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1823 chancellor. He then returned to Columbia, and

Reuben Hyde Walworth 521

published his " Commentaries on American Law from
1826 to 1830, since then a recognized authority.
Reuben Hyde Walworth^ last chancellor of the
State, and called by Joseph
Story the greatest equity jur-
ist living, was the son of a rev-
olutionary officer and himself
a colonel in the war of 1812.
He was in congress from 1821
to 1823, judge of the fourth
district 1823 to 1828, and
became chancellor in 1828
until the abolition of the

Reuben Hyde v\ alworth,

1788-1876 court iu 1848. Like Ben-

tham in England, he simplified and reformed the laws
of equity, and his manuscript volumes of decisions
were the basis of many of the standard reports.

New York ix Literature

Before tlie revolution. — Time was, when men
said, " Who reads an American book ? " The question
is no longer asked. The whole world reads American
books, for they are translated into every known
tongue. Xew York does not claim primacy in litera-
ture, even in American literature, but she has had
writers in every period of her history who have made
lasting contributions to the world's literature.

William Bradford, the first printer in New York
(see pages 132, 152), came to
New York city in 1693, and
the first thing printed was a
small folio volume of the
laws of the colony. He is-
sued the first newspaper Oct.
16, 1775, the New York Ga-
zette, a weekly journal print-
ed on a small half foolscap
sheet. Zenger's newspaper,
wiLLi^^i liHA.i. OK., 1663-1752 ^^^ ^^^ york Joumal, ap-
peared on Nov. 5, 1733, and attacked the government,
which Bradford, as government printer, supported.
Hence the famous libel suit. See page 152.

Colonial period. — In the Dutch colonial period.
Dominie Megapolensis, Van der Donck, and De Vries
wrote accounts of American affairs which were pub-
lished and read, but of which copies are now very rare.
In the English colonial period. Governor Cadwallader
Golden (see page 194) wrote much, and his " Letters
and Memoirs" are the source of our most accurate
knowledge of his times. He wrote of men and things


Before the REvoLUTro:^r


as he knew them during his long residence in Xew
York. His estimate of the men of his time is
usually just, though his views are sometimes colored
by his loyalty to England.

Sir William Johnson (see page 174) at about the
same time contributed a valuable account of the man-
ners and customs of the Iroquois Indians, whom he
knew as no other white man had ever known them.

In 1757 William Smith published his "History of
the Province, of New York ", a book that is still much

William Livingston (1723-1790) a graduate of Yale
college, was a prolific writer and the author of at least
one poem that has survived the century and a half
since its publication. It was entitled " Philosophic
Solitude", and is in the style of Dryden.

Revolutionary period. — Lindley Murray (1745-
1826) published his English
Grammar in 1795. It marked
an epoch in the study of the
English language.

The occasion begets the

man, and the revolutionary

period brought out many

writers worthy of mention.

Philip Freneau (1752-1832)

was of Huguenot parentage.

His writings were generally

controversial, and on political subjects, but he was also

the author of many of the popular ballads of his time.

One poem, " The Wild Honeysuckle ", is still quoted :

" Fair flower that doest so comely grow

Hid in this silent dull retreat."

Lindley Murray, 1745-1826


New York li^^ Literature

Washington Irving

William Dunlap (1766-1839) was the son of an Irish
soldier, who came to this country with General Wolfe.
He wrote comedies, and, best known of all, a " His-
tory of Xew York ", a most excellent book, still found
in many libraries.

was the first author to make
American literature known
to the world. His literary
work began while he was
assisting his brother Peter to
publish the "Morning
Chronicle ". His Knicker-
bocker's History of New
York was the first work that
attracted general attention.
His later writings have been
widely read and deservedly
praised. They are distinctively American, and deal
so largely in New York traditions as to give them a
strong local coloring. They may properly be called
the first American classics.

James Fenimore Cooper also found his themes largely
in local traditions. His
" Spy " was, until the recent
publication of " Hugh
Wynne ", the best tale of the
revolution. It is full of the
spirit of those stirring times,
and its hero, Harvey Burch,
had a real counterpart in
Elijah Hunter, a New York
jamesFenimoukcoopkr, 1789-1852 soldier, who for more than

Washington Irving. 1783-1859

Irvikg, Cooper, the Carey Sisters, Halleck 525

four years served Washington in the character of a spy.
William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878, see page 394)
York's most distinguished poet, " The Wordsworth of
America", began his career in Massachusetts, as did
the Carey sisters in Ohio, but ail three early removed
to New York and here found their inspiration and
poured out their songs. Here, too, Lydia Maria Child
found a larger field for her talents as essayist and cor-

