William Richards Castle William Roscoe Thayer.

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to serve with the American Red Cross.

H. B. Willis, ['12], who has been work-
ing with the American Ambulance Corps
from Pont-&-Mous8on, was mentioned
for bravery for his excellent work in car-
rying wounded from a farmhouse which
was under shell and rifle fire. He has
written articles about the war for the

C. F. Hawkins, p '18, who entered
Oxford last autumn as a Rhodes Scholar
from Massachusetts, spent a good part
of the winter assisting the American Re-
lief Commission in Belgium. His work
was especially in the Province of Lux-

W. P. Draper, '18, is a 5ed lieutenant
in the Royal Field Artillery, in command
of an ammunition column in the 88d
Brigade of the Eighth Division of the
British Expeditionary Force. He has
seen continuous active service since he
was sent to the front some months ago.

Dr. Richard P. Strong, Professor of
Tropical Diseases in the Medical School,
has been doing a marvelous work in Ser-
bia in the disinfecting of the towns and
in the eradication of typhus. Medical
men say that Dr. Strong's position is
really more dangerous than that of sol-
diers in the trenches. It is the most im-
portant possible life-saving work. Some
of the hardships and successes of the
work are described, in diary form, by
Dr. Strong, in the August number of the
American Red Cross Magazine, and this
simple, unpretentious article gives, bet-
ter than any more formal report could
do, an idea of the difliculties to be sur-
mounted, and of the scope of what must
be accomplished. That very much has

Digitized by


232 Harvey H. Baker^ Juvenile Court Judge. [September,

already been done is proved by a letter
to the American Red Cross, written at
the end of June by Sir Thomas Lipton.
*'The work that has been performed by
Dr. Strong and his staff," he says, "has
been miraculous in the way of killing
this disease. Many hospitals that I ▼!»-
ited the last time I was in the country
were full of typhus cases, but this time I
called they had none. At Uskub, the
headquarters of Dr. Strong, some of the
hospitals are closing up. I could hardly
believe that in such a short time the
staff you sent out here could have made
such a change. The terrible si^ts that
I witnessed in connection with typhus
when I was in Serbia the first time aro
now finished." In addition to his attadc
on typhus Dr. Strong is inoculating for
cholera and is woridng to get the whole
country into a really sanitary condition.
F. T. Colby. '05. was with the Ameri-
can Ambulance for several months in the
autumn, serving in the North. At the
end of that time he felt that the organi-
sation hampered the freedom of his
squad, which he had raised and financed
independently, so he broke loose and got
a station with the Belgian army. At
present he is doing splendid work with a
section of more than 20 cars. All his
drivers and mechanics are enlisted men
from the Belgian army and he is in entire
charge of an important section of the
front now held by that force He is not
permitted by the militaiy authorities to
have any volunteers in his corps, as there
can be no question of implicit obedience.
It is said that the excellence of his per-
sonal service and efficiency is to be recog-
nized with the Order of Leopold.


In Judge Baker, of the Juvenile Court
of Boston, Harvard furnished a leader in

a new fidd of service. He was master of
his subject and of his court, yet he made
himself the willing servant of the unfor-
tunates who gave it cause for ezistence.

Within a few years the public mind
has advanced wonderfully in matters
relating to the prevention of evil as dis-
tinguished from its mere alleviation, in
no quarter has this revolution from old
ideas been so mariced as in the problems
of delinquent children. Both in courts
and homes the trend is away from the
old views of children burdened with
"original sin." Everywhere is a growing
willingness to investigate and if possible
remove the causes of that sinfulness or

The term "juvenile court" in its pres-
ent sense was unknown twenty years ago.
Today it is one to conjure with, so much
has been done for the advancement of
humanity in a few such tribunals, or, as
they have more properly become, social
dinics. Harvard has done nu»e than its
share in this good work. The names of
Mack and Carpenter in Chicago and of
Harvey Baker in Boston stand out as
leaders and exemplars.

In 1906 the LcgisUture of Massachu-
setts created a juvenile court for the city
of Boston with broad new powers, the
first court created solely to administer
juvenile cases. Gov. Curtis Guild called
Harvey Humphrey Baker, '91, to be its
presiding judge. After nine years his
work was cut short on April 10, 1915,
when he succumbed to an attack of pneu-
monia after a week's illness at his home
in Brookline.

