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later very materially changed the conditions there. It
would no doubt be nearer the truth to say that the
blending of the two peoples in the future metropolis
of this hemisphere, by restraining the one and liberaliz-
ing the other, produced a more desirable, because a
more rational type of civilization.

New England has produced a remarkable race of
men, not because of her narrowness but in spite of it,
and because of the character and enviornment of her
early settlers. New Netherland produced a people
different in almost every trait of character, but more
in harmony with the lines along which our country
ha,s developed.

Why New Netherland failed as a Dntch col-
ony. — New Netherland was a purely commercial en-
terprise, founded by a commercial company, for com-
mercial purposes, and was governed from Holland for
the benefit of the company that founded it. The
people were always loyal to their fatherland, never to
the corporation that ruled them ; and of all the agents
sent out as governors, not one secured the confidence
of the people. The taxes paid by the colonists were
heavy, and were neither voted by themselves nor paid
out by their direction.

Personal enterprise was not fostered, for it would
interfere with the company's gains. The common
people were not in sympathy with the baronial rights
given the patroons. The English colonies were for
the most part purely English, but New Netherland

96 Xew York IN Stuyvesant's Time [Period III

was cosmopolitan, the greater religious freedom there
having united men of all nationalities. This last, an
element of weakness then, has, in late years, con-
tributed to make a State which has both fostered liberty
and compelled prosperity.


1. New York in Governor Stuyvesant's time. The
houses, their furnishings, the people; education, cus-
toms; religious toleration.

2. Comparison between the Dutch and the Xew

3. The Waldenses ; origin, character, and emigration.

4. The Huguenots; origin, character, and emigra-

5. Why Xew Xetherland failed.


LoLis XIW H588 1715
REUiNED lt>48-171n

The Crime agaixst Holland

Charles II of Eiiglaiid.— At this period, all
,.,.-■■'■ , Europe was on the brink of

most bloody wars. Louis
XIV, of whom it has been said
" there was stuif enough in
him to make four kings and
an honest man ", was king
of France, but he swayed
one-half of Europe.

Among all who came un-
der his influence there was
not a meaner nor a more
insincere monarch than Charles II of England. An
exile and a wanderer for many years, he had at thirty
been recalled and placed upon the throne. He brought
with him no proper sense of his position, and his reign
was the most execrable in the history of England.

James Duke of York. — There was at this time no
real ministry in England. All her foreign affairs were
managed by a council appointed by the king, while
parliament was even worse than the king himself.
Charles II had a brother, James Duke of York and
Albany, afterward James II, who, although having
more ability, was even more unscrupulous. His chief
passion was a burning hatred for Holland.



The Crime against Holland [Period III

James II, 1633-1701
Reigned 1685-1(

The Dutch West India Company had one rival, the
E y a 1 African Company,
and of this company James
was governor.

Several motives were be-
hind the proposed over-
throw of Dutch interests
in America. The immedi-
ate excuse was the loss to
the revenue of the English
colonies by the smuggling
practices of the Dutch,
^ext, the Duke of York could pay a long standing
grudge against the West India Company.

A third motive, which influenced the mind of James
and in time governed the actions of Charles (who
must be a partner, must sanction the crime and fur-
nish the necessary force of English ships and sailors)
was found in the colonial conditions of America.

Erance was the pioneer. She had pushed her way
up the St. Lawrence, and planted her settlements
thickly along its banks. England had prosperous col-
onies in Virginia, and along the New Eugland coast.
Between these, as a wedge, lay Xew Netherland,
occupying by far the most advantageous portion of all.
It boldly laid claim to all the coast from Cape Hen-
lopen to Montauk Point, and was in a position to secure
the lion's share of the inland trade with the natives.
Charles II saw that the safety of the English posses-
sions lay in connecting them all from Massachusetts
Bay to the Potomac.

The claims of different nations by right of discovery

1661] Conflicting Claims of Nations 99

also conflicted. Spain, by right of Columbus's dis-
coveries claimed it all. England claimed most of
North America from the voyages of the Cabots. But
occupancy as well as discovery had been held necessary
to confer a valid right. James I in granting his patent
in 1620, including all the territory between 40° and
48° of latitude, had in that charter explicitly stated
that it was not to " include any territory actually
possessed by any other Christian nation, prince, or
estate," and thus he clearly excepted both Xew France
and New Netherland.

