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THE STORY OF THE NATIONS



POLAND



BY
W. R. MORFILL, M.A.

;■

SEADER IN RUSSIAN AND OTHER SLAVONIC LANGUAGES IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OX-
FORD, CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SCIENTIFK" SOCIETY
OF BOHEMIA, AUTHOR OF " THE STORY OF RUSSIA,"
"SLAVONIC LITERATURE," ETC.



I



NEW YORK

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

LONDON: T. FISHER UNWIN



■gS^t'



copyright, 1893
By G. p. Putnam's Sons

Mntered at Stationers' Hally London

By T. Fisher Unwin



.^^^^**'



tCbe ftnicfterbocfter press




JOHN SOBIESKJ.



PREFACE.



I HAVE written this little book on Poland on the
same lines as my previous work on Russia in this
series. The plan of the work is to give a readable
history of the country by bringing into prominence
the more stirring episodes and salient characteristics,
and putting in the background the details which must
prove less interesting. At the same time, the thread
of the history is never intentionally lost sight of. It
is but fair to add that the work is based entirely upon
original and native authorities, and no mere com-
pilations have been emplo} ed.

An attempt has been made to give in detail the
chief ethnological elements of the population ; and
for those who wish to study Polish history more
minutely a list has been added of the most important
works on the subject.

My book has no political bias : it is not ten-
densioSy as the Germans say. • I have told the tale
of Poland — a very mournful one — and have never
intentionally perverted or concealed the truth. I
have given what I think were the causes* of the
fall of this once powerful kingdom ; but, while



321476



Vlll PREFACE.

endeavouring to discharge the duty of an honest
writer of history, I have been unwilling to per-
form merely a cold-blooded dissection of the un-
fortunate country ; its limbs, although distort'^d,
are still instinct with life. But the writer of history
is not required to be a political advocate ; the less he
attempts anything of the kind the better his history
will probably be. I hope my chapter on the litera-
ture may be serviceable in awakening an interest in
the Polish language, still spoken by upwards of ten
millions. No one can read the literature of Poland
without feeling a warm sympathy with this interesting
people.

It only remains that I should thank my friend, Dr.
George Birkbeck Hill, the editor of Boswell, for
kindly looking through the proof sheets and aiding
me with many valuable suggestions.

W. R. MORFILL.




CONTENTS.



Preface



PAGE

vii



The Country and People of Poland



1-19



Cracow — Lemberg — Brest-litovsk — The Vistula — The Polish
Language — The Lithuanians — The Ugro-Finnish Race — The
Jews.

IL

The Sagas of Early Polish History . . 20-24
Leszek — The Lekhs.

in.

The Rise of Polish Nationality. From the
Reign of Mieczyslaw L (962) to the Death

OF BOLESLAS THE BrAVE (1026) . . . 25-30

Otho IIL and Boleslas — Boleslas the Great.



IV.

From the Death of Boleslas the Brave to the
Beginning of the Reign of Przemyslaw I. 31-37

The Interdict — Conrad of Masovia — Leszek, the Black.



X CONTENTS.

V.

PAGE

From the Beginning of the Reign of Prze.my-

SLAW I. (1295) TO THE MARRIAGE OF JaDWIGA
AND JaGIELLO (1386) 38-50

Ladislaus Lokietek — Galicia acquired — Germans in Poland —
Festivities at Cracow — Jadwiga — Ladislaus Jagiello.



VI.

The Early Jagiellos. From Ladislaus Jagiello

TO SiGISMUND I. I386-1507 . . . 51-69

Vitovt — The Treaty of Thorn — Casimir IV. — ^John Albert
elected — Buonacorsi — Alexander — The diet at Radom —
Clement the smith — A cruel aristocracy.



VII.

The Jagiellos. Sigismund I. (1507-1548), Sigis-
MUND II., Augustus (1548-15 7 2). The Elected
Sovereigns, Henry of Valois (1574-1575),
and Stephen Batory (15 76-1 586) . • 70-117

Copernicus — Luxury of the Nobles — The University of
Cracow — Nicholas Radziwill — Duke Albert — The Polish
Embassy — Henry and Zborowski — The banquet at Paris —
Flight of Henry — Batory elected — Batory's Plans — Death of
Batory — Anna Jagiellonka — The Condition of Poland — The
Dissidents — Albert Laski.



