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acres; the St. Regis (4)14,640 acres*; the Tuscaroras
(1) 6,249 acres. Of the Oneidas remaining a part live
near Green Bay, Wis., and a part are " guests " of the
Onondagas and other tribes. The Cayugas are scat-
tered among the different tribes, the larger part living
with the Senecas at Cattaraugus.

The number of Indians in the State in 1890 was

* These entered the league after the Revolution tak-
ing the place of the Mohawks.

To 1500] Reseryatioxs 27

5,133, of whom nearly 3,000 could not speak English.
They have 12 churches and 30 schools, and they fur-
nished 162 soldiers and sailors in the War of the

In July, 1898, at the annual Convocation of the
Regents of the University of Xew York, the very valu-
able collection of wampums in the possession of the
Indian chiefs was formally turned over to the State for
preservation, and will hereafter be carefully preserved
in the capitol at Albany.


1. Reasons for interest in.

2. Tribes in Iroquois Confederation ; origin of name.

3. Nature of their union.

4. Location of tri])es and character of each.

5. Their government.

6. Their dwellings and manner of life.

7. The Algonquins and lesser tribes.

8. Relation of each to early colonists.

9. Character of Indians.
10. Indian reservations.


Exploration's, 1496-1614

Europe's interest in tlie new world. — While
other nations had heard of, half believed, but hesitated,
to Spain must be given the supreme honor of being
the first to accept and act upon the magnificent con-
ceptions of Columbus.

Portugal, from having discovered and explored the
Azores, claimed everything to the west of them. Ac-
cording to the custom of the times the dispute was
referred to the Pope, and Alexander VI very benevo-
lently gave to Spain "all those heathen lands found
or to be discovered to the westward of a meridian one
hundred leagues westward of the Azores ". The news
of the great discovery, the interest created by the
controversy over it, aroused the maritime spirit of all
Europe. The grandiloquent Spaniard was not to be
left in undisputed possession of one-half the earth.
The Pope's decision bound no one, and English, Dutch,
Spanish, and French were soon in violent competition
for the empire of the west.

Yoyages of tlie Cabots^ 1496.— On the 5th of
May, 1496, Henry VII of England commissioned John
Cabot, a Venetian, to carry the English flag and make
explorations in the Atlantic and Indian oceans, and to


14l)6-Ul)8] The Cabots 29

take i)ossession of all lands, whether islands or conti-
nents, discovered in the name of Gjeat Britain. John
Cabot was w^ell qualified for the great work entrusted
to him.

On the 2-J:th of June (1496),- Cabot first saw the
gloomy headlands of Labrador, and this was the actual
discovery of the American continent. He explored
the coast for several hundred miles, saw no inhabitants,
but went ashore and, taking possession in the name of
the king of England, he raised, side by side, the flags
of England and Venice *.

Like Columbus, he supposed he had reached the
shores of Asia. John Cabot returned to England, and
was honored for his enterprise, but beyond this we
know nothing of him.

Sebastian Cabot, 1498.— The next record of Eng-
lish discovery speaks of Se-
bastian, the second son of
John Cabot, who, in 1498,
with a squadron of well
armed vessels followed the
course of his father. West
of Greenland he encountered
ice and turned his course to
the south. He traced the
shores of the Xew England

as far as Cape Hatteras, from which point he began his
homeward voyage.

The voyages of the Cabots were later supplemented

^^ This was more than one year before Columbus saw
the mainland of South America.



[Period II

by those of Frobisher, Sir
Francis Drake, Sir Walter
Raleigh and others. On
these voyages and discoveries
England based her claim to
territory in America. In the-
charters she granted, in the
colonies she sent ont, and
in her disputes with other
nations, England steadfastly
siH fkancis Drake. io4(j-io% maintained her right to all
the mainland as the result of these explorations.
y err az alio, 1524-. — In 1524 Francis I of France,
not ignorant of the impor-
tance of giving attention to
the regions in the newly dis-
covered west, engaged Ver-
razano, a native of Florence,
Italy, to explore on his be-
half. Somewhere near Cape
Hatteras, it is claimed that
Verrazano sighted land. He
■'. - \ ^ It J then turned to the north and,

' * ^ '*■ on his way, entered New York

GIOVANNI UA \',.K...AZANo 1 4s,.-i.v>7 ^^^^^^^ ^^^ asccudcd thc Hud-

son. Returning, he coasted along the southern shore of
Long Island, saw Block Island, which ho called Claudia,
in honor of the king's mother, and subsequently entered
the harbor of Newport.