No Englishman had entered the Connecticut river
or the Delaware bay when Hudson's discoveries and
Dutch occupancy were put forth as a valid claim to
the territory of New Netherland, and for forty years
the Dutch had been practically in indisputed posses-

Thus the case stood when Charles II was restored
to the throne. He had no sympathy with the New
England colonists; his restoration had been a serious
disappointment to them. Sorely against their will
they had acknowledged him king, yet Charles II did
not hesitate to make use of the differences between
these colonists and New Netherland, as one ground
for the claim which he proposed to put forth. He

1 was not seeking for truth, but for a suitable pretext to

\ seize New Netherland.

i Expedition against New Netherland. — At the

I risk of war with a friendly nation, in controvention to
the charter granted to New England by James I, an
expedition against New Netherland was ordered. The
Duke was given a patent to appoint and discharge all


100 The Crime against Holland [Period Til

officers; to execute martial laws; to regulate trade,
and to expel all persons living under his government
without license. In fact, this patent created James a
petty sovereign over the liv^es and property of a people
who rightfully owed allegience to another free and
independent power.

Charles had no more title to these lands than had
the devil to " all the kingdoms of the earth ", but in
those days " might made right", and Charles gave to
brother, Duke of York, "all those lands and rivers
from the west side of Connecticut river to the east
side of Delaware bay"*. The Duke lost no time in
giving effect to his patent.

In August, 1664, four ships with 450 soldiers under
command of Robert Nicolls were sent to enforce the
claim. Governor Stuyvesant was thrown off his
guard by a despatch from Holland informing him that
no danger was to be apprehended from the expedition,
as it had been sent out only " to settle the affairs of
the English colonists, and to establish Episcopacy",
which would be a benefit to the interests of Xew

The English squadron anchored below the Narrows ;
communication with Xew Amsterdam was cut off, and
several block houses were seized. Stuyvesant, hur-
riedly returning from an absence at Fort Orange,
demanded of Nicolls what the invasion meant. His
only reply was a demand for the surrender of the place.

* This included the whole of New Netherland and
a part of Connecticut, which Charles had two years
before confirmed to Winthro23 and his associates.

1664] Xew Amstekdam becomes New Yokk 101

This was accompanied by a proclamation declaring
that all who would submit to his "majesty's govern-
ment" should be "protected by his majesty's laws
and justice, and peaceably enjoy their property."
Stuyvesant kept these terms from the people and pre-
pared to defend himself. A meeting of the burgomas-
ters and citizens being called, the terms became known,
and the people showed that they did not intend to
stand by the governor. Indeed, some of them said
the Dutch West India Company was not worth fight-
ing for. The next day Governor Winthrop of Con-
necticut appeared and advised Stuyvesant to surrender.

It was evident that he stood alone. Men, women,
and children flocked around and urged him to give up.
His only answer was, " I would rather be carried out
dead! " All his soldierly spirit rebelled at the thought
of surrender. But dominies, schouts, burgomasters,
schepens, and eighty-five of the principal citizens,
among them his own son, joined in an appeal to him
not to bring bloodshed upon the city, and at last the
old veteran yielded. On the following Monday morn-
ing, August 26, 1664, Stuyvesant, at the head of his
little garrison, marched down to the water side and
embarked for Holland. The English flag was hoisted
over Fort Amsterdam and the name was changed to
Fort James. Nicolls was proclaimed "governor for
the Duke of York", and it was directed that there-
after the city of New Amsterdam should be called
Kew York.

The reduction of other settlements rapidly followed.
Fort Orange soon capitulated, and its name was
changed to Albany. The Swedish settlements on the

102 The Crime against Holland [Period III

Delaware gave more trouble, but were finally subdued.

All this was done while England and Holland were
at peace. Judged by all righteous standards, it was
a monstrous national robbery, with hardly a parallel
in modern history. Yet out of it all came, in process
of time, a higher good not contemplated by those who
wrought the crime; this was the final unification of all
the American colonies in preparation for the great
struggle with England, when should be formed a new
nation, combining within its govenment all that was
best in the constitutions of the old.