VIII.

Further Decline of the Country— Reigns of
Sigismund III., Ladislaus IV., John Casimir,
AND Michael Korybut .... 1 18-154

John of Sweden — Sigismund HL — The Uniates — Jan
Zamojski — The False Demetrius — Smotrycki — ^Jan Laski —
Marie Louise — The Polish Embassy — Polish Cookery — The



CONTENTS. XI

PAGE

Cossacks — Colloquium Charitativum — Liberuin veto — Inva-
sion of the Swedes — Marie Louise — Abdication of John
Casimir — Death of John Casimir — Michael Korybut.

IX.

The Reign of John Sobieski . , . 155-192

Siege of Vienna — Kolszicki — Retreat of the Turks — The
King's Letter — Sobieski's Triumph — Death-bed of Sobieski
— South's Description — Clementina Sobieska — The French
Abbe — Marie Casimire — Madame Royale — The Polish Nobles
—The Polish Diet.



X.




Decline of Poland — The Saxon Kings.


1698-


1763


. 193-211



Charles XIL— Treaty of Altranstadt— Charles XIL at Bender
— Courland — The Dissidents — ^Journey of Stanislaus — Escape
of Stanislaus — Charles XIL — Augustus III.



XI.

Stanislaus Poniatowski — The Three Partitions.
1764-1795 212-252

The Confederation of Bar — Plot against the King — Perils of
Stanislaus — Count Beniowski — First Dismemberment —
Poninski — The New Government — Zabiello — New Constitu-
tion — The Peasantry — The Diets — Conduct of the Prussians
Kosciuszko — Maciejowice — Kosciuszko in France — Stanislaus
abdicates — Stanislaus in Russia.



XII.

The Poles as Subjects of Russia, Austria, and
Prussia 253-268

Treaty of Vienna — Constantine — Warsaw taken — Ancillon —
The Galician Massacres — The Secret Committee — Muraviev,



Xli CONTENTS.

XIII.

PAGE

Polish Literature . . . . . 269-326

Queen Margaret's Psalter — Dlugosz — Copernicus — Szymono-
wicz — Kromer — Orzechowski — Skarga — Gornicki — Potocki —
Morsztyn — Kilinski — Rzewuski — Niemcewicz — Mickiewicz
Malczewski — Fredro — Lelewel — Szajnocha — Kraszewski —
Ujejski.

XIV.
The Social Condition of Poland » . . 327-358

The Nobility— The Burghers— The Peasants— The Kmetons
— The Villages — Courland — The Jews — The Szlachta—?o\\'^
Legislation — The Kmetons — Polish dress — The Nobility — The
Polish Kings

XV.

Political and Literary Landmarks — Authori-
ties 359-375

Historical Dates — Summary — Literary Dates — Bobrzynski —
V. Krasinski — Coxe — Mickiewicz — White Russian.

List of Polish Kings 376

Genealogical Table of the Jagiellos . . 378

Genealogical Table of the Sobieskis . . 379

Ind£x • • • . 381



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



JOHN SOBIESKI Frontispiece

MAP TO ILLUSTRATE THE FINAL PARTITION OF POLAND,

1795 • • • To face page i

PAGE

THE JAGIELLO LIBRARY AT CRACOW .... 6

SEAL OF MIESZKO THE ELDER" 2$

A CUP PRESERVED IN THE CATHEDRAL OF PLOCK,

GIVEN BY CONRAD I., DUKE OF MASOVIA . . 35

SEAL OF PRZEMYSLAW I., DUKE OF GREAT POLAND . 39

SEAL OF CASIMIR THE GREAT 41

SEAL OF THE CITY OF CRACOW (1333-1370) ... 43
TOMB OF CASIMIR THE GREAT IN THE CATHEDRAL AT

CRACOW 48

SEAL OF CASIMIR THE GREAT 50

THE CATHEDRAL AT CRACOW IN ITS ORIGINAL FORM.