Discredit has very frequently been cast upon Ver-
razano's claims. The only account of his voyage was
written by his brother in 1529 in a letter to Francis I.
It was accompanied by a map, and was preserved for
many years at Rome.

1524-1009] Champlaix; Hudson 31

Jacques Cartier^ 1534. — Ten years later, Jacques
Cartier, also under French orders, while in search of
a passage to India and Cathay entered St. Lawrence
gulf and rive^;. He sailed up the river, passed the
heights on which Quebec now stands, then westward
and southward till the rapids barred his further prog-
ress toward Cathay. A steep hill on the nortnern
bank Cartier named Mount Royal, and at its base has
grown the city of Montreal (Mont-Real.)

Our interest in Cartier and his voyages of explora-
tion must centre in the fact that he was the pioneer in
l^ew France, — a region from which our State subse-
quently suffered many depredations.

Cliamplaiii and Hudson^ 1609. — It is fortunate
that the names of two men Avho visited our shores at
about the same period have been permanently recorded
in the history and geography of New York. Their
discoveries are worthy of the immortality their names
have secured. Lake Champlain and the Hudson river!
Unrivalled in beauty, associated with every chapter of
our early history, they remain perpetual reminders of
the men whose enterprise first made our State known
to the outside world.

Samuel de Champlain, an eminent French navi-
gator, was commissioned to
explore and prepare the way
for a colony on the banks of
the St. Lawrence. He landed
at the present site of Quebec
in 1603. In order to secure
the friendship of Canadian
Indians he, with a few other
Frenchmen, Joined them in
samtel de Champlain. 1567-1635 1609 in an expedition agaiust

32 Explorations [Period II

the Huron-Iroquois Confederacy. From the St. Law-
rence they ascended the Sorel river to the " Lake of
the Iroquois" (Lake Champlain). They met the Iro-
quois between Crown Point and Lake*George, where
the fire arms in the hands of the French won an easy
victory for the invaders.

Later, with a party of Frenchmen, Champlain en-
tered into an alliance with these Canadian Indians
against the Iroquois. They penetrated well into the
interior of Xew York and a battle was fought in the
vicinity of Syracuse, in which Champlain was wounded,
defeated and compelled to retreat. He is often called
" The Father of Xew France " (Canada), and his pub-
lished account of his explorations did much to attract
settlers to the future State of New York.

Through Champlain's influence a party of Francis-
can friars came to Canada in 1615 and began their
work among the Indians. These were followed in
1625 by some Jesuit Fathers, and before the middle
of that century these brave, self-sacrificing men had
planted missions all about the lakes, and had even
made their way to the Onondaga salt springs, — the
first white men to visit that part of our State.

Following in the steps of the missionaries, Marquette
and Joliet skirted our State in 1672, on their way to
search for " The Great River of the West", of which
they had heard through the Indians; and in 1679 La
Salle, then commander of Fort Frontenac (Kingston),
set out to secure possession of the Mississippi country
for the king of France.

1603-1G09] Hexdrick Hudsoin- 33

Hendrick Hudson was an English navigator. In the
service of a company of Eng-
lish merchants he had made
two voyages in search of a
shorter passage to China,
with the usual results. Still
believing the problem could
be solved, he went to Hol-
land and offered his services
to the Dutch, then the most
enterprising maritime power

HENDRUK UX'DSOX. 1550-1611 • ;1 11

m the Vv'orld.

Here he obtained command of a small vessel, the
Half Mooiv^, was furnished with a crew, half English,
half Dutch, and in the month of April, 1609, again
set out, this time from Amsterdam, commissioned to
explore a passage to China by the north-east or the
north-west. He first sailed to the north-east and, after
a stormy voyage, in May reached the Cape of Xorway,
where he found the sea so full of ice that his crew
compelled him to turn to the west. It was July when
his battered vessel reached the banks of Newfoundland,
where he was for a time becalmed. Then sailing still
to the west he came at last to Penobscot Bay. Con-
tinuing to the south and west, early in September
Hudson entered Xew York Bay.

Xo vision of the empire to which this was the gateway
ever dawned upon his mind. Xo voyager had as yet com-
prehended the vast area of the American continent,
and doubtless anyone of them would have bartered all

* For picture of this, see Hendrick 's Brief History,
page 12.