Harvey Humphrey Baker was a
Yankee of Yankees. His father came
from Cape Cod, which has sent forth
many of that name to make fame for
themselves and their communities. His
grandfather Humphrey owned a large
farm on and near Newton Street, Brook-
line, a portion of which later became

Digitized by


1915.] Harvey H. Baker, Juvenile Court Judge.


part of the Brookline Country Club. In
the enlarged farmhouse his mother was
married to James Baker, a merchant,
and in it Judge Baker was bom and lived
his life of forty-six years.

He prepared for College at the Rox-
bury Latin School. In College he took a
high stand as a scholar. He was given a
detur, took a Boylston Prise for decla-
mation, and a Bowdoin Prize. He re-
ceived honorable mention in Political
Economy and History, final honors in
Political Science, was a Phi Beta Kappa
man, and entitled to a Dissertation at

Three years in the Harvard Law
School, with both 1894,
completed his seven years at Cambridge.
After a week's vacation he entered the
law office of Hayes, '84, and WiUiams,
'85, in Boston. In six months he became
a member of the firm, later known as
Hayes, Williams, Baker & Hersey, and
continued in that connection up to his
death. For a year he was derk of the
Police Court of Brookline, and then from
1895 to 1906 a special justice of that

In 1895 he served as secretary of a
conference of Child Helping Societies of
Boston and vicinity, and in that capacity
revised and edited a Manual Jot Use in
Caset of Juvenile Offendere,

He was always alive to his duties as a
citixen and from eariy manhood took an
active speaking part in the great town
meetings of Brookline, probably the
most populous town in the United States.
For a number of years Judge Baker had
been one of the Advisory Committee of
Thirty of the town to pass upon the arti-
cles in town warrants. He also served
as a trustee of the public cemetery of that

In religious matters he was active for
years as chairman of the standing com-
mittee of the Unitarian Church in Ja-

maica Plain, of which Rev. Charles F.
Dole, '09, is the minister.

But it was in the Juvenile Court that
he found his great opportunity. Though
an able lawyer, with capacity for any
advancement at the bar or on the bench,
he preferred the humanitarian problems
of this new court. He saw at once its
possibilities permanently to improve
social conditions. The court found in
him an ideal judge and, through his
nine years of work, found itself famous
thzou^out the country. It became the
best example of the successful application
of the new methods, directed primarily to
prevention of crime, not through the sole
method of fear and punishment, but
largely by the thorough investigation of
causes and surroundings, seeking to re-
move such as tended to crime, and try-
ing in the specific human examples
brought it to build up the material for
future right conduct as well as to apply
the proper deterrents from a repetition
of the delinquency, misdemeanor, or

He had the "child sense" bom in him.
It enabled him, a bachelor, to under-
stand the problems of his court and of
his cases. Few married men with large
families and the experience of many
years could display an equal availability
for that work. He was naturally high-
minded. His treatment of cases of
"tough" girls was both delicate and
masterly. Women who had opportunity
to witness this phase of his work have
been loud in their praise of his methods
and results.

Bom and living in the country, he was
ever a country boy in spirit, fond of out-
of-door life and the delights of nature.
This view of life, with his own early
discipline of chores about the place, gave
him sympathy for the tenement-housed
boys and girls brought to his court, ^e
recognized that the lack of discipline and

Digitized by


284 Harvey H, Baker ^ Juvenile Court Judge. [September,

of outlet for extra energy in their con-
fined and often vacant lives had bred the
causes for many of his court cases.

The parents of many boys and girls
came to know and understand in a new
way their own duldren after a hearing
in Judge Baker's court. He opened the
eyes of both parents and children to
duties and possibilities of which th^
had been ignorant. The msm he was
able to do this the greater became his
interest in the opportunities of his work.
He made every effort to produce a last-
ing result for good from the bringing of
each case into his court.

To make sure of what he was doing,
he paid from his own pocket an expert
investigator from another city to study
his court, his methods, his results, and to
report to him the finding. The fact that
it was done is a tribute to his courage
and his modesty.

With all his heartfelt interest in the
individual delinquents, his was no molly-
coddle court. No man could be more
righteously angry than he with a really
criminal case or a responsible and delin-
quent parent. He did not hesitate to
make necessary conunitments to institu-
tions or to let the rigor of the law take
its course. In doing this, however, he
knew just what he was doing, for he had
made himself familiar with the institu-
tions for juveniles, was a student of their
methods, and of the results they pro-
duced upon the human subject-matter,
their inmates.