Governor Stuyvesant, after his return from Holland,
where he answered every charge against him, settled
upon his estate on East River. He lived to an ad-
vanced age. His remains lie in the venerable church
of St. Marks in the City of Xew York^.


1. King Charles 11. His character.

2. James Duke of York. His character.

3. Motives for the overthrow of Dutch authority in

4. Importance of New Netherland to England.

5. Charles's grant to the Duke.

■6. Its conflict with the charter of Connecticut.

7, The expedition and its commander, 1G64.

'8. The surrender of New Netherland.

9. The dark side, the bright side, of the change.

10. Death of Stuyvesant.

* For a picture of his tombstone, see Hendrick's
History, page 25.


Xew Yoke a Ducal Provijn"ce

Governoi' Nicolls. — Xew Xetherland having been
formally surrendered to the English, the new provin-
cial government, of Xevv York was organized with
Richard XicoUs as chief magistrate. In justice to the
governor it should be said he proceeded wisely. He
continued the courts which the Dutch had established
and gradually founded English settlements on Long

By the terms of the surrender he was bound only as
follows: " All inhabitants of Xew Xetherland were to
be free denizens " and were to be secure in their prop-
erty; any Hollander might come into the colony freely
or return home and carry his property with him ; inter-
course with Holland was for six months to continue as
heretofore; liberty of church and conscience was guar-
anteed; all present public records were to be respected;
all inferior officers were to retaiu their present posi-
tions until the customary time for elections.

The citizens were required to take an oath of alle-
giance to the English king, which they were quite will-
ing to do; the burgomasters consoling themselves by
sending to the West India Company, as a sort of " fare-


104 Governor Nicolls [Period IV

well greeting ", a letter giving an account of the
change in their government, and ending as follows:

" Since we are no longer to depend on your honor's
promises or protection, we, with all the poor, sorrowing
and abandoned commonalty must fly to Almighty God,
not doubting but he will stand by us in this sorely
afflicting conjuncture."

The new government. — In February, 1665, the
new municipal government was appointed by the
retiring members. The burgomasters and schepens
were all Dutch citizens, but out of compliment to the
governor, they made Allard Anthony schout; while
Xicolls, on his part named as the first mayor, Cap-
tain Thomas Willett, who had already been conspicuous
in the affairs of the colony.

The Duke's laws. — In 1665 the governor called
the council together and read to them what were there-
after known as the " Duke's Laws ". The members
of the council took it for granted that they were to be
consulted in regard to this " code ", but when any one
proposed an amendment, he learned that he had been
invited to hear the laws, not to amend them.

The "Duke's Laws" were compiled chiefly from
those in use in other English colonies. They covered
a very wide field, applying to every occupation and
crime. They regulated the administration of estates,
methods of worship, the relation of master and ser-
vant, the conveyance of real estate, and prescribed
days of fasting and thanksgiving. They ordered the
punishment for assault, defamation, forgery, "lying
and false news", and defined twelve other crimes
which were to be punishable by death.


1668] ]Vevf Jersey separated from ]S- ew York

They also established four principles which have
remamed to this day a part of the fundamental law of
the state :

1. Equal taxation.

2. Right of trial by jury.

3. The obligation of military duty.

4. Freedom of religious worship.

Separation of \e,v Jersey.-Before the Duke of
Xork was in actual possession of his newly and easily
acquired territory, he granted to Lord Berkeley and
Sir George Carteret, two royal favorites, the land
within the present boundaries of Xew Jersey, thus
separating the colonies established there from the
future State of Xew York.

Governor Xicolls recalled, 1668.- The task
which Xicolls had undertaken was a very difficult one.
In his honest efforts to win the regard of the Dutch,
he offended many of the English citizens, and the^
constantly wearied him with complaints.

When he had governed Xew York four years, he
wrote to both the King and the Duke, begging to be
relieved of an office "which", he said, "he had in
his Ignorance undertaken, which had kept him more
husy than any former position, and which had drawn
trom his purse every dollar he possessed."

