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William Richards Castle William Roscoe Thayer.

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Rhodes, '* secure the peace of the world."
The Great Conspiracy falls through the
monstrous weight of its own untruth.

A book which created some exdte-
ment in the newspapers, but none within
the University, was Harvard InMe Ovi.
It contained rather poor caricatures of
some ot the Faculty — in moat cases it
was necessary to read the names to
recognize the individual — and feebly
humorous remarks, and was sold at a
price which ought to have nuuie the two
undergraduate authors rich. Some day,
perhaps, a genius in caricature will turn
up and succeed really in stirring the
academic world to academic wrath.

R. S. Holland, '00, has published an-
other Boy-Scout book entitled The Boy
Scouts qf Snow Shoe Lodge (Lippinoott).
It is a healthy, outdoor story which will
be read by a goodly number of boys who
love the woods and winter sports. Any-
thing that helps on the Boy-Scout move-
ment is worth while.

Father Payne, published anonymously
by Putnam, b supposed by many to be
the work of Mr. A. C. Benson. It is a
story without any plot, the story of the
influence on divers^characters of a high-
souled man. The chapters are little
essays, often charmingly expressed, and
often full of sound ideas, on all sorts
of subjects — "Cads and Pharisees,"
"Wrens and Lilies," "Homer," "Criti-
cism," and many more. There is nothing
in the book that is particularly original;
there is, perhaps, a certain lack of viril-
ity (which may have suggested Mr. Ben-
son as the author) ; there is always sanity
and helpful suggestiveness. "Father"
Payne himself, a man of robust phy-
sique, has many curiously feminine



traits, yet his influence is toward those
things which are manly.

Few pamphlets ever issued have
caused as much oonunent in the press all
over the country as that written by
Pres. Eliot and put out by the General
Education Board. In it is discussed at
length the value of sense-training for
children, and the schools are sharply at-
tacked for Defecting just this part of
education. It is certainly true that
many of us neither see nor hear much of
what goes on around us, and that sense-
training in youth would increase both
our e£Bciency and our happiness, but it
is hardly fair to seize on the pamphlet,
as some radicals have done, as an argu-
ment in favor of shopwork as against
mathematics.

A useful book for the prospective
investor is American and Foreign Inoeai-
ment Bonds, by W. L. Raymond, '99.
(Houghton Mifflin Co.) It discusses in
some detail foreign government bonds,
as available for the American investor,
bringing the treatment down to the
present and therefore showing the effect
on probable values of the European War.
The book discusses, also. State, rail-
road, municipal, and industrial bonds,
always from the point of view of one
who has had experience in buying and
selling. From the point of view of the
student of the subject the book can
hardly be said to add to scientific knowl-
edge; but it was written for the ordi-
nary man, not the student, and it is
eminently practical.

The April issue of the Hartard Law
Review is "In Celebration of the Sev-
enty-fifth Birthday of Mr. Justice
Holmes." It contains an interesting
article on the "Constitutional Opinions
of Justice Holmes," by Prof. Frank-
furter, and artides by Sir Frederidc
Pollock, J. H. Wigmore, '83, Morris R.
Cohen, Ph.D. '06, Eugen Ehrlich, of



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787



Vienna, Learned Hand, *08, and Dean
Roscoe Pound, of the Law School.

On May 11 the Harvard Advocate
celebrated its dOth anniversary. About
75 past and present editors attended
the dinner at the Copley Plaza Hotel
in Boston.

Pamphlets received: Incarnation: An
Essay in Three ParU, by A. H. Lloyd.
'86. University of Michigan. This essay,
reprinted from the American Journal of
Theology, is a discussion of the modem
superstition of "an external natural
world," regarded at best as an evil; a
plea for "a greater intimacy of the spir-
itual with the natural**; for the sub-
stance of ideals, and for the practical
value of mystery. — The Colorado In-
dustrial Plan, by John D. Rockefeller,
Jr., 1916. A sincere and lucid definition
of the "Colorado plan" of codperation
between employers and employees, re-
printed from the Atlantic Monthly; also
speeches made by Mr. Rockefeller in
Colorado. — Report of the Special Com-
mission on Military Education and Re-
serve. (Boston: Dec. 1916.) A sensible
discussion, based on published evidence
of greater or less value, of our need for
greater preparedness. Many will feel
that the report does not go far enough
in its recommendations. — Othello: An
Historical and Comparative Study, by £.
D. StoU, Ph.D., University of Minnesota
Studies in Language and Literature, No, £.
A human and interesting study of the
character of Othello as estimated by
various students of Shakespeare, and as
considered in the light of dramatic tradi-
tion. — Lock Gates, Chain Finders, and
Lock Entrance Caissons of the Panama
Canal, by Henry Goldmark, '78, late
Designing Engineer of the Isthmian
Canal Commission. An excellent, fully
illustrated, technical paper, presented at
the Engineering Congress in San Fran-
cisco in Sept., 1915. — Economized Comr



