Grant— The
surrender— Results of the victory— A tribute from Halleck 95

CHAPTER Vn.
MisMssippi opened to trade— Grant wants to attack Mobile, but is not permitted—
kcmforces Rosccran/.-An incident—" You may stop awhile, captain"— Grant in-
jured-Chick amauga-The Secretary of War telegraphs for Grant-Is given a
new comman.l— The struggle for Chattanooga— Pemberton's opinion— Battle of
l>«koul Mountain-" We've whipped 'em, general "-Congress presents Grant
with a gold mcdal-Is made Lieutenant-General— Recollections of Grant. . 113

CHAPTER VIII.
ne -rcnRlh of ,hc army-Grant states the strength of the Confederates-Position
of the Confederate army-In the Wilderness-Grant's proposed line of warfare
-Tb. Monrof a severe struggle-Advancing and retreating-Moving toward



CO^'TENTS. 9

Richmond — Some shrewd engineering — On the banks of the Chickahominy — A
terrible battle — Lee proceeds to Richmond — Grant proposes to lay siege to Peters-
burg — Mining the enemy's works^Grant receives a visitor — " No sanitary folks
wanted" — The expedition to Deep Bottom — The sympathy of Grant — His letter
to a lonely heart — Butler attacks Fort Harrison — A letter from the President — A
tribute from Scott — Philadelphia presents him with a home 128

CHAPTER IX.

{Preparing for a final movement — Lee attacks Grant — Jeff Davis receives a dispatch
— " Richmond must be evacuated to-night " — An exciting scene — Richmond oc-
cupied by Union troops — Lincoln visits Richmond — " Glory ! glory ! " — Grant pur-
sues Lee — Sheridan intercepts Lee — The latter flees — Grant pursues — His letter
to Lee — Lee's reply — Daring Custer — Appomattox — Lee's surrender — What
General Mahone said of the surrender — Lee's last order — A Union soldier's de-
scription of the closing scene of the war 145

CHAPTER X.

Grant's farewell to his soldiers — Makes a tour through the Northern States — His re-
ception at Galena — Makes a tour through the South — His view of its condition —
"General Orders No. 3" — Suppression of the Richmond Examiner — A recep-
tion by the leather dealers of New York — Is presented with ;$ioo,ooo — Recep
tion at Brooklyn Academy of Music — Is made General in the regular army — His
letter to General Ord 104

CHAPTER XL

Grant's opinion on the parole question — Grant appointed Secretary of War ad
interim — He opposes the removal of Stanton — Flis tribute to Sheridan — He re-
signs the position as Secretary of War — President Johnson scolds 173

CHAPTER XII.
Grant a President — The causes which led to his being nominated — His election and
votes — A summary of his political career — Some of the greater incidents of his
White House life — San DonungOT-^Finance-^The Alabama arbitration — The
Centennial Exhibition — The close of his public service — The third term — His
last message to the nation 181

CHAPTER XIII.
General Grant leaves Philadelphia — Entlnisiastic ovations — Across the ocean — In-
teresting incidents — Welcome to England — At Liverpool — Sights and scenes in
the great city — A tribute from the press — An incident — Departure for Manchester —
Grand reception — Arrives in London — Epsom races— Pierrepont gives a reception



10 CONTENTS.

—The freedom of the city of London— Reception by the corporation of London
—Grant at Kensington— A visit to the Queen— Off for Belgium 211

CHAPTER XIV.

Arrival at Brussels— Lucerne, Switzerland— Geneva — The Mer de Glace — Edin-
burgh— Tay Bridge— At the home of Sir Walter Scott— Glasgow— Brighton-
Paris " Palais d' Industrie" — McMahon gives a dinner — Grant at the tomb of

Thiers — The Mackey dinner and reception 228

CHAPTER XV.

The party reach Naples — Young's letter — Vesuvius as seen from the city — The road
to the mountain — The ascent — Overlooking Pompeii — A romantic picnic on the
lava — Glimpses of social and political life in Naples — A day among the ruins of
Pompeii — The city of Hannibal and Cxsar — The museum — The excavation —
Bronze Ornaments 245

CHAPTER XVI.

Off for Malta — Scylla and Charybdis — Among the scenes of Paul's travels — En
route for Alexandria — The Marquis— Alexandria — Henry M. Stanley — A call on
the Khedive — Meeting old friends 260

CHAPTER XVII.

Cairo and the Nile — Life on the river — Domestic scenes — Friends on the way —
Assiout — Tomb of the Kings — The home of Wasip el Hayat — Girgel — The
Libyan Desert — Grand old ruins — Isis and Osiris 276

CHAPTER XVIIL

Thebes — Luxor— The home of Rameses — Temples and statues — A Theban dinner
— Karnak and its wonderful sights — The Sacred Lake — Who was Rameses ? —
Resemblance to Lord Beaconsfie.d — Marks of the races 293

CHAPTER XIX.