FOURTEENTH AND FIFTEENTH CENTURIES . • 57

SEAL OF JANUSZ AND STANISLAUS OF MASOVIA, 1520 . 59
MONUMENT OF CARDINAL FREDERICK JAGIELLO IN

THE CATHEDRAL AT CRACOW 62

SIGISMUND 1 71

ALBERT OF BRANDENBURG 73

CHRIST DISPUTING WITH THE DOCTORS— WITH FIGURES

OF SIGISMUND AND HUSSITES INTRODUCED . 7$
xiii



XIV LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE

THE FLORIAN GATE AT CRACOW AS IT APPEARED IN

1498 78

SIGISMUND AUGUSTUS 80

SEAL OF SIGISMUND I. AS DUKE OF GLOGAU . . 81

GOLD PIECE OF TEN DUCATS OF SIGISMUND AUGUSTUS 8 1

PORTRAIT OF ETJZABETH, FIRST WIFE OF SIGISMUND II. 83

SILVER-GILT MEDAL OF ALBERT OF BRANDENBURG . 87

SIGISMUND AUGUSTUS 89

MAP OF POLAND AND LITHUANIA AT THE TIME OF THE

UNION OF LUBLIN, 1 569 91

HENRY DE VALOIS 99

STEPHEN BATORY I04

COIN OF STEPHEN BATORY I07

TOMB OF ANNA JAGIELLONKA IN THE CATHEDRAL AT

CRACOW Ill

SIGISMUND III 120

COIN OF SIGISMUND III I23

THE STATUE OF SIGISMUND III. AT WARSAW . . I30

COIN OF LADISLAUS IV. I33

JOHN CASIMIR 142

COIN OF JOHN CASIMIR I49

COIN OF MICHAEL . . . . . , . .153

PLAN OF THE SIEGE OF VIENNA IN 1683 . . .159

COIN OF JOHN SOBIESKI I72

THE POLISH DIET 1 89

{Explanation of the Letters in the Picture: — A, The King;
B, The Ten Ofificers of the Crown ; C, The Archbishop of
Gnesen ; D, The other Ecclesiastical Senators ; E, Foreign
Ambassadors admitted to the Diet ; F, The Palatines and
Castellans ; G, The Deputies ; H, The Speaker of the
Deputies ; I, Vacant Seats fcjr others sometimes admitted.
I, The Arms of Poland ; 2, The Arms of Lithuania.)



THE STORY OF POLAND.



THE COUNTRY AND PEOPLE OF POLAND.



The conclusion of last century saw the state of
Poland rased from the list of European nations.
What have been her subsequent fortunes will be dis-
cussed in the piesent work ; to realise what she was
at the period of her greatest prosperity, we will take
her geographical boundaries in the reign of the
valiant Stephen Batory (i 578-1 586), when she was
the great power of Eastern Europe. On the east she
was bounded by Russia, on the west by what is nowj
the Austrian Empire and the Danubian principalities, '
the latter united in our own time under the name of
Roumania. In the north she extended to the Baltic,
in the south she touched the Black Sea at Akerman,
but towards the south-east was shut out by Crim
Tartary, which was under the suzerainty of the
Turkish Sultan.

The division of the Polish palatinates (Woje-
wodztwa) is here given from the list contributed by
Professor Bobrzynski at the end of his second volume



'2'' 'Tii'B COUNTRY AND PEOPLE OF POLAND.

(see Dzieje Polski w Zarysie^ Warsaw, 1881, vol. iL

p. 363).

The Rzeczpospolita or Republic, as it was called
by the inhabitants, was made up of two great terri-
tories, standing to each other in something like the
same relation as Sweden and Norway.

A. The so-called Korona, or Poland, in the strict
sense of the term.

I, Great Poland (Wielkopolska), which contained
the following palatinates :

a. Poznan, called in German Posen, containing the
city of Posen, a city now very much Germanised, but
dating from the earliest period of the monarchy. In
it many of the earliest kings were buried.

b. Kalisz. Under this palatinate was formerly
reckoned the district (Powiat) of Gniezno (Gniesen),
but it was separated in the year 1768. This is the
city from which the Archbishop of Poland took his
title. The archbishopric was founded by Boleslas I.

c. Sieradz. In this palatinate is situated Piotrkow,
where the diets at one time were held.

d. L^czyk.

e. Brzesc-Kujawski.

f. Inowroclaw. In which is situated the town of
Bydgosd, now metamorphosed by the Germans into
Bromberg.