[Period II

his discoveries for a narrow channel to the Pacific.
In September the volume of water in the Hudson
^^i/ river is so very small it seems a

tide- water channel, and no doubt
to Hudson it appeared the long-
sought-for passage. He sailed
up the river until its fresher,
shoaling waters showed him his
mistake, and in the vicinity of the
site of Albany he turned back.

Again past the beautiful Cats-
kills, through the Highlands,
over the charming Tappan Zee,
by the castellated Palisades, and
out the Xarrows, Hudson sailed,
never again to behold what he
well called " The fairest land the
foot of man ever trod*".

On the fourth of October,
1609, Hudson set sail for Hol-
land. Pride in his discoveries
led him to stop and report them
in England. His ship was al-
lowed to proceed, but Hudson,
himself, was detained by royal order, virtually a pris-

* It is interesting to remember that at this time
Champlain was only a hundred miles away in the for-
ests to the northward ; that neither was aware, perhaps
never knew of the presence of the other and yet; on
the explorations of these two men rival nations were
destined in after years to claim the territory embraced
within the State.

1009-1612] Dutch Enterprise 35

oner. His tragic death a few years later at the hands
of a mutinons crew in the frozen bay which he also
discovered, has helped to immortalize his name.

Dutch enterprise^ 1609. — In this same year (1609)
Holland had achieved independence and taken her
place among the sovereign States of Europe.

For the first time in her history she had been allowed
by Spain the free navigation of the seas and the privi-
lege of trade with India. This gave a fresh impulse
to Dutch commerce, and soon trading ships began to
visit the lands discovered by Hudson.

In 1610 a Dutch ship, manned by some of the sailors
who in the Half Moon had visited the " River of the
Mountains ", was on its way across the Atlantic, laden
with trinkets for trade with the Indians. Their trip
was successful, and in 1611 Hendrick Christiaensen
and Adrian Block made the same voyage, bringing
back with them two young Indian chiefs. The suc-
cess of this venture emboldened three wealthy mer-
chants of the city of Amsterdam to make a further
A^enture, and in 1612, two other ships. The Fortune and
The Tiger ^ were fitted out and entrusted to Chris-
tiaensen and Block for the continuation of this profit-
able traffic on the "Mauritius" river, as the Hudson
then began to be called.

Block's ship. The Tiger, was unfortunately burned.
This made it necessary for him to remain over winter
to build a new one, which he was able to do from the
timber found on the island of Manhattan ^.

* It is customary to date the settlement of New
York from this year (1612), when, to protect his sailors

36 Explorations [Period II

Block's explorations. — In the spring of 1613, in
this ship, which he named The Onrest (The Restless),
Block proceeded to explore to the eastward. With his
small vessel he was able to pass through Helle-gat
(Hellgate) into Long Island Sound. Here he explored
the shores and inlets and discovered the Connecticut,
which from that day was called East River. Later he
visited Narragansett Bay and gave his name to Block

Proceeding to Cape Cod, Block fell in with Chris-
tiaensen, and returned to Holland in The Fortune^ leav-
ing his own ship in charge of Christiaensen's brother,
Cornelius. The return of these two now famous
navigators still further stimulated a spirit of adventure,
and in the spring of 1614 many ships visited the new
trading posts established about ^"ew York Bay. In
small sloops the adventurous traders penetrated every
creek and bay, and carried on a profitable traffic with
the natives.

Christiaenseii builds Fort Nassau^ IGll. — In

this year (1614) Christiaensen ascended the "Mauri-
tius" to a point a little below the present site of Al-
bany, where the Indian trail from the west struck the
river. Here on Castle Island, as a protection for his
men and a storehouse for merchandise, he built a small
fort which he called Fort IS'assau *.

from the cold, Block built huts on the southern point
of Manhattan Island. This was but temporary, and
when the Onrest was ready for sea the huts were

*The fort was injured in a flood soon after and was

1613-1614] Summary 37

summary explorations

1. Portugal; Spain; the Pope, and the Azores.

2. Object of explorations of that period,

3. England and the Cabots. Frobisher; Drake;

4. Verazzano; Cortier; Champlain.

5. Henry Hudson. His voyages and discoveres.
Importance of.

6. Marquette and Joliet.

7. Claims of England, France, and Holland; ground
and justice of each.

8. Dutch traders. Block. The first ship built in
Xew York.

9. Explorations to the eastward.
10. Christiaensen. Fort Xassau,



The Dutch in Xew York, 1614-1626

Dutch trade.— What had been accomplished thus
far was the result of private enterprise, entirely for
commercial purposes. Xo governmental sanction had,
as yet, been given to the undertaking, no national grant
or charter or recognition lay behind the movement.
The profits from the trade with the natives were enor-
mous, and the search for a shorter passage to the Indies
was soon forgotten in the prosecution of the new

The number of ships annually visiting the trading
posts was increasing. Monopolies are not a modern
invention, and the time soon came when one company
wished to appropriate to itself the benefits from this
profitable traffic.

