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aries, and asked that resident priests be sent to them*.
In this manner, with priests and soldiers, the cross and
the sword, France pushed her way into the heart of
the Dutch possessions. But the Amsterdam directors
of the West India Company saw more than missions
in this invasion of their rights, and warned Governor
Stuyvesant to be on his guard. The old warlike spirit
of the Iroquois had not greatly changed. Some con-
verted Hurons were massacred; Governor D'Aille-
bourst of Canada retaliated by imprisoning some
Iroquois whom he had captured, and the faithful labors
of the priests were all undone. The Indians, anxious
for the safety of their imprisoned warriors, begged
Father Le Moyne to go to Quebec and obtain their
release. This he undertook to do, but going by way
of Fort Orange, he paid a visit to New Amsterdam,

* In justice to the Indians, it should be said that
when the "presents" from Canada began to fail, and
Frenchmen began to act very much like Dutch traders,
their regard for Christianity grew cold.



1665] Xo Fre:n^ch Colonies tx Xew York 165

where he made the acquaintance of Dominie Mega-
polensis, as Father Jogues had done before him *.
Here he tarried too long. The Indians became uneasy,
and the French at Onondaga fearfuh

Inviting all the Indians to a feast which was pro-
longed to a late hour, the French, while the Indians
slept, abandoned everything, and softly stole away to
Canada.

For many years thereafter missionaries continued to
enter the Iroquois territory; but this was the end of
French attempts to plant colonies within the bound-
aries of the State. In the next year, 1659, the whole
Iroquois confederacy was at war with the Canadians.

About the only pleasant remembrance of this at-
tempt to plant a French colony in our State is the fact
that while across the Atlantic religious intolerance was
at its very worst, in America popish priests and Re-
formed Dutch dominies w^ere showing each other
Christian kindness.

'" French arms in New York, 1665.— Louis XIV
did not by any means abandon his attempt to retain at
least that part of Xew York which borders on the St.
Lawrence. Year by year the contest was renewed.
In 1665 a thousand veteran French soldiers were sent
over under command of Marquis de Tracy. He as-

* Good resulted from this visit. Through Father Le
Moyne the Dutch first heard of the salt springs;
through his influence a sort of commercial treaty with
New France was negotiated. This treaty was for trade
with the French only. It very expressly stated that
the Dutch should not trade with the Canadian Indiana
nor " meddle with religious affairs ".



166 The Jesuits and French Arms [Period IV

cended the Sorel*, and at the rapids built Ft. Cliambly.
A little above that he built Fort St. Theresa, and
later, on Lake Champlain, Fort La Motte.

From these garrisoned places, he was a-ble to carry
on his campaigns. He succeeded in making a treaty
with all the Iroquois except the Oneidas and the
Mohawks. These he determined to humble, and he
was finally successful, but not until he had received
abundant proof of their prowess in battle. After this,
missions were again established among all the tribes,
and they seemed for a time entirely alienated from the
English.

Frontenac gOYernor of Canada^ 1672. — In 1672
Count Frontenac was appointed governor of Canada.
He was one of the most prominent soldiers of France.
His orders were to "clear Xew York of the English
and unite Canada with Louisiana ", and he set about
his work in earnest. Unfortunately, he quarrelled
with the priests, whom he accused of caring more
for pelts than for souls, and this caused his temporary
recall.

De La Barre governor of Canada^ 1682. — De

La Barre, who succeeded Frontenac, found the Iroquois
ready to break their treaty with the French and again
become allies of the English. This had come about
through their jealousy of certain western tribes with
which the French had made treaties, and also through
the successful management of English agents sent
among them for that purpose.

Invasion of New York. — De La Barre decided at

* Named from the French engineer, Saurel.



1687] Friendship of the Iroquois Sought 167

once to punish the troublesome Iroquois. With an
army of 1,750 men he marched to attack them; but
his troops suffered so much from famine and conse-
quent sickness that he was obliged to treat for peace
with the very tribes he had come to exterminate.

For this purpose he invited the Iroquois chiefs to
meet him in his camp for a " talk '\ Only three of
them came. Garangula, the chief of the Onondagas,
was one and to him the " talk " was addressed. De
La Barre reminded him how powerful the French were,
and that they lived in peace with the Algonquins.
He accused the Iroquois of being in league with the
English, and threatened entire extermination if they
did not forsake them and join the French.