mereial Spelling, by Henry Holt, LL.D.,
a member of the Overseers' Committee
to visit the Department of Philosophy.
A paper reprinted, with additions, from
the Unpopular Review. It urges "re-
formed spelling" as an economy that
would probably amount to "hundreds
of millions annually." Among the "re-
forms" advocated are "aprooch" for
"approach," "bax" for "backs," "egd"
for "egged," and "ofr" for "oflFer."
Why call it the English language? — An
Opportunity for College Fraternities, by
W. G. Read, '09, reprinted from School
and Society, Sept. 25, 1915. A sane and
helpful discussion of the possibilities of
co5peration between groups — it mat-
ters not whether dubs or fraternities —
and college administrative officers for
the improvement of standards and the
best good of the individual student; such
cooperation being possible, of course,
only "where conditions of mutual under-
standing exist." — A Modem School, by
Abraham Flexner, A.M. '06. (General
Education Board, N.Y., 1916). A vigor-
ous plea for practical education which
omits everything which does not clearly
serve some specific purpose. It will
please many. Those who still love the
Classics and agree with a good part of
the world as to the value of introducing
children to the greatest monuments of
literature, will feel that this modern
school may possibly increase the specific
efliciency of the pupil, almost as much as
it will decrease his general happiness in
later life. — An Old Italian Version qf
the Legend of Saint Alexius, by Rudolph
Altrocchi, '08, reprinted from the Ro-
mantic Review. This is the first publica-
tion of a legend found in a volume in the
Biblioteca Riccardiana in Florence. It is
a scholarly piece of editing. — Expert (or
Opinion) Testimony in Rate Valuation
Cases, by John H. Gray, '87, reprinted
from the Proceedings of the Valuation



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Literary Notes.



[June,



Congress. A hiftorical connderation of
rules of evidence with practical nigges-
tioos for the reform of procedure in
valuation cases. — On a Possible Causal
Mechanism for Heav&'FauU Slipping in
the California Coast Range Region; The
Seismic Prelude to the 1914 Erupion of
Mauna Loa; On the Earthquake of 1868 in
Hawaii; The Hawaiian Volcano Obser-
vaiory; On the Region of Origin of the
Central California Earthquakes cf July,
AuguH, and September, 1911; by H. O.
Wood, '02. These pamphlets, reprinted
from the Bulletin cf the Seismologieal
Society of America, are interesting and
able technical discussions of the phenom-
ena of earthquakes by a man who has
been for several years associated with T.
A. Jaggar, Jr., '93, at the observation
station at the Volcano of Kilauea, Ha-
waii. — Ths Harvard Medical School of
China, Inc. The fifth annual report on
the splendid work being done by this
distant institution. It proves that the
School continues worthy of cordial sup-
port. — The Answer and Other Poems, by
H. P. Dilworth. (Privately printed.
Cambridge, 1015.) Short poems, some-
times memorable in phrasing, which
show often a keen appreciation of beauty
and a fine sensibility. — Twenty-Five
5oiMM<», by C. E. Whitmore, *07. (Priv-
ately printed. Cambridge, 1915.) Not
important but entirely respectable in
craftsmanship. Some of the sonnets
have appeared in the Transcript, ~* A
Brief Bibliography of Books in English,
Spani^, and Portuguese, Rdating to the
Republics Commonly Called Latin Ameri"
can, with Comments, by P. H. Goldsmith.
(New York: The MacmOhm Co., 1915.)
The author has produced a very useful
manual of reference for any one inter-
ested in the Latin American countries.
It does not pretend to be exhaustive, but
covers a large number of books, giving a
short critical comment on each. — Can^



eer Commission of Harvard University.
Third Annual Report, (For the year
ending June 90, 1915.) — A Loan Exkv-
bition of Early Italian Engravings. Fogg
Art Museum, (Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1915.) A fully illus-
trated and admirably annotated cata-
logue of a distinguished exhibition. The
book is useful for permanent reference,
and is a credit, as was the exhibition it-
self, to the staff of the Museum. — Lawa
and Regulations Regarding Ike Use cf
Water in Pan-American Countries, by
Rome G. Brown, '84. A paper read
before the Second Pan-American Scien-
tific Congress, held at Washington in
December, 1915, and January, 1916.

