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For the help of those who are students of Poh'sh
history and literature, the following short summaries
have been added :

1. The landmarks of Polish history.

2. The chief events in the history of her intellectual

3. The chief authorities on Polish history.


963. Mieczyslaw, the Polish prince, becomes a

feudatory of the German Empire.
965. He receives Christianity from the Bohemian

968. Foundation of the first Polish bishopric at Posen.
1000. Foundation of the archbishopric at Gnesen.
1024. Boleslas the Great is crowned king.
1079. Boleslas II. kills St. Stanislaus, the Bishop of

1079- 1 295. Poland reverts de jure to its original

condition as a duchy.
1139. Commencement of the period of appanages.



1 1 80. The meeting at L^czyca, supposed origin of

the senate.
1226. Conrad of Masovia gives the district of

Chelmno (Culm) to the Teutonic knights.
1 241. Invasion of the Mongols; Cracow burnt and

battle of Lignica (Liegnitz).
1295. Poland again becomes a kingdom.
1 33 1. General meeting of Poles at Ch^ciny.
1333-1370. Reign of Casimir the Great.
1340. Casimir unites Galicia with Poland.
1347. Statute of Wislica.
1350. Lemberg acquired.
1352. Volhynia annexed.
1354. High court of appeal for citizens established at

1386. Jadwiga marries Jagiello of Lithuania, who is

crowned King of Poland.
14 10. Battle of Grlinwald ; defeat of the Teutonic

1444. Death of Ladislaus III. at Varna.
1454. Statute of Nieszawa.
1466. Peace of Thorn.
1468. Establishment of the /fosfy and commencement

of representative government.
1500. Walter von Pletenberg defeats the Russians

under Ivan III.
1506. Laski publishes the collection of Polish laws

under the title : Commune incliti regni Polonice

1 5 13. The Poles lose Smolensk.
1525. Albert of Brandenburg receives at Cracow his

investiture as a feudatory of Poland.


1529. The first Lithuanian Statute.
1 561. Livonia united to the Republic.
1569. Diet of Lublin ; union of Poland and Lith-
uania. - ^
1 576-1586. Reign of Stephen Batory. /^^^^^^-^^^-^^ ^ /"^
1592. The Diet of the Inquisition.
1 595. The Synod of Brzesc ; origin of the Uniates.
161 1. Sigismund III. gets back Smolensk.
1 62 1. Poland loses Riga and Livonia to Sweden.
162 1. Chodkiewicz defeats the Turks at Chocim.

1634. Treaty with Russia.

1635. Treaty of Stumdorf with Sweden.
1644. The Colloquium Charitativum at Thorn.
1646. Peace of Thorn ; Danzig and Thorn go back

to Poland.
1648. Commencement of the Cossack wars.
165 1. The first exercise of the libermn veto by


1654. Khmelnitski with his Cossacks goes over to

1655. War with Sweden ; Gustavus takes Warsaw
and Cracow.

1657. Treaty of Welawa ; the Elector of Brandenburg
released from feudal obligations to Poland.

1657. Battle of Beresteczko.

1658. The Arians banished from the country.
1660. Treaty of Oliwa with Sweden ; the king

abandons all his rights to that country.

1667. Peace of Andruszowo.

1668. Abdication of John Casimir.
1672. The Turks take Kamieniec Podolskl
1674-1696. Reign of John Sobi^ski,


1683. Sobieski rescues Vienna.

1699. Kamieniec restored to the Poles.

1699. The Elector of Brandenburg gets Elbing and

other places.
1702. Charles XII. gets possession of both Warsaw

and Cracow.
1705-1709. Brief reign of Stanislaus Leszczynski.
1706. Treaty of Altranstadt.
17 17. The Dumb Diet (so called because it only

lasted seven hours).
1720. Synod at Zarnosc ; ratification of the Union of

the Greek and Latin Churches.
1758. Dispute with Russia about Courland.
1766. Meeting of the Dissidents, who are supported

by Russia.