Alice Carey, 182U-1871

Fitz-Greene Halleck, 1'

Joseph Eodman Drake (1795-1820) and Fitz-Greene
Halleck were the " Castor and Pollox " of American
literature. At twenty-two Drake wrote " The Culprit
Fay ", a poem full of pictures in the Highlands of the
Hudson. The strong friendship between these two
men is touchingly portrayed in Halleck's poem, written
soon after the early death of Drake, in which occur
these perfect lines:

" Green be the turf above thee,

Friend of my better days —

None knew thee but to love thee.

None named thee but to praise."


New York in Literature

John R. Brodhead (1814-1873), born in Albany,
was the great-grandson of an English captain who
came to this country in the expedition against New
Netherland in 1664. He wrote the best history of
Colonial New York that has ever been produced. He
searched the libraries of all Europe for his material
and discovered several valuable manuscripts, the exist-
ence of which had been hitherto unknown. Those
who since his time have written of those events have
found him the highest authority. His history, in two
volumes, coming down to 1691, is a monument alike to
his talents and to his patient industry.

On two accounts, at least, Walt Whitman, will always

deserve mention in any ac-
count of American writers :
he served as a volunteer
nurse inthe hospitals
about Washington during
almost the entire period of
the war, and he wrote " My
Captain" in which he
voiced the dispairing grief
of the nation over the
death of President Lincoln
as no other writer has ever been able to do.

The New York movement. — Birds have their
songs and their time for singing, but they build their
nests and sing their sweetest notes where food is abun-
dant. They migrate and take their songs with them.
The poet may try his voice in solitude, but once assured
of an audience, he dearly lo^es the associations of
kindred spirits, and comfortable surroundings.

Walt Whitman, 1819-1892

Group of New York City Authors 527

Edgar Allan 1'oe, 1809-1849

Bayard Taylor, 1825-1878

Richard Henry Stoddard. 1825 — Edmund Clarlnc l stedman. 1833—


Nathaniel Parker Willis. 1806-187T William Dean Howells, 1837—

528 New Yokk in Liteeature

New York city, as the centre of wealth has gradually
attracted to itself the literary talent of the other

About the middle of this century a most remarkable
literary migration took place. To New York came
Edgar Allan Poe, Bayard Taylor, Eichard Henry
Stoddard, Edmund Clarence Stedman, Thomas Bailey
Aldrich, George Henry Boker, Thomas Buchanan
Read, Richard Watson Gilder, and Edgar Faucett.
Later came William Dean Howells.

Besides these the State has always abounded in
writers whose contributions to the press have had wide
recognition and have exerted an influence in the culti-
vation of taste and the formation of public opinion.
Among such may be counted George P. Morris, Na-
thaniel P. Willis, Mordecai Noah, Horace Greeley,
James Gordon Bennett, James Watson Webb, Henry J.
Raymond, James and Erastus Brooks, Richard Henry
Dana, senior and junior, and many others.


The Xew York of 1900

The Empire State. — While in size New York
now ranks as the 23d State, in population, in wealth,
in manufactures, and in commerce, she ranks first.
Nowhere else in the history of the world has such a
population been gathered, in the same time, on 49,-
000 square miles of territory, and nowhere else has
any people developed an industry so varied, yet with
no one branch dominant.

Whatever civilization needs New York will produce.
Her farms are rarely devoted to the production of one
staple. In her factories is spun the finest silk, and in
her foundries is produced the most ponderous

To her history all nations have contributed. Its
roots struck deep in the soil of early European immi-
gration, and its branches have been spread to every
wind under heaven.

Her peaceful farms only place in more vivid contrast
the din of her great cities, and all her quiet fields de-
scend to valleys through which may be seen the black
trail of the locomotive bearing east and west the pro-
ducts of her industry.

The New Yorker toils, but he enjoys life. He loves
to accummulate wealth, but he also loves to distribute
it. He reaps the harvests of the world, and founds


530 The Xew York of 1900

an asylum for the unfortunate with the fruit of his
labors. At evening, the merchant prince rushes from
his place of business that he may have an hour of day-
light with his family or among the roses in his garden;
while in a thousand shaded parks, provided at public
expense, the mechanic and his family make holiday
when work is done.