BHOBT REVnWB.

The Stewardship of Faitk, by Kirsopp
Lake, Professor of Early Christian
Literature. Lowell Lectures in
1913-14. New York: G. P. Put-
nam's Sons, 1915.

One of Prof. Lake's colleagues some-
times refers to him as a "belated Pil-
grim" because, nearly three hundred
years after Brewster and Bradford, he
came to New England from Old England
by way of Leyden. Mmeover, he has
fitted into the College and the commun-
ity as into a place exactly cut out for him
from the beginning. So one takes up his
book with confident expectation, for its
theme is a problem of adjustment in the
art of which he has proved himself a
master.

The object of the book is to derive
from the early history of Christianity a
lesson for its present guidance. In the
first century of our era, Christianity as a
Jewish faith entered into a widely differ-
ent world from that in which it origi-
nated, and not only survived but con-
quered there. Now, after so many cen-
turies, it finds itself again in a new world



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of human thought and need where it
must domicile itself or perish. Perhaps
the same method by which it succeeded
in the first century will avaO also in the
twentieth. Prof. Lake aims to show that
the method consisted in acknowledging
plasticity of form responsive to intellect-
ual and social environment.

Evidently, the idea is not novel, but
the precedent is calculated to remove
prejudice, and the modem application is
exceptionally thorough-going. For even
those who theoretically accept the prin-
ciple usually feel obliged to make a
stand at one or another point in the proc-
ess and declare that to go further would
destroy that which is essential and there-
fore must be inviolable. Hence it is de-
cidedly worth while to show, as Dr.
Lake has done, how deep and radical
was the change in Christianity when it
passed from the Jewish into the Graeco-
Roman world. The original form of the
new faith is described as consistently
eschatological, determined by apocalyp-
tic Messianism. But when this was car-
ried out into the Gentile world on the
powerful stream of religious influence
then flowing from East to West, as the
political current was running in the op-
posite direction, it was necessarily appre-
hended by converts having quite differ-
ent interests and ideas. The Jew was
concerned mainly with the question
what he must do to be safe in the im-
pending Messianic crisis; the Greek,
ignorant of Messianic hopes and fears,
longed to become a new man through
some mystical process of regeneration
that he might enjoy immortal blessed-
ness. Consequently Chrbtianity was
transformed from an eschatological into
a sacramental religion which, through its
conflicts with heathenism, Gnosticism,
and the crude thought of *'uninstructed
Christians," developed into Catholicism
which, forgetting its own hbtory, in-



voked the authority of a supernatural
past to support its claim of finality for
the future. If, then, so fundamental a
change occurred in the early centuries,
may not another, equally fundamental,
occur in our own time provided we clear-
ly recognize the character of our present
forms in the light of their origin and
development?

Dr. Lake is well aware that certain
particular methods of adaptation which
were employed in the earlier time are no
longer commendable, nor if resorted to
would they prove effective. Instead of
changing form to meet the new condi-
tions, Christianity in fact often retained
its forms but charged them with new
meaning. For example, baptism and the
Lord's Supper, originally eschatological
in significance, became sacramental and
"the Lord" became the divine-human
centre of a sacramental cult. Although
this method is in some favor nowadays.
Dr. Lake shrinks from it as savoring of
intellectual dishonesty. Yet, he himself
seems sometimes to approach danger-
ously near the pit against which he often
warns us. For example, he approves the
formula of two natures in one person as a
reconciliation between the facts of his-
tory and the values of religion, explain-
ing it by the presence in every man of
two elements which he calls the human
and the divine, the individualizing and
the unifying, quite unmindful, appar-
ently, that by such an interpretation he
nullifies that uniqueness of Christ which
it was the main purpose of the ancient
formula to declare. Again, he interprets
sacrament as a recognition of spiritual
quality in the ordinary events and proc-
esses of life, whereas the sacrament
historically and properly denotes that
which carries a potency peculiarly its
own. One suspects that, in such matters,
the author's suggestions are not per-
fectly in harmony with his principles.