1768. The Confederacy of Bar.

1769. Massacre of Poles and Jews by Gonta.

1 77 1. Attempt on the life of the king by the Con-

1772. First partition of Poland.
1774. Expulsion of the Jesuits.

1788. Opening of the Four Years' Diet.

1791. The new Polish Constitution.

1792. The Confederacy of Targowica.

1793. Second partition of Poland.

1794. Suvorov takes Warsaw.

1795. Stanislaus Poniatowski resigns the crown at
Grodno ; the Third Partition.

1807. Formation of the Duchy of Warsaw.

18 1 5. Creation of the kingdom of Poland in union

with Russia.
1830. Outbreak of the Polish insurrection.


1846. The troubles in Galicia.

i860. The second Poh'sh insurrection.

We hope in the preceding pages to have made the
outlines of Polish history clear to our readers. In
her earlier days her hostility to Germany begins
She is at first more or less a dependency of the
Germaii Empire, and the power of her Teutonic
neighbours is greatly strengthened by the numbers of
Germans which form the bulk of the population of the
towns ; and by the folly of Conrad of Masovia in intro-
ducing the Teutonic knights, from whose small terri-
tory the great kingdom of Prussia was afterwards to
be formed. The distinct rivalry between Russia and
Poland does not begin till the reign of Ivan IV.
Stephen Batory, as if anticipating the relations in
which the two countries were destined to stand to
each other, is unceasing in his designs to dismember
Russia. As has been already pointed out, in his
negotiations with the Pope, this is his real aim,
though he clothes it under the pretence of lending
an ear to the Papal proposal of an expedition to
drive the Turks out of Europe. Indeed he affected
to claim the Muscovite territories, as appendages of
Lithuania which was united to Poland.

Our sketch of the history has told of the adven-
tures of the False Demetrius, and how Ladislaus, the
son of Sigismund III., was crowned Tsar of Moscow.
But the tide soon turns, the Poles resign their claim ;
they lose Kiev and some of their eastern provinces,
and at the close of the seventeenth century even
suffer a temporary diminution of their territory at the


hands of the Turks. We see on several occasions
the Russian Tsars putting themselves forward as can-
didates for the throne. There was always an indistinct
border line between the two countries, as Poland
owned a large population of White and Malo-Russians,
each speaking a language closely akin to the Russian,
and like her belonging to the Eastern branch of the
Slavonic family and adherents of the Greek Church.
Thus much of the Jesuit propaganda was not merely
religious but political ; they succeeded in considerable
parts of White Russia, which had belonged to the
former principality of Lithuania, but were beaten
back from the Malo-Russians.

Austria did not encroach upon the Polish territory
in the independent days of the Rzeczpospolita ; she
contented herself with getting as many archduchesses
as she could married to Polish kings. These unions
with Habsburg princesses begin early. Some, indeed,
of the earliest Polish sovereigns, as we have seen, married
the daughters of Russian granddukes, just as the early
kings of Hungary did, as Professor Grot has shown
in his interesting work, " The History of Hungary
and the Slavonic Lands in the Twelfth Century."
Austrian archduchesses were the wives of Casimir IV.,
Sigismund II. (2), Sigismund HI. (2), Ladislaus IV.,
Michael Korybut, and Augustus HI.

From the Grand -Master of the Teutonic order, who
had united with his dominions those of the Sword-
bearers in 1237, had been evolved the Elector of
Brandenburg, who got released from the homage he
once owed for part of his dominions to the Polish
crown, and became one of the most formid^blQ


enemies of the country. Since the Prussian creed
became Lutheranism in the sixteenth century, many
of the northern cities of Poland with their large
German populations began to look to him. We know
that Albert, the Grand -Master of the knights, in the
early part of the sixteenth century, hoped to succeed
to the Polish throne. The distracted reigns of the
two Saxon kings, followed by the feeble sway of
Stanislaus Poniatowski, completed the ruin of the
unhappy country. The dismemberment took place,
and Poland, as an independent country, was blotted
out of the map of Europe.