His request was granted. In the same year Francis
Lovelace was commissioned to succeed him. England

nel? 'v- ^^u !'"''' "* ^'^ '^"""^ ^''"^^t th- '"«™
peiiod of Xicolls's administration, yet he had so con-
ducted himself that he had won the personal regard of

106 New York a Ducal Proyince [Period IV

the people and they expressed much regret at his
departure '!^.

Witchcraft in New York. — While XicoUs was
governor, there occured the only recorded trial for
witchcraft within our State. This was in 1605. Ralph
Hull and Mary his wife were charged with " certain
detestable acts commonly called ' witchcraft ', whereby
two or three persons have lost their lives."

The duke's laws did not mention the crime of witch-
craft, so the unfortunate couple were indicted for
** murder by means of witchcraft ". They were tried
by a jury of twelve (one of whom was Jacob Leisler,
so prominent in later provincial matters). The verdict
of the jury was that they found "some suspicions of
what the woman is charged with but not enough to
take away her life ". They declared the man not guilty
and required him to " give security for his wife's good
behavior thereafter".

Holland's protest. — The high-handed proceedings
of England could have but one outcome ; that was war.
New Netherland had been a proprietory colony owned
and governed by the West India Company. The
states-general had taken almost no part in its manage-

* During Nicolls's term of office one matter very
important to New York was settled. Connecticut
claimed the eastern half of Long Island. Charles
had by name included the whole of it in his gift to the
Duke. In 1664 Nicolls secured the appointment of a
commission to meet one from Connecticut, by which
all the history of that island was carefully reviewed.
The commission decided that Long Island should go
to New York.

1668] Holland's Protest 107

ment since the day when, in 1621, it had given that
company its sweeping charter.

At the time it lost these American possessions, the
West India Company was practically bankrupt. Never-
theless its directors at once complained to the states-
general, and this body, through its ministers at the
court of St. James, protested against the robbery as a
" notorious infraction of the treaty -just concluded".
The king could give no truthful answer to the charge
unless he confessed the wrong. This a monarch of
his character could hardly be expected to do. So he
wrote his creature at The Hague, Downing, to say to
the Dutch that he was not accountable tcr them for
what he did.

On receipt of this impudent answer, Avord was at
once despatched to Commodore De Ruyter, who com-
manded the Dutch squadron on the coast of Africa to
reduce all English possessions there, and on his way
home "to do as much damage as possible on said
nation anywhere".

The Duke of York was admiral of the English navy.
In the first engagement with the Dutch he gained an
important victory. Returning to London in great
triumph, he had a medal struck off which bore the
inscription, '' 1 claim the Jour seas.'*''

At this point, Louis of France undertook the difficult
role of peacemaker. To the Dutch, he frankly ac-
knowledged the justice of their claim to Xew Nether-
land. To Charles, he proposed that it should be
restored to Holland in exchange for certain small
islands which had been taken from him. This proposi-

108 New York a Ducal Province [Period IV

tion Charles spurned, and all efforts for peace were

The triple alliance, 1666. — Holland now formed
an alliance with France and Sweden against England,
and once more war raged on all the duke's " Four
Seas". Some of the greatest naval battles of history-
were fought, in which England's fleets were nearly
destroyed, so that Charles was willing to treat for peace.

On July 31, 1667, the famous treaty known as the
"Peace of Breda" was signed, in which France
secured the lion's share of all concessions and from
which Holland gained little except a brief respite
from war.


1. Nicolls the first English governor, 1664.

2. Terms of the surrender.

3. Character of the new government.

4. The Duke's Laws, origin of.

5. Four principles established.

6. Royal grants; Xew Jersey.

7. The governor's complaint and recall.

8. Witchcraft in New York.

9. The Long Island commission.

10. Holland's protest to England.

11. English reply.

12. The Duke's Four Seas.

13. The Triple Alliance, 1666.

14. The Peace of Breda.

[N^EW York once more under the Dutch

Peace of Breda broken^ 1670. — A secret treaty
between Charles II and Louis XIV made in 1670 again
united England and France for the ruin of Holland.
Her fleets were defeated and her territory invaded by
the armies of the allied monarchs. It was then that
William, the valiant young Prince of Orange was
made commander-in-chief and by his stirring ap-
peals, once more gave heart to the people of Holland.
Then it was that the sluices were opened. Holland
again became a sea, and the allied armies were com-
pelled to retreat. Then, too, occurred that memorable
battle off the mouth of the Helder, when 75 Dutch
ships engaged 150 French and English vessels in a
contest which lasted all day. Within hearing of the
guns, the people of Holland met in their churches and
prayed for victory, till the allied fleets had been de-
feated and Holland had won her second independence,
— the right to navigate all the seas unmolested.

