William Richards Castle William Roscoe Thayer.

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body swing, and was beaten by Trinity Hall, a Cambridge college — not a
university — crew. He learned his lesson, came back to Ithaca, and

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282 Harvard Rowing. [December,

brought a crew down to Poughkeepsie the next Bummer which rowed 28
long strokes a minute, and won easily, and since then he has gone on win-
ning with wonderful regularity. His crews all have a long body swing,
shoot away their hands sharply, make the last part of their forwud swing
very slow, cover their blades at the full reach with a hard beginning
well pulled through. It is almost exactly the English standard stroke.

The famous Bob Cook, after passing his entrance examination at Yale,
went to England, practised with the Oxford, Cambridge, London, and
Thames crews, came back to Yale, and, after rowing in many winning
crews, became a highly successful coach. Bancroft's famous crews rowed
in the same style — with a good body swing, hard catch, and shorter
sUdes than those used by Harvard today. So, too, did the Harvard crews
that Bancroft coached.

Up to the season of 1914 Wray apparently took his victories modestly
and his defeats in a good sportsmanlike spirit, but after the Cornell race
of that year, when Harvard was defeated by less than two lengths, and
i^^n after the Yale race he made an undeserved attack in the press on
his own crew and especially on that excellent stroke, Lund. He should
not therefore complain if I indicate where some of us think the respon-
sibility for losing — though it be by a hair — the Yale race of 1914

Li 1913, Chanler, who learned his rowing at Eton, put in at stroke at
the last minute, changed a moderate into a fast crew, filled his difficult
position admirably, and Harvard won. In 1914, however, Chanler devel-
oped some serious faults which Wray failed to see, or at least failed to
correct, and consequently the crew never got together behind him. This
year Wray began the season with the best material a coach ever had.
Four of last year's crew, six of the Henley crew, and practically all of
the first-lass Freshman crew of 1914 were ready to his hand. Nickalls,
on the other hand, had but three of the Yale crew of 1914, and had to
dig out the rest of his crew from the Yale second Varsity and Freshman
crew of 1914, both of which had been badly beaten by Harvard. Thai
the latter should have been able to win — somewhat easily — seems to
me not only one of the greatest coaching triumphs of recent years, but
also of itself to go far to prove the superiority of the Englbh standard
stroke over the Wray stroke. Surely no one who saw this year's race can
doubt that the eight fine men who sat in the Harvard crew, if coached
by Nickalls, would have easily beaten the lighter Yale crew, if coached
by Wray. Some of us who have followed university rowing for the last
eleven years firmly believe that Wray has had unusually good material
ever since he has been coaching, — Filley, Newhall, Richardson, the Cut-
lers, the Bacons, the Withingtons, Waid, Chanler, Talcott, and other

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1916.] The Work of the Dentist in the Great War. 283

stars too numeroas to mention, and we equally finnlj believe that dur-
ing these years Wray should have won all the Yale and a majority of
the Cornell races, and should certainly have beaten Columbia and Prince-
ton. Is it not literally true that not one of Wray's crews has oyer beaten
a crew physically its equal ?

In view of the Yale races of 1914 and 1916, is it not quite certain that
his possibility of usefulness at Cambridge was absolutely at an end ? The
plan to entrust the full responsibility for and control of Harvard coach-
ing to Mr. Herrick has everything to recommend it. No one has followed
university rowing so closely as he, no one has done so much for the Har-
vard crews, and I may add that Harvard is most fortunate in securing
his brains, his experience and his public spirit Haines too has seen plenty
of good rowing, and has, besides, excellent judgment and the right spirit,
for he is not only willing to teach but anxious to leam.

Fortunately rowing at Harvard was never so popular as it is now —
witness the throngs of Freshmen and men of other classes who have come
out to try for the various crews this year.

To win the Yale race next year may not be possible, but it is my firm
belief that Mr. Herrick will do it if he has as good material as that avail-
able at Harvard last year, and we can rest assured that all that brains,
experience, and tact can accomplish will be done. Nickalls has a most
profound respect for Herrick's judgment, and thinks him an excellent
coach, and, although timeo Danaaa et dona ferentes^ yet I know that the
expressions of this great English coach on this subject are absolutely

We may reasonably expect that Harvard will, under these new coaches,
win her fair share of the races with Yale, a much larger proportion than
heretofore of the races with Cornell, and also win from such other col-
leges as she may row against in the future.