1 1 13. Death of Martin Gallus, the first Polish

1224. Death of Vincent Kadlubek.
1364. Casimir the Great lays the foundation of the

University of Cracow.
1408. Oldest existing copy of the Piesn Boga Rodzica.
141 5-1480. Life and works of Jan Dlugosz (Longinus).
1473-1543. Life and labours of Copernicus.
1474. Printing press set up at Cracow.
1 521. First book printed in the Polish language.
1 548-1606. The golden age of Polish literature.
1 55 1. Jan Seklucyan translates the New Testament,

which is published at Konigsberg.
1563. The Protestant Bible printed at Brzesd.


1569. Death of Nicholas Rej, the first Polish poet

who used the vernacular.
1495-1575. Martin Bielski, author of the Kronika

Polska, and father of Polish prose.
1 530-1 584 Life and works of Jan Kochanowski.
1 606-1764. The Macaronic or Jesuitic Period.
1 536-1612. Life and works of Peter Skarga, the

Jesuit preacher.
1623-1693. Waclaw Potocki, the author of the Wojna

1620-1700.^ Andrew Morsztyn, who introduced into

Poland the imitation of French literature.
1700-1822. Period of French imitation.
1705. Foundation of a national theatre at Warsaw.
1735-1 Soi- Life and works of Krasicki.
1822. Rise of the Romantic School.
1798-185 5. Life and labours of Mickiewicz.
1786-1861. Life and labours of Lelewel.
1793-1^76. Alexander Fredro ; foundation of national

Polish comedy.
18 18-1868. Life and labours of Karl Szajnocha ; the

new school of Polish history.
1852. Rise of the latest school of Polish poetry,

represented by Lenartowicz, Ujejski, and




The most complete history of Poland is that now
in course of publication by Ropell and Caro in the
German language. The first volume (by Ropell)


appeared as long ago as 1840; the work has been
continued by Caro, and in the last volume which
was published in 1888 has reached the year 1506,
the, date of the death of King Alexander. It is a
most learned and able work, and has superseded, to
a certain extent, the earlier production of Lelewel,
which appeared first in French and was afterwards
translated into Polish, Appended to the work of
Lelewel is a useful atlas, containing a series of
historical maps. An excellent book is the Russ-
land, Polen und Livland bis ins 17 Jahr/mndert, of
Dr. Thomas Schiemann of Revel (1886), which
appeared in Oncken's Allgemeine GeschicJite. It
is illustrated with good maps and engravings, and
has with the two previous works been constantly
used in the preparation of the present volume. The
work entitled Pologne^ by M. Charles Forster, pub-
lished at Paris in 1840, although now out of date,
contains some useful information.

A very bright and picturesque book is the Dzieje
Polskiw Zarysie (" Sketch of the History of Poland "),
by Michael Bobrzynski, formerly a professor at Cracow.
To these ,works, dealing with the whole history of the
country, must be added the capital Skice His-
toryczne (" Historical Sketches "), of Karl Szajnocha,
in 4 volumes, full off valuable matter, and as enter-
taining as a novel. For Lithuanian history we have
the work of P. Briantsev (in Russian), Wilno, 1889,
and the suggestive Zamietki po Istorii Litovsko —
Russkago Gosudarstva (" Remarks on the History of
the Lithuanian-Russian Principality "), by N. Dash-
kevich (also in Russian).