It was while these great events were taking place
that a Dutch fleet under Cornelius Evartson had been
.sent to the West Indies with orders to "harass the
English in those parts ".

Having completed his work, he sailed for Virginia,
when it was suggested that now was a good time to
recover New Xetherland.


110 Again^ under the Dutch [Period IY

A Dutch fleet at New York, 1673.— In a few days
this fleet with IGOO men on board was inside Sandy
Hook. The next day it appeared before New York
and demanded its surrender. The governor, Lovelace^
was absent on a visit to Governor Winthrop of Connecti-
cut and Captain John Manning was in command. He
promptly sent for the governor, beat an alarm, and
called for volunteers to defend the fort. Few came
and some of the Dutch even spiked the guns in front
of the city hall. In his extremity, Manning sent to
inquire the purpose of the Dutch commander. " We
have come to claim our own, and our own we will
have," was the ready reply.

The Dutch re-take New York, 1(>7:3.— Soon GOO
men were landed above the town, where they were
joined by 400 Dutch citizens in arms, who encouraged
them to storm the fort. They were preparing to do
this when Manning offered to surrender, provided his
troops were allowed to march out with the honors of
war. This was granted. The English marched out;
the Dutch marched in. Stuyvesant was avenged.
The wrongs of the fatherland had been righted. Xew
Netherland had been re-taken in honorable warfare.

The West India Company having had no part in the
matter, the colony was no longer a proprietary prov-
ince, but part and parcel of the Dutch Republic.

Eightly its captors in defining its bounds included
just what had been theirs at the time of its loss, not
a foot more, except the eastern portion of Long Island.
They thus respected the treaty of 1650. The joyful
cry, " The fatherland " was again heard. The name
*'N"ew Netherland " was restored. Xew York city


was cabled Xew Orange, and Fort James was named
-bort William Hendrick in honor of the Prince of
Orange. A new government was organized with \n-
thony Colve of Zealand at its head as governor
^ icholas B.yard, the old city clerk, was restored to his
ottice. All persons were declared released from their
oaths of allegiance to the English crown. Tlie com-
monalty were required again to nominate men from
among whom a council might be selected.

The government of Xew Orange having been settled,
a force was sent up the river to obtain the surrender
of Esopus and Albany, and soon peace reigned over
the entire colony.

Fate of Governor Lovelace.— Governor Lovelace
soon returned, and was at once seized by his creditors
and put into prison. He was not detained long, for
he found means to pay his debts and was released,
boon after he took his leave for England*.

Estimate of the act.-ft has often been said that
the ro-conquest of \ew Xetheriand by the Dutch was
but an incident in the progress of a bitter war"
ihis IS true. It was done by the Dutch fleet entirely
without orders from the home government; but had
there been telegraphic communication in those days
between the two continents, it is easy to see that the

^^ * On his departiire he wrote to Go^^rnor^Winthrop'
I am now intending for England with all the con
v^^^ency I may. Would you be curious to know what
my lo^ses amount to? I -an in short resolve you. It
was my a.l whichever I had been collecting; too ^reat
to misse in this wilderness " ^ ^

112 Again under the Dutch [Period IV

subsequent history of a whole nation might have been
changed by this " incident " ^.

The rule of Colve was active, but brief. The dream
of a Dutch Eepublic in the New World was never
realized. The European war came to a sudden end by
the treaty of Westminster. With the ambitious Louis
of France and the unscrupulous Charles II of England
in league against her, Holland's case was hopeless.

The treaty of Westminster. — In vain Holland
made alliances with Spain and Germany. She was
finally forced to treat with England on the basis of
" mutual restoration ", and two months after the cap-
ture, and one month before the news had reached Hol-
land, February 9, 1674, a treaty had been signed that
compelled her to surrender New Netherland to

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