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[June,



However this may be, the great value
of the book lies in its unconscious dis-
closure of the sort of man a theologian
must be who would meet the present
critical situation. The author shows
himself keenly alive to existing condi-
tions, with flashes of penetrating insight
into the meaning of contemporary
events. Every page also reveals the
modesty and open-mindedness, as well
as the learning of a genuine scholar.
With never a suggestion of pedantry, the
reader is everywhere conscious of the
light but sure touch of a master, who
deals not only with details intellectually
apprehended but also with values sym-
pathetically appreciated. It is precisely
this power of sympathetic appreciation
which has enabled Dr. Lake to adjust
himself so promptly and perfectly to his
new environment and it is also the first
and most imperative prerequbite for the
momentous task to which Dr. Lake sum-
mons not only the professional theolo-
gian but also every thoughtful Christian.

The Challenge of the Future, by Roland
G. Usher, '01. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Co.
Prof. Usher has not been able to avoid
the somewhat hectic fascination of diplo-
matic analysis. Already well known for
his two admirable works on Tudor and
Stuart history, he has turned aside from
the forbidding path of laborious research
to the more genial highways where every
man is as good as his neighbor, because'
both are, for the most part, equally ig-
norant. Therefore a flat contradiction of
the airy hypothesis of his book will not
be possible until, perhaps two genera-
tions from now, the chancelleries of
Europe yield up their grim secrets. Still,
as Prof. Usher dramatically says, the
future is indeed challenging us. We have
to survey his interpretation of its chal-
lenge. He does not provide us with any



apparatus eriiietu; *' the logical structure
of the work must be its own justifica-
tion." So, when he gives us some vague
rumor about the United States occupy-
ing the Philippines as the trustees of
Great Britain (p. 265), or foreshadows a
possibility that South America will inter-
fere to protect the Central Republics
from the aggression of the American
people (p. 816), or makes the utterly
amazing assertion (p. 118) that "behind
the present European policies stand sub-
tle and far-reaching conceptions trace-
able to Darwinism and the Mendelian
law, to the study of diplomatics and of
index-numbers," one puts aside, among
others, the fascinating picture of Mr.
Asquith discussing with the late Sir
Francis Gallon the quarrels of Prof.
Karl Pearson, or of Mr. Lloyd George
arguing the nice points of a Burgundian
charter with Dr. R. L. Poole, and con-
cludes that, with Prof. Usher, Clio is
veritably a muse, and that at all costs
the story she has to tell must be narrated
in high color and deepened shadows.
We are not, in fact, dealing with scien-
tific history.

America, says Prof. Usher, is faced by
two grave dangers — the one distant,
the other contingent. The danger at
hand is the aggressive position in the
Pacific occupied by the United States by
reason of its ownership of the Panama
Canal. That highway must be protected*
and its protection involves preparedness.
Yet in this also there is danger, since it
may involve invasion to secure the ces-
sion of that favored position. America
need not expect any European sympathy
for her interests, since it is clear that
they are not consistent with European
needs and have excited, when stated by
President Wilson, not only suspicion on
the Continent of America, but also dis-
trust in Europe. American rights, in
fact, are, since the modem world is an



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Literary Notes.



741



interdependent whole, interpenetrated
by European ambitions. Against these
protection has to be sought if the pros-
perity essential to material, moral, and
political reform is to continue. Only
armed force can protect that prosperity.
Yet America cannot hope for isolation
any longer, nor is that policy expedient.
Clearly, therefore, some foreign alliance
is essential, and it is only with Great
Britain that an alliance on favorable
terms is to be secured. There is no fun-
damental dash of interest between the
two countries. There is the alliance of
blood. Great Britain would gain a cer-
tain source of supplies, and a safe loca-
tion for its investment. America would
gain the aid of British aearpower, and
thus the assurance of a better and cheap-
er merchant marine than she can her-
self provide. American interests in the
Far East ought, where abnormal, to be
abandoned; the Monroe Doctrine, in its
literal interpretation, is no longer pos-
sible; over Central America and the
Gulf of Mexico a definite control ought
to be preserved.