Garangula knew the condition of De La Barre's
troops and was very bold. He said, " We Iroquois go
where we please; we buy and sell what we please.
Your allies are slaves; command them, and not the
Iroquois." He further plainly intimated that De La
Barre with his troops had better return to Canada, or
the Iroquois, with " Corlear " (Van Curler) would go
with them.

De La Barre's failure led to his recall in 1684: and
De Xonville was appointed governor. He entered
upon the same undertaking as his predecessor, with
more disastrous results, being ambushed and defeated
with great loss. In 16.S7 he, also, was recalled and
Frontenac was returned.

The friendship of the Iroquois was now industri-
ously sued for by both parties. Frontenac, on his part,
sent to them Millet, a French priest, who had lived
many years among the Oneidas. He succeeded in



168 The Jesuits aj^d French Arms [Period IV

winning over to' the French both the Oneidas and the
Cayugas, while the other tribes maintained their alle-
giance to the English.

King William's war, 1689-1697.— The English
revolution of 1688 brought additional trouble to all
the American colonies. The struggle which had been
inter-colonial, now became international.

Louis XIY having espoused the cause of the fugi-
tive James II, England and France were now at war.

Nations attack each other through their colonies*.
In this country King William's war was but an inci-
dent in the long struggle between France and Eng-
land for the possession of the continent. In this way
the eastern colonies became involved in what had here-
tofore been New York's quarrel only.

Fronteiiac invades New York, 1690. — The first
heavy blow fell on the Mohawk Valley. In February,
1690, a force of French and Indians were sent with
orders to attempt the capture of Albany. The first
attack was made on Schenectady, then a village of
about 80 houses, surrounded by a stockade. The
weather was intensely cold, the snow deep, and the
villagers were off their guard. The assault came at mid-
night. Sixty-three persons, including the little gar-
rison, were massacred, many were carried into captivity
and the town was destroyed. A few escaped, nearly
frozen, to Albany, gave the alarm there, and saved
it from destruction, f

* As in the Cuban war, 1898, the United States took
Manila.

t This was during Leisler's administration and oc-
casioned the call for his colonial congress. See page 127.



1696] Fken-ch I^-vasioi^s 169

In January, 1693, Frontenac assembled an army at
Fort Chambly, on Lake Champlain, and again invaded
the Mohawk country. Peter Schuyler marched against
him with a force of mililtia, and the French were
obliged to retire.

For three years longer the Iroquois, standing between
the two combatants, suffered more than either of them.

Fronteuac's last invasion^ 1696.— In the summer
of 1696 the restless Frontenac made his final invasion.

He rebuilt Fort Frontenac, w^hich had been destroyed,
and marched up the Oswego river with 2,200 men, —
regulars, Canadians, and Canadian Indians. Before
this force, the Onondagas were compelled to retire.
The tribes were in such extremity that they were
obliged to depend on the English for food. In this
invasion Frontenac gained little, while the English,
by their management entirely recovered their control
over the wavering minds of the Indians.

Frontenac, now an old man, was carried on a litter by
his soldiers. In 1698 he died and with him went, in a
large measure, the power of the French in Xew York.

Meantime, in 1697, the treaty of Eyswyck had for a
short period brought peace between France and Eng-
land, and a grateful quiet came to the people of Xew
York who, from the founding of the colony, had hardly
known rest from strife.

SUMMARY

1. Character and work of Jesuit missionaries.

2. Effect of their labors among Iroquois.

3. English view of their purpose.

4. Fathers Rymbault and Jogues in Xew York.



170 Summary [Period IV

5. Father Jogues and Dominie Megapolensis.

6. Father Jogues's death.

7. Bressani and Poncet.

8. Labors of Father Le Moyne.

9. French attempt to plant a colony among Onon-
daga s.

10. Father Le Moyne's mission to Canada.

11. Jesuit priests and Dutch dominies.

12. De La Barre's invasion and Garangula.

13. Frontenac and Millet, 1688.

14. King William's war; origin of; effect in New
York.

15. Frontenac's invasion and burning of Schenec-
tady, 1690.

16. Frontenac at Fort Chambly, 1693.

17. Frontenac's last invasion, 1696; the Onon-
dagas.



PERIOD V
THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR,

1754-1763



CHAPTER XVIII
A Strife for Territory

Conflict becomes national. — In previous contro-
Tersies with France, Xew York had been the chief in
terested party. Her territory had repeatedly been in-
vaded, its integrity threatened, and across her borders
almost constant inroads of savage warfare had been
made, destroying her towns and hindering her growth.