An hour in any public library (and almost every vil-
lage has one) will show a locomotive engineer or brake-
man looking up a problem in mechanics or a factory
hand deep in a question of economics; while every
high-school or college commencement finds the sons of
the day laborer and of the millionaire side by side.
From the farm and the forge boys pass to the pulpit
or to congress. In politics New Yorkers recognize the
power of a boss, but the number of independent voters
is so great that when any important issue is involved
they can change the complexion of a national admin-

In religion, New York is catholic in the highest de-
gree. From Van Twiller to Roosevelt, she would never
endure a fettered conscience.

Any denomination may teach and preach and convert
and build churches. It will be free, and all its prop-
erty will be exempt from taxation; but on the public
schools it must not lay its hand, and to its support
must not go one dollar of the State's money.

In church and state New York has known many
leaders; but no teacher, preacher, or statesman was
ever so great that his doctrines went unchallenged.

An intelligent foreigner coming to our shores for the
first time, if asked to give his impressions of New

The Xew York of 1900 531

York, would surely name, as among its most pleasing
natural features, our magnificent bay, land-locked,
large enough to contain the navies of the world; the
*' lordly Hudson" with its reflected mountains, the
charm of its hundred lakes and rivers, its wide valleys
and graceful, rolling table-lands, its delightful pan-
oramas of forest and field, of farm and hamlet and
town, which with every hour of travel greet the vision.
From the salt marshes of the Atlantic coast to the
gorge of Niagara there is variety, everywhere.

Were he asked what of man's work pleased him most
he would point to the shipping at the wharves, the arch
that joins the twin cities of the metropolis, the ele-
vated railroads traversing streets of air, the subter-
ranean rivers that bring the waters of a county to
supply the needs of a city, the palatial steamers that
crowd all the channels of communication, the railroads
over which millions of passengers are annually carried
in comfort and safety, the cities that have sprung up
along the whole course of these, the comforts in the
homes of the workingmen, the churches, schools, hos-
pitals and asylums, where wealth finds its appropriate
sphere and philanthropy its chosen field of labor.

Were he asked to state what in the institutions of
New York seemed most worthy of commendation, he
would surely mention the public school system, which
places a college preparatory education within the reach
of every child, rich or poor; the complete separation
of church and state; the absolute equality of every
man before the law, and the right to be defended by
competent counsel though he have not a dollar in the
world; an elective judiciary; a secret ballot.

532 The New York of 1900

The student who loves to trace to their sources the
many tributary streams of historic sequence will per-
ceive that the institutions of New York have to a very
great degree been determined by the character of
those who first settled the State.

To Holland we owe much. From her came the free
school, the open church and religious toleration. To
her we are indebted for the equal right of every citi-
zen to share in the government and of every child to
the same portion of the father's estate. From Hol-
land came those ideas of the dignity of labor which
have made it possible for the son of the poorest man
to aspire to the highest position in the State.

From the early English settlers came a courage that
has rendered the greatest enterprises always possible;
a steadfast honesty that has made action to attend on
duty; a love of exertion that has made competition an
inspiration ; a generosity that has made the unfortun-
ate of every class the first care of the State.

To the steady stream of immigration from every
old-world country New York has been indebted for an
army of laborers who have built her railroads, digged
her canals, constructed her State and municipal build-
ings and made possible her rapid sanitary improve-
ments; whose children, taken into the public schools
and taught the English language, American history
and literature, have become her defenders, often her
political leaders, and always the staunch lovers and
supporters of her institutions. To this cosmopolitan
character of her population is due that even balance
between political parties, which has so often driven

The Xew York of 1900 533

one from power and entrusted the government to the

The highest possibilities are always attended by the
greatest dangers, the love of achievement has always
been shadowed by the greed of gain; but he who in
the history of our State has failed to discover a
steady growth toward higher ideals, a purer faith, a
broader charity, a deeper, stronger love for our peculiar
institutions, has not read aright the lessons of the
past. He who does not see opening before us as a
people wide vistas of future patriotic labors, has re-
ceived no inspiration from the lives of those heroes and
sages who guided the early fortunes of the Empire

Conclusion. — For the present our historical studies
must necessarily close with the year 1900.

The true student of history feels that he is a part
of all the past, as all that has gone before has minis-
tered to what now is. But these studies will be barren
of results if they fail to give us a keener interest in
the events of to-day as the basis of that which is to be.

It has often been said that the past fifty years have
been the most remarkable in the history of the world.
This is possibly true, but all signs point to a develop-
ment quite as remarkable in that period upon which
we are just entering.