Still ascending the Nile— Keneh— Eastern pottery— Domestic life — A visit to the
Pach.!— Assonan— The bazaars— Making purchases— Philre— On board a daha-
bceah— Memphis— The Serapcum— .\Iariette Bay— Among the tombs— Farewell
to Memphis oqq

CHAPTER XX.
Tlio Holy Liiid— Its sacred associations— General Grant's visit— Landing at Jaffa






CONTENTS. 11

Ramleh — Ride to Jerusalem — Triumphal entry into the Holy City — In and

around Terusalem — Walk over the Via Dolorosa — The garden of Gethsemane —
Damascus — Smyrna — Constantinople — A vLsit to the Sultan — A princely gift —
The slave market — The Mosque of the Sultan — Athens and the Acropolis —
Mars' Hill— Corinth 321

CHATTER XXI.

The Eternal City — Roman honors — Genoa — They return to Paris — Holland — Dutch
festivities — Berlin — An interview with Prince Gortschakoff — A visit to Bismarck
— Reviewing the troops — Copenhagen — Through the Black Forest — Sweden and
Norway — St. Petersburg — An interview with the Czar — Moscow — Warsaw — En
route for Spain ... 34-i

CHAPTER XXII.

A message from the King of Sjiain — San Sebastian — Vittoiia — Meeting the Spanish
King — The dead Queen — Madrid — The Escurial — The library — Tlirough the
royal apartments — Disappointed expectations — The tomb — Pliilip 361

CHAPTER XXIII.

Grant visits Toledo — The Cathedral — The work of the Moors — Pau — Fox-hunting
— An exciting occasion — The start — The meet — The finish — Lislxsn — Meeting
the King of Portugal — Literary efforts — Cintra — Montserrat — Portugal 7.'s.
Spain 370

CHAPTER XXIV.

Cordova-^The Mosque — They reach Seville — Grant visits the Duke of Montpensier
— The run from Cadiz — Gil:)raltar — Trafalgar — Doing Grant honors — Ireland —
Dublin — Reception by the Lord JLayor — Grant becomes an Ulster Irishman —
Ovations all along the line — Belfast — Off for India 379

CHAPTER XXV.

From Marseilles to Bombay — The Suez Canal — Alexandria again — On board the
Venelia — Landing at Apollo Bunder — The caves of Elephanta — Brahma, Vi>hnu
and Siva — The entertainment at Malabar Point — 'Visit to Jeypoor— Reception at
the palace — The Palace of Amber— The Taj — Beautiful scenes — Bhurtpoor. 387

CHAPTER XXVI.

rhey reach Delhi — Visit to the Kutab — Amid the scenes of the Sepoy rel)eIlion —
The sacred city of the Hindoos — Benares and its priests — Calcutta — At the Gov-



12 CONTENTS.

crnmcnt House— The University — The Viceroy's country-seat — The King of
Oude — Rangoon — Hindoo customs and society — The Pagoda 400

CHAPTER XXVH.

Down tlie straits of Malacca — Burmah — A letter from the King of Siam — They
reach Siam — A visit to the ex-Regent — The state dinner — An interesting occasion
— Canton — Dining with the Viceroy — The Menu — A pecuHar feast — Macao,
Swatow, and Amoy — Camocus — Hong Kong 41 1

CHAPTER XXVHI.

Shanghai — A glad welcome — A quiet Sabbath — An imposing scene — Li Hung
Chang — The Viceroy visits Grant — The fete at the French Consul's — Pekin — A
young emperor 424

CHAPTER XXIX.

Chefoo — Departure from China — Japan — Nagasaki — Prince Dati — A grand dinner
— The musicians — Yokohama — The palace — Reviewing the troops — Taking
leave of the emperor — Farewell speeches — Homeward bound 433

CHAPTER XXX.

General Grant and his party en route for San Francisco — Preparations for Grant's
reception— The first glimpse of tlie steamer — The entrance of the " City of Tokio "
— The landing — .A. grand procession — A magnificent scene — At the Palace Hotel
— A grand chorus — A clamoring people — General Grant speaks — Reception at
Tubb's hotel 45I

CHAPTER XXXI.