First charter from the states-general. — In 1614
the states-general^ (Dutch Republic) granted to an
Amsterdam company, for three years, the exclusive

-'^ Extract from " Resolution of the states-general (of
the United Netherlands) on the Report of the Dis-
covery of Xew^ Netherlands."

" Saturday, the 11th of October, appeared before
the Assembly, the Deputies from the United Company


1614-1617] FiEST Charter axd Treaty 30

privilege " to frequeut the newly discovered lands lying
between Xew France (Canada) and Virginia (the Eng-
lish colony)."

New Netherlaiid. — This charter, the first formally
to define the Dutch possessions in America, consti-
tuted a distinct claim to the territory described, and
was the first to designate it by the term " Xew Xether-
land". It was, however, superseded in 1621 by a
more distinct charter granted to the Dutch West India
Company, a company which, to all intents, ruled Xew
Xetherland until the coming of the English in 1664,

The treaty of Tawaseutha^ 1617.— In the year
1617 the trading post on Castle Island (Fort Xassau)
was abandoned, and a more advantageous location was
found at the mouth of Xorman's Kill, — in the lan-
guage of the Mohawks " The Tawasentha ". Here on
the bluff now covered by the city of Albany a new
trading post was established, and here in that year
(1617) was made the first formal treaty with the Iro-
quois, — a treaty renewed by Kieft in 1645 and observed
by both Dutch and English until the Revolution.

of Merchants who have discovered and found Xew
Netherlands, situate in America, between New Fraiice
and Virginia, the sea-coasts whereof lie in the Latitude
of forty to forty-five degrees. And who ordered a Re-
port of their said Discovery and finding, requesting,
in consequence, the Grant promised by their High
Mightinesses' published placard.

" Deliberation being had thereon, their High Mighti-
nesses have granted and allowed, and hereby grant and
allow, the Petition that they alone shall have the right
to resort to or cause to be frequented, the aforesaid
newly discovered countries situate, etc., etc." — N. Y.
Col Doc. I, 10.

40 Dutch Rights to the Territory [Period III

Representatives from all the Iroquois tribes were
present ; and with them were delegates from the Mohi-
cans, the Mincees, and the Lenni-Lenapes *. Here,
"in the vale of Tawasentha ", the pipe of peace was
smoked and a tomahawk buried in soil over which the
Dutch promised to build a church " so that none
might dig; it up again."

In making this treaty the Dutch were wiser than
they knew. Their thought was chiefly with reference
to a profitable trade, but as these Indians were sup-
plied with fire arms, they subsequently proved of im-
mense advantage as allies against the aggressions of the
French on the north.

The Dutch rights.— The Dutch did not fail to
understand that their claims in the new world would
be disputed.

The French were in possession of the St. Lawrence
and all the region about the great lakes. The English
had now (1620) planted settlements at Plymouth and
Jamestown, and for nearly one hundred years vSpain
had been in undisputed possession of all the shores
and islands about the Gulf of Mexico; but no one had
entered upon the region discovered by the Dutch, and
of which they had taken formal possession. They
were aware of the charter granted to the Plymouth
Company in 1606, and they knew that it covered the
whole of ]^ew Xetherland from the Connecticut to the
Delaware river.

Sir Ferdiiiaudo Gorges aud Dermer. — In 1619
an event occurred which still further endangered the

'S^ These were subjugate tribes and held to be a
" nation of women ".

101?-162()] Claims of Sir Firdtnakdo Gorges -tl

Dutch possessions. During that year Captain Thomas
Dermer, employed by Sir Ferdinando Gorges, set sail
in a small pinnace from Kennebec, Me., for Virginia.