No real student can have failed to observe how im-
portant, thus far, in shaping the history of our country
has been the share of our own State. It is probable
that its influence will not be less in the years to come.
In the grave questions concerning territorial expansion
now pressing for solution, the voice of New York will

534 The New York of 1900

command attention. If the great isthmian canal is
built, New York enterprise and New York capital will
predominate in it.

At home there were never before so many matters
being brought forward for legislative action. What
may be called " paternal legislation " is in the ascend-
ant. Compulsory attendance on school, the nature
and extent of the studies to be pursued there; the
guardianship of public morals by curfew ordinances
and prohibitory legislation; the rights of workingmen
expressed in laws regulating hours of labor and time
of payment of wages; efforts toward the reformation
of the criminal classes and the guardianship of the
unfortunate by all sorts of eleemosinary institutions;
restrictions upon the public press in the direction of
individual rights and public morals; demands for State
aid toward all sorts of public improvements; the
rights of municipal governments and their separation
from general legislation ; enforcement of sanitary pro-
visions; the guardianship of fish and game in the
interest of sportsmen; the preservation of forests;
the establishment and care of public parks; the
disposal of city sewage; the contamination of the
water in our creeks, rivers, and lakes; the protec-
tion of public health; the military equipment of the
State; all these and many more questions will be
brought up for settlement. This is an age of law-
making, but laws do not always reform abuses. Some-
times they fail of enforcement and proper reverence
for law is lost.

In all these matters an intelligent study of history
will furnish instructive examples, and often safe


Counties of Xew Yokk

In 1683 the general assembly of the province erected
the following ten counties:

1. New York (named from the duke's own title),
included Manhattan, Banning's, and the Baen Islands.

2. Westchester (from Chester in England), all the
land east of Manhattan as far as the "government
extends" and northward along the Hudson to the

3. Dutchess (from the duke's wife) extended from
Westchester to Albany and " eastward into the woods,
twenty miles ".

4. Orange (from the Prince of Orange) extended
from the Xew Jersey boundary north to Ulster and
" westward into the woods as far as Delaware river".

5. Albany (from the Scotch title) included all the
territory on the east side of the Hudson ".from Roelef
Jansen's creek and on the west side from Saugerties to
Saraaghtoga ".

6. Ulster (from the duke's Irish earldom) included
all the towns on the west side of the Hudson from the
Highlands to Saugerties.

7. Richmond (from the Duke of Richmond) con-
tained all Staten Island

8. Kings (in honor of King James) included Brook-
lyn, Bedford, Bushwick, Flatbush, New Utrecht, and


536 Counties of ^"ew York

9. Queens (in honor of King James's wife) contained
Newtown, Jamaica, Flushing, Hempstead, and Oyster

10. Suifolk (from an English county) included the
remainder of Long Island.

In the succeeding years the following counties were
organized :
11-12. Montgomery, Washington 1772

13. Columbia 1786

14. Clinton 1788

15. Ontario 1789

16-20. Herkimer, Tioga, Otsego, Rensselaer, Sar-
atoga 1791

21. Onondaga 1794

22. Schoharie 1795

23. Steuben 1796

24. Delaware 1797

25-27. Chenango, Oneida, Rockland 1798

28-29. Cayuga, Essex 1799

30. Greene 1800

31-32. Genesee, St. Lawrence 1802

33. Seneca 1804

34-35. Jefferson, Lewis 1805

36-39. Allegany, Broome, Franklin, Madison 1806

40-43. Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Cortland,

Niagara 1 808

44-45. Schenectady, Sullivan 1809

46. Putnam 1812

47. Warren 1813

48-49. Hamilton, Oswego 1816

50. Tompkins 1817

51-53. Erie, Livingston, Monroe 1821

Counties of New York 537

54-55. Wayne, Yates 1823

56. Orleans 1824

57. Chemung 1836

58. Fulton 1838

59. Wyoming 1841

60. Schuyler 1854

61. Nassau 1898


Portraits are indicated by a star: quotations from, by q.