General Grant's party visit Yosemite Valley— In Oregon— Back to San Francisco—
The farewell banquet— In Nevada— A visit to the consolidated Virginia mine-
Souvenirs— Sutro Tunnel— Eastw*d— At Burlington, Iowa— At home in Galena,
111— A hcaity welcome— At Chicago— Indianapolis— Louisville— Cincinnati-
Columbus— pitisburgh—Harrisburg— Philadelphia— The journey complete— A
hcarly wclcyoie home— A rejoicing people— Childs' reception— Many other
''"""'* : 458

CHAPTER XXXH.
■n. t.ur— Start from Washington— The party— Columbia— Savannah—
' ■' -l^ivana— San Diego Los Banos— A native ball— Cuban slave

- ■''■^^^•^".^val—BulI.tighiing—Progresso— Vera Cruz— City of Mex-



CONTENTS. 13

ico — President Diaz — Mexican railroad schemes — San Antonio — Cherubusco —
Home again 47-"

CHAPTER XXXIII.

Grant settles in New York — He enters the mazes of business — The firm of Grant
& Ward — How the General was drawn into the whirlpool of disaster — An over-
whelming trouble — Vanderbilt's generosity — The astounding wonders of Ward's
rascality — A tale of turbulent trouble 505

CHAPTER XXXIV. /^

Grant's desperate illness — How the disease developed — His trouble a cancer in the
throat — The vigils of the doctors and a history of the case — The hero is bap-
tized — The love of the people — How he was watched and tended — The removal
to Mount McGregor — The sympathy of the world 527

CHAPTER XXXV.

Resting-place of the illustrious dead — Several spots proposed : West Point ; the
capital of the nation— Riverside Park, New York, chosen — Telegrams of sym-
pathy to the bereaved family — Sermon by Rev. Dr. Newman at the cottage at
Mt. McGregor — The funeral train on its way to New York — Scenes along the
way — The whole country in mourning — Arrival at Albany — Lying in state in the
Capitol — Arrival at New York— City Hall, New York City — The magnitic^.u
funeral cortege — The temporary tomb 557



f^



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



U. S. Grant (Steel) Frontispiece.



Page.

Grant's early Home at Point Pleasant, Ohio (Full page) .... 27

View from Military Academy at West Point ...... 36

Battle of Resaca de la Palma (Full page) . 45

Castle of Chapultepec (Full page) ....,..• 51

Scott's Entry into the City of Mexico (Full page) ..... 53

The Dent Homestead near St. Louis (Full page) 57

Grant's Home at Galena .......... 65

Grant's Departure for the War (Full page) ...... 68

Fort Sumter 70

Interior of Fort Henry .......... 75

Water Battery at Fort Donelson ........ 76

Commodore A. H. Foote ......... 77

Vicksburg — The Gibraltar of the Mississippi (Full page) .... 81

Pittsburg Landing ........... 84

Grant and Sherman at the Battle of Shiloh (Full page) .... 87

The Start for Vicksburg (Full page) 97

Grant Entering the Capital of Mississippi (Full page) .... 101

Surrender of Vicksburg (Full page) ....... 107

Cave Life in Vicksburg during its Siege 109

General George H. Thomas ......••• 116

(15)



IG LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Page.

Battle of Lookout Mountain (Full page) 119

Grant Receiving his Commission as Lieutenant-General (Full page) . 123

In the Wilderness (Full page) 133

Portrait of Lincoln • 136

General Winfield Scott 142

Sheridan's Final Dash to the Front (Full page) 147

View of Richmond 150

Surrender of General Lee (Full page) 155

View of Charleston 166

Capitol at Raleigh 167

Grant at the Close of the War (Full page) 172

War and Navy Departments (Full page) ...... 175

National Cajjitol at Washington (Full page) ...... 183

Senator Joseph R. Ilawley 185

Grant's Start for his Second Inauguration 188

North Front of the White House ........ 195

Great Corliss Engine of the Centennial Exhibition (Full page) . . . £03

Main Exhibition BuiUling ......... 204

Dom Pedro, Emperor of Brazil 205

American Line Steamer Indiana ........ 211

,^rrival of the Indiana at Queenstown 213

Scene on the Mersey near Liverpool . 215

Green Park 224

Furtification near Edinburgh ......... 232

Trafalgar Square ........... 234

The Tuileries and Louvre 238

DiMant View of Vesuvius , . . 246

Battle of Mount Vesuvius 249

The llcmiitnge 2-53

Ruin* at Pomjjcii "58

Kuin* at Malta 263

nou>ci.,i, and Batllcmei'ts at Malta ....... 266

View .f Alexandria . oen



18 LIST OF illitstratio:ns.

Page.