In the difficulty now pending, New York was again
to be the greatest sufferer, but the territorial rights of
Great Britain and many of the colonies were to be
involved also.

French fortifications. — The far-sighted policy of
France had completely hemmed in the English settle-
ments, and looked forward to the ultimate extinction
of the power of Great Britain on this continent. The
lines of France extended from the mouth of the St.
Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico. Along the borders
of New York Forts Crown Point, Presentation, Fron-
tenac, and Niagara made a complete chain ; while the
Ohio, from its source to the Mississippi was navigated
only by French voyageurs, and was defended by strong

military posts.

(lU)



172 A Strife for Territory [Period V

English statesmen saw the growing danger. The
special interest of the colonies lay in the fact that by
many of their charters their possessions extended
indefinitely to the westward.

What was at stake. — The conflict began with the
attempt of Virginia to colonize the lands she claimed
on the headwaters of the Ohio. Xeedless as this war
seemed to men of that time, its purpose in the provi-
dential development of our country can now be plainly
seen. It settled forever the long pending claim of
French domination on this continent. It determined
that here should be established a great liberty-loving,
English-speaking nation, with complete toleration for
every shade of religious preference, in place of a threat-
ened dependency, governed in part by the king of
France, and in part by the Vatican at Rome. It de-
veloped the spirit of political and religious liberty;
it taught the colonies their power; it united them for
the great struggle against English oppression, and
against ecclesiastical interference which hindered their
expansion and growth.

The French in this country were few, as compared
with the English, but they were thoroughly united,
and amply aided by the home government; while the
English colonies had never acted in concert and had
for many years been engaged in rancorous controver-
sies with the mother-country.

The Albany congress, 1754. — In June, 1754, at
the suggestion of the English secretary of state, dele-
gates from seven colonies met at Albany to consider
the importance of forming a colonial confederation.
Chiefs from several Indian tribes met with them.




1754] The Albany Congress 173

At this congress, over which Governor DeLancey pre-
sided, the treaty with the
Iroquois was again renewed
(with the usual presents), and
Dr. Franklin jDresented a
plan for the union of all the
colonies, which was the very
germ of our present national
constitution.

The proposed plan of
union. — Dr. Franklin's
KKN.rAMm FRA.KMx. 1706-1790 ^j^^^ ^^g ^^ ^gj^ parliament

to sanction a union of all the colonies under one gen-
eral government, to be administered by a president
and council appointed by the crown, with a grand
council to be elected by the people of the several
colonies*. This plan of union was subsequently re-
jected by the colonies on the ground that it was too
aristocratic, and by the English government on the
ground that it was too democratic.

New York takes action. — Governor De Lancey
now became of real service in putting JS'ew York in
condition to meet the storm. From the assembly he
procured a vote to raise £5,000 for the immediate de-
fence of the colony, followed the next year by an issue
of bills of credit for £45,000 more. The assembly
also authorized the enlistment of 800 men, and made
other provisions for defence.

* It is a remarkable coincidence that this plan of
union was signed on the J^th day of July, the very day
Washington surrendered to the French at Fort Xeces-
sity, and twenty-two years before the adoption of the
Declaration of Independence.



174 A Strife for Territory [Period V

The Yirginia conference^ 1755. — In 1755 General
Braddock was sent over to lead an army of British
regulars against the French. In April he called a
conference of governors at Alexandria, Va., where a
plan for a campaign was agreed on. It was decided
to send out fonr expeditions. One was to recover the
valley of the Ohio; another to drive the French from
Fort Niagara; a third to attempt the capture of Crown
Point; the fourth to reduce Xova Scotia.

The first year of the war^ 1755. — Early in June
Braddock set out to take charge of the Pennsylvania
campaign, the objective point being Fort Duquesne.
This was a failure. Braddock lost more than one-half
of his army, and thus Xew York became the centre of
operations.

Governor William Shirley, who was to command the
expedition against Niagara, got no farther than Os-
wego, when, concluding to postpone operations for one
year, he returned to Albany.

Expedition against Crown Point. — For^the ex-
pedition against Crown Point,
.^^ General William Johnson was

selected as commander. His
departure was delayed until
August, thus giving plenty
of time for the French to
concentrate all their forces-
against him. When finally
he left Albany, he carried an
abundance of stores and ar-

SiR William Johnson, 1715-1774 tillery, and had Uudcr him a




1755] The War Begins 175

force of 3,400 whites and a company of Mohawks un-
der King Hendrick ''^ and Joseph Brantt, then a lad of
thirteen.