The service of the military dentist should begin with the soldiers long
before they are sent to the front. It is of the gpreatest importance that
their teeUi jshould be carefully examined and put in good condition in
order that disabling pain may be avoided, and that they may be able
properly to chew army rations. Where work of this sort is systematically
arranged as a part of the military equipment of the soldier and is con-
tinued over a period of several years, the best results are obtained. Of

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284 The W(yrk of the Dentist in the Great War. [December,

the nations now engaged in the Great War, Germany has given the most
systematic attention to the teeth of its soldiers. She found out 15 years
ago that the efficiency of soldiers was seriously impaired when they coold
not chew hard food, and set about to remedy the matter by providing
dental clinics for school children, so that boys upon entering the army
should present themselves with teeth able to do the work demanded of
them. This b one reason why her soldiers are now so efficient. In a coun-
try where a large army is composed mostly of yolnnteers, as in England,
it is impossible to control the condition of the soldiers' teeth as in, a coun-
try where military service is compulsory. It was the privilege of the
writer to have been in England several months at the beginning of the
war and to have seen the teetli of many of the men who volunteered for
military service. Very defective teeth were present in a large proportion
of those observed. It was perfectly evident that such men could not chew
army rations, and that they would be thrown out of use by pain from
sensitive teeth or by lack of teeth. And that is what really happened, as
I later learned from an English dentist in Paris who was treating £#ng-
lish soldiers sent back from the firing line on account of their teeth. I
was so impressed by the wretched condition of the teeth of the English
volunteer soldiers that, during the first ten days after the outbreak of the
war, I offered my services to do what I could to correct tlie defects which
were so apparent. But the dental service for soldiers had not at that time
been well organized and I was unable to get an opportunity to help in
this way. Somewhat later, however, in the month of November, 1914,
having been asked to join the Dental Surgery Staff of the Ambulance of
the American Hospital in Paris, I entered upon a service which lasted
over three months, giving all my time to the work.

The dental surgeon serving at the American Ambulance works under
peculiarly favorable conditions. First of all, it should be mentioned that
the chief surgeon of the hospital, Dr. du Bonchet, is extremely appreci-
ative of the services which the dentist can render in cases of wounds to
the face involving the bones of the upper or lower jaws. He also appre-
ciates what the dentist can do in establishing a condition of cleanliness
and comfort for the mouth of every soldier in the hospital, no matter
where he has suffered wounds. And so it happens that the dentists at the
American Ambulance are given most commodious quarters and ample
equipment During my time at the hospital there were five dentists in
the department and three nurses. The number of operators and attend-
ants was at a later time nearly doubled. Work began at 9 in the morn-
ing and lasted till about 5 in the afternoon. It was the aim of the depart-
ment to examine, as far as possible, the months of all men admitted to
the hospital and record the condition of their teeth. Where teeth were

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1916.] The Work of the Dentist in the Great War. 285

defectiye, they were treated just as they would haye been in a private
office in times of peace. Def ectiye teeth in a woanded soldier cause pain,
undeanliness of the mouth, loss of the power properly to chew food, im-
paired digestive processes. All these conditions seriously interfere with
his chances of recovery. For this reason, then, the dental department was
very solicitous to furnish, as far as possible, to each patient what might
be called ordinary dentistry. And this service was rendered in the wards
for patients unable to be moved, but preferably in the operating-room if
patients could walk or be brought there. When one remembers that in
very few hospitals in this country is there a systematic care of the
patients' teeth, great credit is due to the American Ambulance Hospital
for establishing such care in an institution devoted to the great emer-
gencies of war.

But the most interesting cases treated by the dentist are those which
have received a wound in the head which has penetrated and injured the
bones of the upper or under jaw. In the present war such injuries are
very numerous. This is due to the extensive use of trench warfare ; the
head is exposed while the body is protected. A soldier shot in the head
with penetration of the brain usually dies, but if the face area alone is
penetrated he usually lives, and probably sustains a fracture of the bones
of the upper or under jaw. All cases of this latter class are examined
immediately by the dental surgeons and placed under treatment in their
department The treatment is usually long and complicated, requiring
great operative skill and elaborate apparatus. Displaced bones have to be
moved into their proper positions and held there by retaining splints. The
contracting effect of losses of bone substance which come with most gun-
shot wounds, has to be overcome, and parts which nature cannot repro-
duce, replaced with metal or vulcanite. It is hard to realize how a Ger-
man rifle bullet which is only 28 millimetres long and 8 millimetres in
diameter can produce the extensile wounds of the face which the dentist
treats. Often soldiers are shot at 30 metres and the velocity of the rifle
bullet is very great. If it strikes only soft tissue, there is very little dis-
turbance; but when it strikes the teeth, and the bones of the upper and
under jaws, it smashes the bone, with much loss of substance, and makes
a large external wound of the face. The teeth when struck by a rifle
bullet become in their turn projectiles, and are forced into the soft tissues,
sometimes being completely embedded. It often happens that, after re-
ceiving a severe wound of the .face, the first and most distressing pain
which the soldier feels is from an exposed nerve laid bare by the fracture
of a tooth which has been hit by a bullet. The dentist, then, is the one
who can give the first relief by treating the exposed nerve. Besides the
wounds from rifle bullets there are those from pieces of shell casings.