For the early periods of Polish history the Latin
chroniclers are our authorities, just as the English
Latin chroniclers are to the English student. We
have already spoken of them in our brief literary
sketch. They will be found reprinted in the invalu-
able Monumenta Poloftice Historica, in 4 volumes,
begun by Bielowski, and continued by others after
his death. The chief are Gallus, Kadlubek, Boguch-
wal, Dlugosz, and Kromer. In what relation Dlugosz
stands to the old Russian chroniclers is shown by
Professor Bestuzhev-Riumin in his work O Sostave
Russkikh Lietopisei do Kontsa XIV vieka (" On the
Compilation of the Russian Chronicles till the end
of the Fourteenth Century "). There is also Bielovv-
ski's work, Wst^p Krytyczny do Dziejow Polskich
(" Critical Introduction to the History of Poland").
A complete edition of Dlugosz appeared at Leipzig
in 17 1 2 in 2 volumes. We have already, in the
course of our literary sketch, dwelt upon the charac-
teristics of these writers. A valuable work as con-
taining reprints of many of the old Polish chroniclers
is the PolonicB Historice Corpus, Basle, 1592. For
the reign of Ladislaus and the battle of Varna
we have the "Memoirs of the Janissary." The valuable
works of Narbutt have already been fully described.
The reigns of the two Sigismunds and Batory are
told by Sarnicki. Reference may also be made to
the Panoivanie Henryka Walezyusza i Stefana Bato-
rego (" Reign of Henry of Valois and Stephen
Batory "), by Albertrandi. Father Pierling has pub-
lished a valuable work on the relations of Stephen
with the Pope, entitled Papes et Tsars ; and we


must also refer to the same writer's account of the
False Demetrius, an episode which concerns Polish
and Russian history alike. For the history of Pro-
testantism and its struggles in Poland we have the
work of Count Valerian Krasinski, London, 1838, a
very readable book, though now perhaps a little out
of date. And the two valuable works in Russian of
N. Liubovich : Istoria Reformatsii v' Polske (" His-
tory of the Reformation in Poland"), Warsaw, 1883,
and Nachalo Katolicheskoi Reaktsii i Upadok Refor-
matsii V Polske (" The Commencement of the Catholic
Reaction and the Fall of the Reformation in Poland ").
An interesting work on Albert Laski has been pub-
lished by M. Kraushar (2 vols., Warsaw, 1882).
Among other accounts we get some curious details
of the Palatine's visit to England. He appears to
have been obliged to leave our country abruptly on
account of his debts. For the life of his more cele-
brated uncle Jan, there is the monograph of Dr. Her-
mann Dalton, of which a translation into English
has appeared (John a Lasco, London, 1886). For the
history of the Baltic provinces generally I have found
much curious information in an " Account of Livonia
with a Relation of the Rise, Progress, and Decay, of
the Marian Teutonick Order . . . sent in letters to his
Friend in London" (London, 1701).

A curious work is the Historia Belli Sveco-Mosco-
vitici, published by J. Widekind, in 1672 ; it gives an
account of the wars in the earlier part of the century.
For John Casimir and Michael Wisniowiecki we have
the " Memoirs of John Chrysostom Pasek " (Wilno,
1843), and subsequently reprinted. See also Ojczyste



Spoininki ("Memorials of the Fatherland"), edited
by A. Grabovvski, Cracow, 1845. For an account of
the Cossacks we must go to the interesting work of
Beauplan, Description d' Ukraine (Rouen, 1660). The
original is one of the rarest of books, but it has been
reprinted. Among modern productions we have the
book of M. Evarnitski, Zaporozhye v ostatkakh Starini
i Predaniakh Naroda (" The Zaporozhian Cossacks in
the Remains of Antiquity and the Traditions of the
People "). The author gives us a glowing and almost
idealised picture of these strange soldiers. His book
is illustrated with plates, showing relics of the old
Cossack days still preserved.

The Poland of Ladislaus IV. is described in the
Relation dii Voyage de la reine de Pologne. A terrible
account of the slaughter in the Cossack wars is
furnished by the Jewish writer, whose book was
published in a German translation under the title,
Jawen Mezula : Schilderiing des Polnischen-K osakisdi-
en Krieges und der Leiden der Juden in Polen wdhrend
der Jahre, 1648- 165 3.