At Fort Edward were gathered the Xew England
troops under General Lyman and Colonel Williams,
wdth 250 Indians. On Johnson's arrival in the latter
part of August, 1755, the advance began toward Lake
George. The French commander had not been idle.
He had strengthened Crown Point by sending there
Baron Dieskau with a force of 3,000 men, 800 of
whom were French grenadiers. From Crown Point

* Hendrick, or King Hendrick, a famous Mohawk
chief, was killed at Lake George. He had visited Eng-
land, w4iere he had received much attention.





King Hendrick. 1690-1755 Joseph Brant. Thayendanegea

1742-1806

t Joseph Brant was one of the most noted Mohawk
chiefs. He was educated by Sir William Johnson, and
became his secretary. With Johnson, he espoused the
cause of the English in the revolution, and was a
leader in many of the terrible massacres of that period.
He opposed the sale of liquors to the Indians, and
assisted in translating a prayer-book into the Mohawk
language.



176 A Strife por Territory [Period V

Dieskau led a strong force of French and Indians in-
tending to capture Fort Edward and cut off Johnson's
retreat.

Battle near Lake George. — The advance guards of
the two parties met in an ambuscade planned by the
French. Both AYilliams and Hendrick fell at the first
fire, and a retreat toward the main body of the Eng-
lish was ordered. A desperate conflict followed,
Dieskau was early wounded and captured. Johnson
Avas severely wounded. Sometimes the advantage waa
with one party, and sometimes with the other, but in
a few hours the French began to yield ground, and
soon were in full retreat. They had lost 400 killed
and wounded ; the English 300. Crown Point had not
been taken but the French had been defeated. Neither
party was in a condition to renew the contest.

The Nova Scotia expedition succeeded in causing
great suffering, but did not greatly weaken the French*.

SUMMARY

1. The policy of France; her preparation for the
struggle.

2. New York's interests.

3. Interests of other colonies.

4. Relative condition of colonies and Canadian
French.

5. The Albany Congress of 1754; object and dele-
gates.

6. Dr. Franklin's plan of union; objections to it.

7. New York's action.

* Read story of "Acadians " in Longfellow's Evan-
geline.



1755] Summary 177

8. The Virginia conference.

9. The first year of war, 1755; plan of campaign
and results; names prominent in campaign.



CHAPTEE XIX



Three Years of FiGHTiis-CT, 1756-1758

War formally declared. — In May Great Britain
formally declared war against France, and sent over
the Earl of Loudon to take command of her forces
on this side of the Atlantic. The remnant of Brad-
dock's army was brought to X'ew York, and fresh levies
were made until the earl had more than 10,000 men
under his command.

Capture of Oswego. — The French now sent over
to Canada as commander Marquis Montcalm, a field

marshal of France, who be-
gan operations at once. His
Indians poured into the val-
ley of the Mohawk, and took
the forts about Rome. They
captured the supplies in-
tended for Oswego, and were
soon before the forts at that
place. Its outposts were
taken, and their guns turned
on the main works, when the
surrender of the fort became necessary. Its gallant
commander. Colonel Mercer, had fallen after a brave
defence, in which many men had perished. The re-
mainder of the garrison, 1,600 men, including the
brave Philip Schuyler, were prisoners of war. *

(178)




Philip Schuyler. 1733-1804



1757] SURREJ^DER OF FORT WlLLIA^I HeI^RY 179

The consequences were most serious. The fort held
immense stores which had been carried there at great
expense, and with these went 120 cannon, six vessels,
300 boats, and the money intended for the payment of
the troops.

The French, instead of retaining Oswego, removed
all the guns and stores, entirely demolished the works,
and abandoned the place.

The third year^ 1757.— This year was to be
marked with even more incompetence on the part of
the British. The Earl of Loudon (see portrait, page
184), finding nothing to do in New York, left affairs in
the hands of Governor DeLancey, and took command
of the expedition against Louisburg, which proved a
disastrous failure.

General Webb with a force of 6,000 men was expected
to conduct a campaign against Montcalm, now well
established on Xew York soil. Webb's first act was
so to scatter his force as to make it an easy prey to the
watchful Montcalm, who soon appeared on Lake
Champlain.