g. Plock.
//. Rawa.

i. Masowsze, called also Masovia, and by the Ger-
mans Mazuren. In this palatinate is situated War-
saw (Warszawa), which was first made the capital of
the country in the reign of Sigismund III. The city



CRACOW, 3

IS separated by the Vistula from its suburb Praga,
which has obtained such a sad historical notoriety.
It abounds with handsome buildings, but they arc
mostly modern. A pleasant part is the Lazienki or
baths, where some gardens are laid out, and where a
former palace of Stanislaus ?oniatowski has been
turned into a summer resort. The city contains
statues of Copernicus and Sigismund III. It has
not the interesting historical associations of Cracow.
J. Chelm.

A Malborg. This was originally the capital of
the Teutonic knights, and here they had a famous
castle. Of this building only the ruins remain, but
they are very striking. Portions may still be seen of
the great hall in which the knights met to hold their
chapter. It is here that Mickiewicz has placed the
scene of his remarkable tale in verse, Konrad Wal-
lenrod. A delightful book to read about the knights
is the quaint work of Christopher Hartknoch, AU.
und Neiies Preussen, Frankfort, 1684.

/. Pomorska : the district on the coast in which
Danzig is situated. Danzig, Polish Gdansk, is a very
ancient city, of uncertain origin, which alternated
between the rule of the Pole and the German.

2. Little Poland (Malopolska), containing — ■

a. Krakow (Cracow). In this palatinate is situated
Oswi^cim, near which Henri de Valois was over-
taken by the Polish emissaries when flying from
the kingdom. Cracow was the capital of Poland
till the reign of Sigismund III. This city, although
having now a somewhat decayed appearance and
only reminding the traveller in a melancholy way



4 THE COUNTRY AND PEOPLE OF POLAND.

of its former grandeur, may still be called one of
the most interesting and picturesque in Europe.
The old castle, once the residence of the king and
the scene of so many historical events, has now
been turned into a barracks for Austrian soldiers.
The imagination of the reader of history will be
kindled on seeing it by recollections of the glories of
Casimir III., and of the two Sigismunds, father and
son ; of the strange adventures of the timid Henri de
Valois flying in such undignified haste from his capital,
and the brave Stephen Batory, whose voice of power
was heard within the walls. The following picturesque
description of this castle was given by the old French
traveller Le Laboureur, who visited the city in 1646,
and wrote a work entitled, Traite siir la Pologne:
*' Le chasteau est une piece d'architecture aussi
accomplic que Ton puisse voir, et tres digne de la
majeste d'un monarque puissant. II a beaucoup de
rapport au dessin du chasteau Saint-Ange de Rome ;
et me semble plus esgaye, mais il a moins d'estendue.
C'est un grand corps de logis, de pierre de taille, avec
deux aisles, autour d'une cour quarree, decoree de
trois galeries ou se degagent tous les apartements.
Ces galeries sont, comme les chambres, parquetees de
carreaux de marbre blanc et noir en rapport ; ellcs
sont decorees, de peintures et de bustes de Cesars et
rien ne se pent esgaler a la beaute des lambris des
chambres du second etage, qui est le logement des
roys et des reynes. C'est veritablement la plus belle
chose que j'ai veue pour la delicatesse de la sculpture
et pour les ornements d'or moulu et de cou'eurs tres
fines. Dans la chambre principale sont les trophee?



CRACOW, 5

du roySigismond avec millepatergnes et mille enjoHve-
ments au ciseau qui sont admirables d'ou pendent en
Tair plusieurs aigles d'argent qui sont les armes de la
Pologne, que la moindre haleine de vent fait voltiger
doucement leur donnant une espece de vie et de
mouvement si naturel, que I'imagination en est aussi-
tost persuadee que les yeux."