Catlicilral of St. Basil, Moscow 359

Mosque of Cordova 380

The Suez Caual 388

General Grant En-route for India (Full page) 389

Red Sea Entrance to the Suez Canal 390

Tlie Taj—" The most Beautiful Building in the World " (Full page) . 397

King's Palace at Delhi (Full page) 403

Pagoda of Rangoon (Full page) 409

Dancing-women of Siam ........•• 415

Sending Written Prayers to Heaven (Full page) 421

Tea Gardens of Shanghai (Full page) 427

Bridge at Pekin (Full page) 431

Japanese House of the better class (Full page) . ..... 439

Temple at Yokohama (Full page) 445

Nearing the Golden Gate, California (Full page) 453

General Grant and Party in a Nevada Mine (Full page) .... 461

Medal Struck in the Grant Parade at Philadelphia 472

Reception at Philadelphia (Full page) 473

Interior of Palace Car " President " 476

Pulaski Monument at Savannah (Full page) 479



En -route for San Diego



482



Travelling by Volante in Cuba (Full page) 487

Dancing the "Zapnteo" (Full page) 489

"A Leading Occupation" ...-••••• ^"^^

Progresso (Full page) ....-••••• ^"^

Grant's Residence in New York ^""

Tender Care of the Dying Hero (Full page) 533

Cottage at Mount McGregor ....'•••• ^'^'

Rev. J. P. Newman, D. D ^^^

Grand Central Depot, New York (Full page) 601

Front Entrance City Hall, New York (Full page) 6i 5

Maior-General Winfield Scott Hancock 607

:Mourning Decorations on Broadway, New York (Full page) . . . 609



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 17

Pack.

977
Oriental Bazanv

079
Eastern Donkeys

View of the Nile (Full page) 281

Tomb of the Kmgs -''^

I'asha Villa, occupied by General Grant (Full page) .... 285

'N7

Group of Bedouins '"^'

Ruins at Thebes (Full page) . . * -89

00 1

Ruins at Thebes ■^"^■*

The Plains of Thebes (Full page) 297

Kgvpiian Architecture -^^

Karnak '"^1

Hieroglyphics— a Battle-scene -^^^3

Hieroglyphics — Storming a City . . • 305

Totter at work ^^8

Arch near Keneh ........••• ^^1"

The Plains of Memphis (Full page) ........ 310

JitTa • 322

Peasant W'Dinan of the East ......... 323

Ramlch 324

.\n Ea-tern Dining-room .......... 328

\'ia D..lorosa 329

David's Tomb, Mount Zion C31

Valley of Jehoshaphat 333

Scene on the River Jordan 335

A Dancing-girl of Damascus 236

Constanlinople (Full page) 337

Exterior View of a Turkish House 339

Interiur View of a Turkish House 340

Tlic Acropolis at Athens 342

Venice (Full page) 347

Florence (I'ull page) 349

Ca»tlc in Germany (Full page) 355

Mountain Pass in Norway 357



LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES



OP



GENERAL U. S. GRANT.



(23)



Yanqiiisf^ES.



I.

Not by the ball or brand
Sped by a mortal hand,
Not by the lightning stroke
Wlien fiery tempests broke—
Not 'mid the ranks of war
Fell the great conqueror.

II.

Unmoved, undismayed,

In the crash and carnage of the cannonade —

Eye that dimmed not, hand that failed not,

Brain that swerved not, heart that quailed not,

Steel nerve, iron form —

The dauntless spirit that o'erruled the storm.

III.

While the hero peaceful slept
A foeman to his chamber crept,
Lightly to the slumberer came,
Touched his brow and breathed his name.
O'er the stricken brow there passed
Suddenly an icy blast.

IV.

The hero rose, undismayed,

Saluted death, and sheathed his blade.

V.

The conqueror of a hundred fields
To a mightier conqueror yields;
No mortal foeman's l>low
Laid the great soldier low ;
Victor in his latest breatli —
Vaniiuishcd but by death.

Francis T. Browne.



LIFE OF GENERAL GRANT.



CHAPTER I.

GENERAL GRANT'S ANCESTRY — HIS FATHER GOES WEST

MARRIES ULYSSES BORN THE STORY OF THE CHANGED

NAME — " FICK IT AGAIN " THE SCHOOL-BOY " CAN't "

NOT IN THE DICTIONARY A LOAD OF LOGS HOME

INFLUENCES THE HORSE TRADE DEFENDING WASH-
INGTON " there's nothing LIKE LEATHER " ENTERS

WEST POINT A LETTER HOME TO MOTHER IMPRES-
SIONS OF Arnold's treason — progress in studies —

OFFERS TO TAN HIDES — GRADUATES — A REMINISCENCE

enters THE REGULAR ARMY IS SENT UP RED RIVER

HIS MODESTY A LETTER TO MRS. BAILEY.

That branch of the Grant family from which the
famous General came was represented in Mathew Grant,
who landed on these shores in 1630. In the sixth gener-
ation from Mathew was Noah Grant, grandfather of the
General, who after the Revolutionary War migrated to
Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, where, in January,
1794, Jesse R. Grant, father of the lamented General, was



Online LibraryWilliam Ralston BalchLife and public services of General Grant: → online text (page 1 of 39)