Siege of Fort William Heury.— Advancing to
Lake George with 8,000 men and a train of artillery,
Montcalm laid siege to Fort William Henry, garrisoned
by 500 men under Colonel Munro. A large force of pro-
vincials was encamped within easy supporting distance,
and General Webb with 4,000 men was only fifteen
miles away at Fort Edward ; but no aid was sent to
Munro, whom Montcalm summoned to surrender. He
refused and sent to Webb, begging for re-inforcements.
Webb's only reply was a letter to Munro, telling him
that he had better surrender; and this, when his guns



180 Kecall of the Earl of Loudon [Period V

had become useless, and his ammunition was exhausted,
he was obliged to do.

Montcalm promised complete protection to all pris-
oners, but this he either neglected, or was unable to
give, and the greater number of the garrison were
murdered by the savage Indian allies of the French.
Fortunately for General Webb, Montcalm did not
advance farther, but turned his attention to the
Mohawk Valley, which was once more laid waste*.
Thus, in disaster, ended another year's campaign.
Pitt to the rescue. — The most fortunate event of
^^■■^^^^ the year 1757 was the recall

^^^Hj^^^^^^^ of the Earl of Loudon. The
.^^HHi^^9H^^k king was alarmed at seeing,
M^m thus far, but two results of
IJ^H the war; his troops had been
^Bl defeated, and the provincials
were growing more convinced
of their superiority over the
-^«m^s»B-'^ English. William Pitt was

WILLIAM Pitt, Earl OF Chat- ^ow made premier in the
HAM. 1708-1778 hope that he could retrieve

the fortunes of his country. His only promise to the
king was, " Give me your confidence and I will deserve
it," while he won the regard of the Americans by say-
ing, " We need their cooperation, and to receive it we
must be just to them."

The fourth year^ 1758. — The old plan was again
adopted. The three points of attack were Louisburg,

* At Palatine village forty were murdered and 250
taken into captivity.



I



1758]



Attack o:n^ Ticonderoga



181




James Abercrombie. 1706-1781



Ticonderoga, and Fort Duquesne. The colonies were
soon ready. Xew York furnished 3,000 men. Twelve
thousand more under Amherst were destined for Louis-
burg, and with him was the
immortal Wolfe. General
Abercrombie and Lord Howe
with 7,000 regulars and 7,000
Americans advanced against
Ticonderoga, and General
Joseph Forbes was to lead
another army against Fort
Duquesne. Amherst and
Wolfe were successful. The
islands of Cape Breton and
Prince Edward were taken after a campaign of only
two months.

Deatli of Lord Howe.— General Abercrombie and

^« Bfe Lord Howe were in the for-

^Kgm' ests about Lake George, and

^■Hk with them was the largest

>^^^^p- ^ ft^i * ^I'lny Xew York had ever

seen. Lord Howe com-
manded a regiment only, but
his courage, and his court-
esy to the American officers
won their regard, while his
early death gave a touch
of sadness to his career.

The energetic Colonel Bradstreet had everything
ready for the transportation of the army to the north-
ern end of Lake^ George. The landing was safely



rt-




Lord George Augustus Howe,
1724-1758



182 Capture OF Fort Frontenac [Period V

made at dawn of the next day, and Lord Howe at
once advanced with his regiment. The country was a
tangle of forest and stream; they became bewildered
in the thicket, met a French scouting party and were
fired upon. The French were defeated with consider-
able loss, but Lord Howe was mortally wounded, and
the whole army retreated to the landing place.

Repulse at Ticoiideroga. — Abercrombie had not
yet learned respect for the opinions of the " Pro-
vincials ", and hearing that Ticonderoga was defended
by a small force only, ordered its assault, although
Stark had reported that the works were very strong
and needed artillery for their reduction. Xo attention
was paid to this advice; the assault was made, and the
assaulting column was repulsed with heavy loss.

Having now needlessly lost 2,000 men, Abercrombie
ordered a retreat, which soon became a rout, with the
commanding general at the head. Later it was found
that he had been opposed by only 2,000 men, and had
he taken Stark's advice might easily have carried the
war to the St. Lawrence.

Capture of Fort Frontenac. — The daring Brad-
street, after much solicitation obtained permission to
attempt the capture of Fort Frontenac, as an offset to
the shameful defeat just sustained. AVith him went
Major Philip Schuyler, and they were allowed 3,000
men and artillery. With this small force. Brad street
proceeded to Oswego from Albany, and from that post
in open boats across Lake Ontario to the vicinity of
the fort. So rapid had been Bradstreet's movements,
the French had not been able to re-enforce the small



1738] Bright Outlook for the Colonies 185



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