At a little distance from the castle is the cathedral,
in which the Polish kings were always crowned and
in which the greater number of them lie buried. A
modest building stood on this site in the earliest days
of the kingdom, but the splendour of the cathedral
dates from the reign of Casimir III., who, in 1359,
greatly embellished it. It contains many chapels.
Some of the earlier Polish kings were buried at
Posen ; the first monument to a sovereign in the
cathedral of Cracow is that to Ladislaus Lokietek,
who died in 1333. The last king of Poland, Stanis-
laus Poniatovvski, was not buried here ; he lies in the
Roman Catholic church at St. Petersburg. Casimir
the Great has a splendid tomb. The monument of
Sobieski is in red marble, sculptured with figures of
kneeling Turks. The visitor is allowed to descend
into the crypts and to see the actual coffins of
the kings. Besides the cathedral there are many
churches in Cracow of considerable architectural
beauty. That of St. Catherine has recently been
restored. A very interesting building is the Jagiello
Library with its quaint quadrangle. It contains a fine
collection of books and many of the rarest treasures
of the Polish press. Especially interesting are the
early editions of the native authors. In an album



6 THE COUNTRY AND PEOPLE OF POLAND.

preserved in the library with the names of visitors
inserted may been seen the autograph of Henri de
Valois, Marina Mniszek, the bride of the false Deme-
trius, and that of Anna Jagiellonka, the wife of




THE JAGIELLO LIBRARY AT CRACOW.



Stephen Batory. Among the old monuments of the
city may also be mentioned the Florian Gate, of the
date of 1498, the only one of the gates still remain-
ing. Close by is the Museum of Prince Ladislaus
Czartoryski, containing some of the most interesting



LEMBERG. 7

reliques of old Polish life, portraits and memorials of
their kings and chief literary men. Adjoining the
city of Cracow is the great mound, erected by the
Polish people in honour of the hero Kosciuszko.

b, Sandomir. Of one of the districts of this
palatinate George Mniszek, the father of Marina,
wife of the false Demetrius, was castellan.

c, Lublin, containing the city in which the com-
plete union of Lithuania and Poland was carried out.

d, Little Russia (Ruska), in the Polish and re-
stricted sense of the term. In this palatinate is the
city of Lwow (Lemberg), which will be frequently
mentioned in our pages. It is a handsome, rather
modern-looking town, with a university, which was
founded in 1784. Of great importance is the Osso-
linski Library, which is exceedingly rich in manuscripts
and early printed Slavonic books. The Staropigiiski
Institute is devoted to the encouragement of the
study of the Ma'o-Russian language, and has issued
some important works, such as editions of old South
Russian chronicles. It also contains a good library.
Here may be seen many interesting portraits of
hetmans and other heroes of Little Russia. The
situation of Lemberg is very important, being of old
time one of the great centres of Poland's trade with
the East. It now swarms with Armenians and Jews.

The palatinate of Little Russia also included
Halicz, the old Russian principality of Galich, which
was annexed by Casimir the Great in 1340.

e, Bielska.

f, Podolska.

g, Podlaska. This territory was formerly occupied



5 THE COUNTRY AND PEOPLE OF POLAND.

by a tribe called the Jadzwings, who have now dis-
appeared. It belonged geographically to Lithuania,
but in the time of Sigismund I. was incorporated
with Poland proper.

A. Volhynia, originally a Russian province, after-
wards conquered by Gedymin, prince of Lithuania.

i Braclawska.

J. Kijowska. Originally a Russian province, and
taken by Gedymin about 1320 ; in the following
year we find a Roman Catholic bishop appointed.
It became a province of the Crown in 1569, although
originally forming part of Lithuania. By the treaty
of Andruszowo, that part of it which lies beyond the
Dnieper, including the historical city of Kiev, was
ceded to Russia. Kiev was to be given back to
Poland in two years' time, but Alexis, the Russian
Emperor, kept it, because the Poles did not fulfil the
terms of the truce. They finally gave it up in 1686.

k. Czernichowska. Lost to Poland by the treaty of
Andruszowo. The chief town is more familiar to us
under the Russian form of the name, Chernigov, but,
like so many other towns which formerly belonged
to Poland, the accent is on the penultimate (cf.
Berdichev, Zhitomir, &c.). Chernigov plays a con-
siderable part in the adventures of the false Demetrius.