Abercrombie, James 181*, 182

abolition of slavery. .259, 416, 417. 430

aborigines of New York 17

Acadians 176

Adams, Charles Francis 409

John 242, 322, 331*

and Jefferson 329

John Quincy 385*

Adirondack park 459

Aix-la-Chapelle, treaty of 158

Albany 39, 42, 43. 101. Ill, 132,

137, 168, 182, 307, 369, 489, 503

congress, 1754 172

county 535

Evening Journal 394, 512

Herald 394

normal college 499

regency 380

threatened 127

Alden, Colonel 281

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey 528

Alexander, William 235*

Algonquins 22

Allen. Ethan 226, 310

allodial lands 405

Alsop, John 216

amalgamation of races

189, 222, 529, 532

American flag first hoisted 268

ships 252, 304

simplicity 307

Amherst, Lord Jeffrey 184*, 185

Amsterdam 489

chamber of deputies 471


Amsterdam company chatered... 38

(Fort) 45

Anabaptist 93

Andre, Major John 291*

and Arnold 294, 504

and Nathan Hale 294

capture of 292*^

Andros, Sir Edmund

114*, 117, 122, 124, 503

imprisoned, 1689 124

Annapolis convention, 1786 317

Anne, Queen 139*, 155

Anthony, Allard 104

Anthony's Nose 252, 273:

anti-federalists 318, 327, 336, 380

anti-rent troubles.. .401, 405, 406, 511
anti-slavery sentiment.. 389, 398, 411

appointive officers 258

appropriations 485

Arbor day 464

aristocrats 126

Arkport 282

Armstrong, Major John 300*

Arnold, Benedict... 226, 250, 267, 289*^

and Andre 294

relieved of command 271

treason of 289, 296

valor of 273

armies disbanded 440

Arthur, Chester A 455*, 456

assembly 558

dissolved 472

meeting, 1772 210

members of 338. 405


540 Prentice' s History of New York State


attendance ofiBcers 475

Atwood, William 138

Axel, Count Oxernstiern 62

Backerus, Dominie 78

Baen island 535

ballot, secret 531

Baltimore 361

convention 408

Bancroft, George P 426

bank, first State 333

of New York 333

Banning's island 535

barn-burners 402, 408

Barnard, George C 447

Barre, Isaac 202

Bascom, Ansel 406

battle flags collected 463

Baum , Colonel 270

Bayard, Nicholas Ill, 125,134

Bedford 535

Bedloe's island 462

Beeckman, Gerardus 147

Bellomont, Earl of 133, 206

bell-ringer of Dutch New York. . 92
Bemis Heights, battle of .269, 271, 289

Bennett, James Gordon 394, 528

Bennington, battle of 270

Benson, Egbert 257*, 318, 321

Bentham, Jeremy 521

Berkeley, Lord 105, 114

Black, Frank S 477, 478*

Friday 446

river canal 373

Rock 354

Blaine, James G 461*

blanket ballot 476

Bleeuw, Francois C 85

Blennerhasset affair 341

blizzard of 1888 464

Block, Adrian 35, 36

island 36

houses 189

Bloomer, Mrs. Amelia 406

boards of education 499

Bogardus, Dominie.. 56, 72


Boker, George Henrj' 528

Book of Mormon 376

Bouck, William C 401*

boundary disputes... 80, 106, 151, 309

Bout well, George B 446

Bowling Green meeting, 1795 329

boycott recorded 213

Braddock, General 174, 178

Bradford, Governor William 48*

William (printer).. 132, 152, 522*

Bradstreet. Colonel 181, 182

Brandy wine, battle of 276

Brant, Joseph 175*, 287, 288

Breda, peace of 108, 109

Breton, Cape 181

Bressani, Joseph 162

bribery at elections 449, 450

bricks from Holland 90

British army in New York 239

prisons 252

property, seizure of 220

sailor always a British sailor.351

squadron in New York City. 234

Brockholls, Anthony 116

Brodhead, John R., history... 489,.526

Brooklyn 43, 46, 489, 535

bridge 459, 487

in 1760 191

Brooks, Erastus 528

James 528

Broome, John , 349

county 311

Brown, Colonel 288

General Jacob. 353*. 355, 356. 357

John 312, 419*, 508

Browne, John 2.56

Bruce, John W 465

Bryant, William Cullen. 394*, 426, 525

Buchanan, James 417*

bucktails 381

Buffalo 307, 353, 363

convention, 1848 409

building and loan associations.. 463

Bunker Hill... 251

burgher government 77. 79

burghers 82




burgomaster 82

Burgoyne, Gen. John 260, 264*

advance of 269

surrender of 274

Burke, Edmund 202*

Burnett, Governor William 149*

Burr, Aaron 229,244,

326, 329, 333, 338, 339, 330, 342*

a fugitive 341

— tried for treason 341

Burr-Hamilton tragedy 340

Burton, Mary 154

Bushwick 535

Bute, Earl of 195, 198*

Butler, Benjamin Franklin.. 409, 519

Walter N 281, 282

Butler's Rangers 263

Cabot. John 28

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