He studied broadly all the phases of
juvenile delinquency and was a regular
attendant and frequent speaker at na-
tional and state conferences of charities
and correction. In 1914 he was president
of the Massachusetts Conference. His
investigations showed f eeble-mindedness
to be the cause of many of the youthful
delinquencies brought before his court
and led him to take a great interest in

the formation of the Massachusetts So-
ciety for Mental Hygiene, of which he
was made president.

When the Juvenile Court was created
it was supposed that the work of the
judge, assisted by the previous investi-
gations of his probation officers, would
be a half-time job, over at one o*cl<x^.
Judge Baker, realising the possibilities
of this court, made its cause his own.
He gave freely of himself for it, dropped
all of his private practice and often held
special sessions in the afternoons, some-
times in the evenings, as a convenience
to parents. The court became regularly
an all-day work for him.

He spoke for it and about it in public
gatherings, dubs, and societies when-
ever the opportunity offered, cund made
known the work of the court and his
aspirations for it and the chance to help
the human victims of circumstances or
surroundings who came before it. Thus
he enlisted support for the principles of
the court, and, when necessary, help and
sympathy for worthy cases which came
to his attention.

The work of the court was done in
most unattractive and dismal quarters
in a semi-basement suite of rooms whose
only outlook was the bottom of a deep
interior quadrangle of a high city court-
house. In and out of his plain courtroom
came and went the children with their
parents. "Here daily he sat hour after
hour, solving the problems of thousands,
a father to them all! Always giving the
children and thor parents a chance to
work out their own salvation if they
could with the help of the court, and
then, as chief probation officer as well as
judge, nursing with Urdess care their
development in moral character.

"Did you ever see him say good-bye
to a boy who, through successful proba-
tion, had gained the victory over him«
self? That little dismal room was then

Digitized by



ITie Meyer Incident.


brightened with 'the light that never
was on land or sea' as, with that smik
which blessed all on whom it fell, he
bade him a godspeed and let him go."

What a classmate has written of him
is a fitting characterization of him and
his work: "An unusually large number
of our citizens have realized the unselfish
devotion and public spirit which Judge
Baker put into his work. They saw a life
of extreme purity coming into the closest
personal relation with children whose
lives had always been darkened, shining
upon them out of the warmth and kind-
liness of his heart, reaching out to them
a helping hand and raising them up by
the sheer strength and beauty of his own
character. Those who can also see in
Judge Baker a leader in a great move-
ment for the benefit of unfortunate chil-
dren which is to raise the moral standard
of the whole race, have a picture of hu-
man service, the equal of which it is hard
for us to conceive."

Henry M, Willianu, '85.


Late last autunm Prof. Kuno Meyer,
the German Celtic scholar, was invited
to give at Harvard a lecture on Celtic
Literature. When it was learned, how-
ever, that Dr. Meyer used his lecture as
a means of conducting a pro-German
propaganda among the Irish- Americans,
the invitation was withdrawn. Accord-
ing to the New York papers. Dr. Meyer
thereupon criticized very brusquely Har-
vard's action: but this did not prevent
him from allowing himself, at the urgen-
cy of one of the German professors at
Harvard, to be a candidate for appoint-
ment as German Exchange Professor at
Harvard during the next academic year.

Then the publication by the Harvard
Advocate of an undergraduate poem re-
sulted in Professor Meyer's exasperation.

The Advocate offered a prize of $10 for the
best poem on the European War. The
judges. Dean L. B. R. Briggs and Prof.
Bliss Perry, awarded the prize to the f ol-
k>wing sonnet, simply on the basis of
poetic excellence compared with the com-
peting poems: —


No doubt ye are the people: wiBdom's flame
Springs from your cannon — yea, from yours

God needs your dripping lanoe to prop his
Your i^eeful torch His glory to proclaim.
No doubt ye are the people: far from shame
Your Captains who deface the sculptured

Which, by the labor and the blood and bone
Of pious millions, calls upon His name.

No doubt ye are the folk: and H is to prove
Your wardenship of Virtue and of Lore
Ye sacrifice the Truth in reeking gore

Upon your altar to the Prince of Love.
Yet still cry we who still in darkness plod:
" 'T is Antichrist ye serve, and not our G5d.*!