B. Litwa (Lithuania). The second great division
of the country consisted of the following palati-
nates : —

a. Wilenska. Wilno or Vilna, the old capital of the
Lithuanian princes. This city is situated on the banks
of the rivers Wilia and Wilejka ; it was founded by
Gedymin in 1322, when a castle was built and a



BREST-LITOVSK. - 9

temple to preserve the sacred fire ; the ruins of these
buildings may still be seen. The walls are as old
as the year 1506. The city contains many churches,
and from 1578 to 1833 was possessed of a university,
founded by Stephen Batory, which was under the
care of the Jesuits.
d. Trocka,

c. Zmudska. To this province belong the Samo-
gitians, who speak a dialect of Lithuanian, in which
there is a version of the Bible.

d. Nowogrodska. Part of this territory was Polish,
but the city of Novgorod belonged to Russia, and
was annexed by Ivan III. to the growing principality
of Moscow as early as 1478.

e. Brzesko-litewska. The city of Bres(^-litewsk was
long an object of contention between the princes of
Lithuania and Red Russia. Here, in 1595, the union
between the Orthodox Christians and the Latin
Church was established, and hence arose the sect of
the Uniates. At the present time Brest-litovsk, as it
is called (to adopt the Russian form of its name), is
one of the most strongly fortified towns on the
western frontier of Russia.

/. Minska. At first a Russian principality, then
acquired by Lithuania at the beginning of the four-
teenth century ; it became Russian again in 1795.

^. Polotska. Also originally a Russian province,
acquired for Lithuania by Olgerd.

/i. Mscislawska. Originally Russian, acquired by
Lithuania during the troublous times of the Mongol
occupation, as was the case with the other White
Russian principalities.



ID THE COUNTRY AND PEOPLE OF POLAND.

i. Smolenska. Originally Russian, gained by
Witold, the Lithuanian prince, in 1403. Smolensk,
the chief town, has always been of great strategic
importance on account of its situation on the Dnieper.
It is the key to the upper course of this river and to
all the great roads which diverge upon the centre of
the Russian Empire. In the reign of the Tsar Basil,
the vigorous son of a vigorous father, Ivan III., the
Russians got back Smolensk (15 1 3), although in the
following year they suffered a severe repulse from
the Poles at Orsha close by. Sigismund III., avail-
ing himself of the confusion of the smutnoye vremya^
or time of troubles, as it is called, recovered it for
Poland in 161 3. The treaty of Andruszowo saw this
city transferred to Russia for ever. Its ancient walls
are still an object of interest to the traveller, and
have been recently repaired.

j. Inflancka, or Livonia, formerly belonging to the
sword -bearing knights, who were merged into the
Teutonic knights in 1237 ; it was acquired by Poland
in the year 1561. The Swedes gained possession of
It in the time of Sigismund III., and only a portion
was got back from them in 1660. Peter the Great
acquired the Swedish portion of Livonia at the treaty
of Nystadt in 1718.

Of the provinces which acknowledged the suzerainty
of Poland, we have Eastern Prussia released by Poland
from its claims in the year 1657, and the principality
of Courland in the year 1561. The latter duchy was
hereditary in the Kettler family, the last of whom
died childless at Danzig in 1737 ; he had succeeded
his nephew, who married Anne of Russia, daughter



THE VISTULA. II

of Ivan, the elder brother of Peter the Great. When
she became empress, Anne used her influence to
procure the election of her favourite, Biren.

As regards the physical geography of I'oland, the
country was, as, indeed, its name implies, a vast
plain, mostly included in the great central depression
of Europe. It had hardly any natural frontiers, with
the exception of the Baltic on the north, and the
Carpathians in the south ; from the Black Sea it was
excluded by the Tatars and Turks. Its great arterial
river was the Vistula (Pol. Wisla), which rises in
the Carpathians, passes Cracow, Sandomir, War-
saw, Block, Thorn (Torun), and divides into two
arms — the right, called the Nogat, passes Elbl^g
(Elbing), and empties itself into the Kurisches Haf;
the left passes Danzig, and has its outlet near the
fort of Weichselmlinde. We thus see that the basin
of the Vistula formed the centre of the kingdom of
Poland. The river has been shared between the
three powers who dismembered the country — the
part near its source belongs to Austria, the centre to
Russia, and the lower portion to Prussia. The only
mountains of importance are the Carpathians, which
separate Poland from Hungary.

The greatest length of the country from north to
south was 713 English miles, and from east to west
693 miles ; it embraced an area of about 282,000
English square miles, and this area in 1880 had a
population of 24,000,000. There is good pasture and


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