The reign of Sobieski is well illustrated in the
work of Bernard Connor, who was his physician, and
gives many fresh details. We have largely quoted
from him as an eye-witness. The relief of Vienna
can be studied in the letters which Sobieski wrote
to his wife : Lis ty J ana IIL. krola polskiego, pisane do
krolowej Kazimierzy^ See. There is also the German
account previously referred to, which has been
translated into English. A curious book on Poland
is that of Hauteville, of which an English trans-
lation appeared (London, 1698). He may be read

COXE. 371

together with Connor, and puts the seventeenth-
century Poland vigorously before us. In the course
of the narrative some extracts have been given from
the travels of old Peter Mundy, still preserved in
manuscript in the Bodleian, to which our attention
was kindly called by Mr. Madan, one of the sub-
librarians. But only a small part of Mundy's
manuscript relates to Poland. For the history of
the Teutonic knights and the countries bordering on
Poland, we have, Hartknoch Alt-und Neues Preussen^
1684, an exceedingly curious book. For the reign
of Augustus II. we have the Abbe Parthenay, and
for the condition of Poland, just before the dismem-
berment, the letters of Lind should be read.

Coxe's travels are invaluable for the accurate
sketch of Polish history which they contain, and the
full account of the country. He was personally
acquainted with Stanislaus Poniatowski. For the
period of the last dismemberment the " Memoirs of
Kilinksi," the Warsaw shoemaker, are important. To
these must be added those of Oginski and Rulhi^re.
A minute account of the battle of Macieiowice, and
the imprisonment and subsequent release of Koscius-
zko will be found in the " Notes of my Captivity in
Russia," by the poet Niemcewicz, of which a trans-
lation appeared in English (Edinburgh, 1847).

It is impossible in a work of this kind to give a
complete list of the memoirs and historical writings
illustrating the Polish struggles during the present
century, but those of Mochnacki may be mentioned
for the insurrection of 1830, although they do not
appear to be in all cases reliable, and for the


insurrection of i860, the narratives of Mr. Day and
Mr. Sutherland Edwards. The interesting account
of the latter published by Berg, in the pages of
Russkaya Starina (" The Russian Antiquary "), has
not been reprinted. The memoirs of Prince Adam
Czartoryski have been edited by Mr. Gielgud
(London, 1888), and on the history of the Czartoryskis
the work, Pulawy, published at Lemberg in 1887
should be consulted.

A useful compendium of Polish law is the Jtis
Publicum Regni Poloni, published by G. Lengnich
at Danzig, in 1742. To this must be added Helcel,
Starodaivne praiva polskiego pomnike (" Memorials of
old Polish Law"), 185 7- 1870, Cracow, and the many
important works of Romuald Hube, who died in
1890. Helcel also edited the old Polish law-book of
the thirteenth century, now preserved at Elbing ;
there is also a Russian translation, and notes by M.
Vinaber (Warsaw, 1888).

For Polish Hterature we may recommend,
Pypin and Spasovich, Istoriya Slavyanskikh Litera-
tur (" History of Slavonic Literatures "), published
in 1 88 1 at St. Petersburg; there is a German trans-
lation. In this work the account of Polish literature is
done very fully. Valuable also is the Geschichte der
Pohiischen Literatur, by Heinrich Nitschmann, who
has also published a selection from the Polish poets
translated into German. Dr. Cybulski has written on
the Polish poets of the first half of the nineteenth