The author is C. Huntington Jacobs,
'16. The sonnet was published in the Ad'
vocate of April 9. A fortnight later Dr.
Meyer gave the following letter to the
press, and sent a copy of it to President
Lowell: —

Mabtlakd Club. BALTtMOBX, Md.,
April 20, 1915.
Sib, —

I hear that the slanderous and vile poem
entitled "Gott mit uns," which under the
heading "Harvard Prise Poem" has recently
made the round of the American press, was
actually awarded a prise by two members of
the Harvard professorate, Messrs. Briggs and
Perry. This gratuitous and shameless in-
sult to the honor and fair fame of a friendly
nation has called forth no word of censure
or disavowal from you. Sir, or from any of
the authorities of ^e institution over which
you preside.

It is the pretence of Harvard to cultivate
within its precincts a true spirit of neutrality.
Let me recall to you the noble words in which
President Wilson the other day defined that
spirit. Its basis is to be "sympathy for man-
kind, fairness, good will, impartiality of spirit
and of judgment." By singling out this dam-
nable poem for a prise, by its publication in
the pages of the Advocate, by silently conniv-
ing at its wider circulation in the press. Har.
vard has revealed its_true spirit, whioh is one

Digitized by



Associated Harvard Clubs.


of wnmitigfttad hostility to my ooontry and
people aod to their cauae. It is the same
spirit which animates evoy word recently
written on Germany by your p re d e eessor.

At a time when it behooves ail aoademie
institutions and bodies, bat especially those of
neutral countries, to exert all their influenee
for promoting amity in international relations,
for safeguarding the common interests of
science, scholarship, and learning, for healing
some of the wounds which the war has struck,
the University of Harvard has wantonly and
wickedly gone out of its way to carry strife
into the hallowed peace of the academic world
by heaping insult upon a people to which it,
in common with aiMl above the rest of America,
owes 80 much. Even our open and declared
enemies have recoiled from such an action.
You and the institution which you represent
stand branded before the world and posterity
as abettors of international animosity, as traitp
ors to the sacred cause of humanity.

In the name of my native country I protest
against this outrage, and I know that my pro-
test will be echoed not only by the whole of
Germany, but by every fair-minded and hon-
est American.

As for myself, I endorse the hope expressed
by my brother, an honorary graduate of your
University, that no German will again be
foimd to accept the post of Exchange Profes-
sor at Harvard. Some of your colleagues
have done me the honor to invite me to be-
come a candidate for that post for next ses-
sion. Setting aside all personal feelings I ac-
cepted in the hope of serving the cause of
learning. I now withdraw my consent and
regret that I was induced, at a time when my
country is engaged in a life-and-death strug-
l^e at which you only scoCF, to set foot in the
defiled precincts of a once noble University.
Kmo Mbtbr.

P.S. — I am sending a copy of this letter to
the press.

To this letter President LoweU has
replied: —

April 27, 1915.
My nnAB Psofbbsob Mbtbr:

Your letter has come, and I am grieved at
the feeling of irritation against Harvard that
it shows. The poem and prise to which you
refer I had never heard of untU your letter
came. On inquiry I find that it was a prise
offered by the students for a student poem, a
matter with which the authorities of the Uni-
versity can hardly interfere.

As you are aware, the freedom of speech of
neither the professors nor the students in an
American university is limited, nor are they
themselves subject in their utterances to the
direction of the authorities. On the contrary,
we have endeavored to maintain the right of
all members of the University to express them-
selves freely, without censorship or supervi-
sion by the authorities of the University, and

have applied this rule impartiaUy to those who
favor Germany, and thdse who favor the Al-
lies — to the former in the face of a pretty
violent agitation for mussling professors by
the alumni of the University and outsiders.
Thii policy of freedom of speech we shall
continue to pursue, for we believe it to be the
only one which accords with the principle of
academic freedom. I hope the time will come
when you aiMl your oc^eagues in Germany
will recognise that this course is the only right
one; and that it is essential to the cause of
universal scholarship simI human progress that
scholars should associate together again on
friendly terms, without regard to national con-
flicts that have occurred.

Very truly yours,

A. Lawbbmcb Lowbll.

No doubt imintentioDally, Dr. Meyer
leaves on the reader the impression that
he had received the appointment of
German Exchange Professor for next
year. This is untrue: so that Harvard is
officially guiltless of having induced him
to set his foot in the defiled precincts of
this University.