Sailing through Long Island Sound he entered ]^ew
York Bay. Meeting here some Dutch traders, he in-
formed them that they were " trespassing " on English
territory, and "forbade them", as Gorges reported,
" to trade or settle in those parts.'' On reaching Eng-
land, Dermer reported what he had done, and boldly laid
claim to being the first to have passed through the
Sound. On the strength of this. Gorges petitioned
the king that the territory " discovered '' might be
called " Xew England ", and asked that " the bound-
aries be settled from forty to forty-five degrees of
north latitude and from sea to sea."

In 1620 this prayer was granted, and a " council "
of forty (including Gorges), called the " Council of
Plymouth ", was appointed " for the planting, ruling
and governing of ^ew England." All this was done
notwithstanding the French and Dutch had for some
years been in undisputed possession of much of this
territory. The powers granted to this council were so
vast that they excited the suspicions even of parliament.

By the conditions of this grant not a ship could
enter a port from Xewfoundland to Philadelphia, not
an immigrant could land, not a pelt be purchased of an
Indian except by consent of this company. Parlia-
ment ordered an inquiry, but the king stood by the

The British ministry brought the matter to the at-
tention of the states-general, demanding that the West
India Company "vacate these possessions."

To this order no attention was paid. The Dutch

42 First Permaxext Settlement [Period III

continued to ply their trade from the Connecticut to
the Delaware and for a number of years the claim was
not pressed.

The Walloons. — Until 1623 there had been no per-
manent settlements established. All w^ho had come
were traders. They had lived in huts clustered about
the trading posts on Manhattan Island and at Albany.
They did not clear the forest nor till the soil, nor did
they bring their families, but they expected one and
all to return to Holland. It was soon found desirable
to establish a colony of agriculturists, who could pro-
duce the food now procured from the Indians or brought
across the ocean. Fortunately there was a people
anxious to come. These were the Walloons. They
had originally come from the southern provinces of
Belgium. When the northern provinces of the United
Netherlands had formed their union in 1597, the AYal-
loons had declined to join the confederation.

These people were of French extraction, and spoke
the French language. Some of them were Protes-
tants, and as they found themselves the subjects of
most bitter and unrelenting persecution from the
Spaniards they had removed to Holland. They were
mainly artisans, and proved a most valuable accession
to the population of that country, much of the fame
of Dutch manufactures being due to their skill.

They had asked permission to settle in Virginia but
this request the English had denied; and when the
West India Company invited them to locate in New
Xetherland they gladly accepted.

In the spring of 1623, thirty families, 110 souls,
arrived at New Amsterdam. They were a hardy, in-

1623] Governor May 43

dustrious, virtuous people. It would hare been ditticult
to find in all Europe a better class of settlers for that

The Dutch West India Company, never generous,
neither gave nor sold them lands ; they became tenants,
very nearly servants, but they remained in the colony,
a most desirable nucleus for the future State.

Their names still linger among the best families on
Long Island, and Brenckelen (Brooklyn), Waalboght
(Wallabout), and other towns to this day remind us of
these first permanent settlers.

With the Walloons came Cornelius Jacobson May as
"commander"^. He was to remain as first ''gover-
nor " or " director " with Adriaen Joris as second in
command. The settlers were scattered to different
points as pleased the directors of the company. A
few families went to South River (Delaware) ; eighteen
families in charge of Joris were sent up the Hudson
to the present site of Albany and built Fort Orange ;
a few settled on the west shore of Long Island at a
point which they called Waalboght (Wallabout).

Administration of Grovernor May, 1623.— May's

administration was brief but efficient. On the very
day of his arrival, he found in the harbor a French
ship whose captain was about to set up the arms of
France and claim the country for his king. May drove
him out and followed him to the Delaware, where he
attempted the same ceremony. May again sent him

* May had made his first voyage to these shores in
1(313 in command of The Fortune^ and Cape May bears
his name.

44 Governor Vekhulst [Period III

to sea, after which May built on the Delaware a small
log fort which he named Fort Nassau *.

This incident showed plainly that the French would
not without a struggle abandon their claim to the ter-
ritory of New Xetherland. After serving one year,
Governor May was succeeded by William Verhulst as
second director of New Netherland, who also served
one year. He w^as followed by Peter Minuit, who
arrived in January, 1626 f.


1. The first voyages to New York.

2. The first Dutch charter, 1614. Nature of.

3. Name New Netherland.

4. The second charter and the Dutch West India
Company. Privileges granted.

5. Treaty of Tawasentha, 1617. Value of.

6. French, English, Dutch, and Spanish claims.

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