In English there is the useful little work of Mrs.
Robinson, published at New York in 1850 ; now,


unfortunately, somewhat out of date. Polish poetry
has not often been translated into English, and
seldom successfully. The courage of Some of our
enthusiasts seems to have paled before the imaginary
difficulties of the language. Campbell called Praga,
the suburb of Warsaw, Prague : did not know that
the accent in the name Niemcewicz was on the pen-
ultimate, and thought that Kosciuszko was a wore' of
four syllables/ Bowring's versions which appeared
many years ago are insipid. The translations in Paul
Soboleski's " Poets and Poetry of Poland," Chicago,
1 88 1, are partly taken from Bowring ; they are often
absolutely ungrammatical. Miss M. Biggs has pub-
lished some good translations, which may be relied
upon as strictly faithful versions. She has as yet
given to the public the Konrad Wallenrod and Pan
Tadeiisz of Mickiewicz. Materials for the scientific
study of the Polish language are not wanting ; we
have the excellent grammar of Prof. Malecki, and
the works published by Prof. Nehring, of Breslau.
The Prace Filologiczne^ which appears occasionally at
Warsaw, contains excellent articles on Polish philo-
logy. The great dictionary of Linde, of which a
second edition appeared in 1 854-1 860 afLemberg, is
a work of stupendous labour, but some of the articles
are now out of date, though the great progress of
comparative philology.

For Malo-Russian literature, which is fairly active
in Galicia, there is an excellent Chrestomathy by
Barvinski (Lemberg, 1870). Valuable works are the
Ruthenische Studien of Ogonovski, and the collections
of folk tales by Rudchenko, Kulish, and Dragomanov.


No part of Europe is richer in popular legends and
superstitions than the Ukraine. The works published
up to the present time convey but an inadequate idea
of its wealth. It was from the stories of old in-
habitants that Shevchenko took the plots of many of
his most realistic poems. The country is full of tales
of hetmans and their achievements ; the exploits of the
redoubtable Bogdan Khmelnitski, as might be ex-
pected, fissure very prominently. To this day the
common people believe that the ghost of the terrible
Jeremy Wisniowiecki, the hero of some sanguinary
engagements, haunts the country. The peasant who
meets him quails before his spectral gaze. Little
has been done as yet to make these curious stories
familiar to Western readers ; exception, perhaps,
must be made in the cases of Prof. Bodenstedt ; also
the writer of an article a short time ago in the Revue
des deux Mondes^ in which Turgueniev assisted, and
Obrist, author of a small work on Shevchenko. The
songs are full of superstitions about magic herbs,
birds, and other accessories of legends. We here
find what we have nowhere else met with, stories
of magic handkerchiefs, such as that which the
" Egyptian " gave to the mother of Othello.

A good Malo-Russian dictionary (long a desider-
atum) has been published by Zelechovski. Up to its
appearance the students of this interesting language
were obliged to content themselves with some meagre
vocabularies. The best grammar is that of Osadtsa,
published at Lemberg, a great centre of the language;
the Staropegian Institute being particularly active in
the publication of Malo-Russian books. Fedkovich has


already been mentioned. The poet Shevchenko, as
having been born a Russian subject, has been treated
of in the work on Russia, published in this series. The
White Russian dialect possesses no literature except
a few songs. The proverbs, however, have been
collected, and all Slavonic proverbs are interesting.
In 1844 was published at Wilno a book entitled,
Piosnki Wiesniacze z nad Niemna i Dzwiny, iv Mowie
Slawiano- K rewickiej (" Songs from the Banks of the
Niemen and Dwina, in the Slavo-Krevichian Dialect").
This Slavo-Krevichian dialect is none other than
White Russian. Of the White Russian songs a large
collection was published by Shein (St. Petersburg,
1874). The Polish natiot»al songs have been collected
by Waclaw z Oleska (1853, the earliest), Woicicki,
Zegota Pauli, Czeczota, and Oscar Kolberg.

No attempt has beerj made in the above h'st to
make a full classification. The books cited have, in
nearly every case, been used by ourselves, and are
familiar. It seemed preferable to adopt this course,
though very exhau'itive lists might have been
prepared by merely copying the names of the
authorities prefixed to the various sections of
Bobrzynski's history, which form one of the most
vah^able features K>f his useful book.


(Chiefly from the Historya Polska of Balinski, Warsaw,

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