Meeting in San Franeiecj.

Althou^ the crowd going by the Ftn-
land was delayed for three dajrs, S50
registered for the annual meeting. On
Saturday mommg, the last day, 40 of
the Finland passengers arrived by special
train from Son Diego. Those going by
train from the East stopped at Mt. Har-
vard, where \key held suitable cere-

On Thursday evening, Aug. 19, there
was an informal dinner at the University
Club and a meeting of the Council, after
which the delegates listened to an illu»-
trated address on "Good Roads" by
Samuel HiU, '79, of Portland, Or.

On Friday the business meeting was
held, at which the reports of officers and
committees were presented and at which
Bishop Lawrence, '71, made an address.
On recommendation of the Secretary,
C. Bard, '01, it was voted to have a paid
assistant secretary to increase the effi-

Digitized by



Associated Harvard^ Cluhs.


dency of the organuslLtioii. There was
also diflcuflsion of the questioo of extend-
ing the franchise to vote for Overseen
to graduates of the professional school^
but in this matter no final action was
taken. There was also inaugurated a
movement to have the clubs urge all
individual graduates to become unceas-
ingly active in civic movements. As the
question appeared to be one upon which
it was not proper to act at the meeting
no vote was taken, but the fact that the
matter was considered is important,
since it must lead toward a more active
participation in local and national af-
fairs on the part of Harvard graduates.
It was voted at this meeting that each
dub should appoint additional oonmiit-
tees to work for the University and the.
graduates, and to further important
Harvard interests.

On Friday evening there was a supper
tn the Norwegian Building at the Expo-
sition and there were special fireworks
mthe"Zone" in honor of Harvard Night.

On Saturday there was an outing to
the Muir Woods and to the top of Mt.
Tamalpais, across the Bay.

At the dinner on Saturday ni^t the
speakers were Bishop Lawrence, '71,
Minot Simons, '91, P. R. FrothJugham,
'86, H(»ace Davis, '49, Pres. Eliot, Pres.
Perkins, of the Associated Qubs, and
T. W. Lamont, '98. "Unde Bill'
Thomas, '78, the toastmaster, was pre-
sented with a silver punch bowl, and
moving pictures of the meeting were
shown. It was dedded to hold the next
meetmg of the Association at Pittsburg.
The following officers were elected: Pres.,
T. W. Lamont, '98, New York; sec.,
E. M. Grossman, '96, St. Louis, Mo.;
treas., 6. C. Khnball, '00, Pittsburg;
vice-presidents, E. A. Harriman, '88, New
Haven, Conn., D. Fentress, LL.B. '99,
Memphis, Tenn., W. Thomas, '78, San
Fhmdseo^ Cal., P. W. Herzidc. '04b

Clevdand, O., J. H. Hyde, '98, Paris,

Summary qf the Report of the Secretary.

In four years the number of dubs in
the Associated Harvard Qubs has grown
frmn 44 to 71, with applications from
nine more dubs, an increase of 100 per
cent. Of the dubs in this Association,
two are in Asia and two in Europe with
the prospect of another from each of
these continents, so that the present
scope of the Associated Harvard Clubs
is truly international. With the excep-
tion of a very few small dubs, we have
all of the active Harvard clubs in the
Association. Our Assodation is the
greatest Alumni Assodation of America
and is the model for similar associations
of all other univernties.

It is a great pleasure to announce that
throu^ the activities of our various
vice-presidents, we now have reodved
applications for admittance from the
Harvard Clubs of New Mexico, Biaine,
Montana, West Virginia, Idaho, Akron,
O., Memphis, Tenn., New Bedford, and
Taunton. The dubs of Montana, New
Mexico^ Idaho, and West Virginia are
the direct results of the activities of our
wonderfully effident Committee on
Scholarships, aided by the endeavors of
the respective sectional vice-presidents.

There are certain pertinent facts in
our Association which stand out promi-
nently above the inddental details, and
I should like to toudi on them. First of
all is the wonderful, almost amazing,
spirit of willingness on the part of gradu-
ates all over the country to serve the
University. In the mind of these men is

Online LibraryWilliam Richards Castle William Roscoe ThayerThe Harvard graduates' magazine → online text (page 33 of 103)