Baldly stated. Prof. Usher's book has,
at any rate, the outstanding merit of ar-
guing a fairly obvious thesis. It is quite
clear that the war has altered the orient-
ation of the world; it is no less true that
sea-power is of essential importance;
America certainly cannot stand alone;
there are people who would like to oc-
cupy South America; there is a natural
harmony of interest between America
and Great Britain which suggests — as
the New RepuUie has so ably argued —
a beneficial alliance. The difficulty ex-
perienced in the reading of this book is
why it is necessary for the writer (except
as a problem in individual psychology)
to develop the thesis as a series of tense
situations, in the manner of a certain fa-
mous character in fiction who loved to
make the flesh of his hearers creep very



hideously. Prof. Usher really has some-
thing very simple to put forward; he
would be more effective if he put it for-
ward simply. Aslt is, he gives us a series
of heartrending palpitations for which
the relief of final understanding is hardly
compensation. We require something
more for such mountainous labor than
the mouse that has become too honored
by the lapse of time.

Oermany vs. Civilvsation, by W. R.
Thayer, '81. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Co.

If any one has supposed Mr. William
Roscoe Thayer to be pro-German in his
sentiments he will hardly be able to read
** Germany vs. Civilization" without hav-
ing his confidence in that supposition
very much shaken. Mr. Thayer goes for
Germany with a hot poker. "Notes on
the Atrocious War" is the sub-title of his
book, and all through he speaks of the
war as the Atrocious War. Mr. Thayer
rehearses for us the whole case against
Germany which we began to study a
year ago last August, and of which, in
the course of six weeks, most literate
Americans had acquired a working
knowledge.

It is useful to have the points of this
case gathered in a compact and readable
volume as Mr. Thayer has done it. His
labors began last November, and were
stimulated apparently by the fear that
our early horror of the German outbreak
and the spirit behind it, had grown faint,
and needed to be revived. He felt that
President Wilson had been too mild and
had neglected to give to the country the
leadership that the circumstances de-
manded, so he applied himself to restate
the case, as a means of arousing his
fellow citizens from their torpidity.

He has made a rousing book and one
that will stay on the war-bookshelf after
many volumes have been eliminated.



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Literary Notes



[JaDOy



Both iti matter and its manner will keep
it there. Mr. Thayer has not been a his-
torian for nothing. He is a judge of ma-
terial and knows how to use it. And he is
an eloquent and searching writer, bring-
ing to such a task as this much service-
able knowledge of modern European his-
tory and a point of view which has a
lofty spiritual elevation.

He undertakes ** to trace the stages by
which the ancient pagan ideals revived
in Prussia, and were diffused — a moral
Prussic acid — through Germany." He
tells of the Germans that were, and of
the old German ideals. He discloses the
background of the German mind, and
records the processes by which the teu-
tonic traits were manipulated. He tells
of the "Kaiser and Gott" partnership;
discusses William the Peacemaker; dis-
cusses Kultur; records the Prussianizing
of Germany; tells how the war began;
rehearses the crime against Belgium;
gives a chapter to Mendacity, another
to "Germanizing America," another to
"The Shipwreck of Kultur," and winds
up with a discussion of "Despotism or
Democracy."

It is an eloquent and inspiring book,
wholesome in the main, and admirably
readable. One could fill pages with
striking quotations from it. Here are
some fragments:

No plea for a place in the sun can juBtifv the
cruelty and the cunning which it« attaining
involves.

The Religion of Satan is a thin di^niise
for brutality, in which Man at the touch of
the Devil's wand is metamorphosed back into
his Beast Original.

Gott the German deity, is a tribal god. made
in the image of the Germans who created him.

Wherever we test it, Kultur breaks down.
No modern race except the Germans could
have invented ic; so only Germans can both
use it and glory in its use. It is like the harness
of steel and straps that a cripple has to wear:
by practice he learns to move about in it ^ith
ease; but though he be a giant he is none the
less a cripple, and the steel and straps are none
the less a harness.

Under Vhatever name Kultur operates, it



tends downward. The individual who thinks
himself a Superman is likely to end in a mad-
house or on the gallows: the nation, despotic
king, or hierarchy, whieh substitutes its own
selfish interests for huniAnity, shuts itself out
from humanity, becomes inhuman, revives
and warships standards of the Besst, and heads
straight for perdition.

This last quotation is the more inter-
esting at this writing in view of the cen-
sure which President Wilson has incurred
from various political critics for saying
that our country "will have forgotten
her traditions. Whenever she Bghis
merely for herself under such circum-



Online LibraryWilliam Richards Castle William Roscoe ThayerThe Harvard graduates' magazine → online text (page 100 of 103)