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286 The Work of the Dmtist in the Great War. [December,

These are irregular masses of iron, and they cause some of the most
extensive in juries to the jaws.

One of the worst cases which I have seen came to the American Am-
bulance last January with the whole lower part of the face blown off.
This case was under treatment in the department of dental surgery for
several months. The extensive wound of the lower jaw and face was
dressed and treated and the upper jaw was made ready to receive a plate
which was to support an artificial lower jaw, to be made of metal or vul-
canite. Over this artificial lower jaw the general surg^ns would later
make a plastic operation to supply a new lower lip and tissues adjacent
to it. The case was not completed when I left the hospital, but I have no
doubt but that the combined work of the dentist and the plastic surgeon
will make this soldier able to mingle in society and earn his living. With-
out such expert attention an injury of this sort would compel a man for-
ever to wear a mask and make him a horror to himself and his neighbors.

At the American Ambulance there was the most cordial cooperation
between the dentists and the general surgeons. Advice and assistance
were freely interchanged, and the results obtained were possible only
through such cooperation. The problem of supplying bone lost through
wounds of the face was worked out at the hospital more completely
than in any other hospital, as far as I could leai'n. After the dentbt had
restored fractured jaw bones to their proper place, and fixed them by
splints, and after the external wound of the soft tissues had been closed
up by plastic surgery, there still remained the problem, especially in the
lower jaw, of how to supply the bone which had been destroyed by the
injury. In two cases at the American Ambulance during my service por-
tions of bone from another part of the body, in one case a rib, in another
case a shin bone, were inserted under the skin over the lost portion of the
jaw bone. One of these cases did remarkably well, the new bone forming
a splint in the place of the bone which was lost. The second case, unfor-
tunately, died of pneumonia after having shown favorable results in the
matter of the insertion of bone. It might naturally be asked how the
soldiers could endure the pain attending operations which the dentists
were called upon to perform. The work was only possible by the use of
local anaesthesia made effective in all parts of the teeth, jaws, and sur-
rounding tissues. In the production of this aniesthesia the dentist used
the most approved technique laid down by Grerman authorities. In this
way the cause of the Allies was helped hy knowledge taken from the
enemy. It was possible to remove all pain from ordinary dental opera-
tions, as well as from the more serious operations connected with frac-
tured jaws. I found the French soldier who had received a severe wound
very sensitive when it came to work on the teeth and jaws. And it was

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1916.] The Work of the Dentist in the Great War. 287

only by ike constant and skilfol use of novocaine as a local anesthetic
that it was possible to do the things necessary to be done.

While in Paris I had the opportunity of making two visits to the large
French Military Hospital, <^Val de Grftce." This is situated in the Latin
quarter, and, while treating all kinds of cases, devotes much attention to
the department of dental surgery. The rooms set apart for the work were
inconvenient and small as compared with those at the American Ambu-
lance, but large numbers of cases of injured jaws were being treated in
a skilful manner. I was much impressed with the fine India-ink draw-
ings of fractured jaws and the appliances to be used to reduce the frac-
tures and hold tiiem in place which I saw in this hospital. The drawings
resembled the plans of an architect for the construction of a building.
Another feature at this hospital was the very accurate plaster reproduc-
tions of the face and head of wounded soldiers. This plaster reproduc-
tion was made as soon as the patient arrived, which would mean about
two days after the injury, and made permanent the exact condition of
the man before treatment The French dentists even succeeded in insert-
ing in these plaster models reproductions of the teeth and jaw bones as
they were distorted through the injury.

After my three months' service at the American Ambulance I went to
Switzerland and decided to try to visit Berlin in order to be able to o\y
serve the work of the dentist in as many military areas as possible. It
was with some misgivings that I approached the German frontier via
SchafiPhausen and submitted myself to a thorough examination by the
Grerman officials. It seemed quite possible that my work in Paris would
make me undesirable in Berlin. After answering many questions as to
my residence since landing in Europe, I said, *' I am a Professor in Har-
vard University ; I wish to visit Berlin to inspect the new Imperial Den-
tal School and to observe the treatment of fractured jaw cases." This
brought the immediate reply, " Very well, we will see what we can do for
you." And my passport was quickly signed. Arriving in Berlin I had
an excellent opportunity to visit the new dental school building. It was
turned into a military hospital for the treatment of injuries of the jaws.
There were soldiers everywhere and dental operations of all kinds. The
equipment of this school is very fine ; it must be ranked among the few
best in the world. I was much interested in the X-ray department in
charge of Prof. Dieck and the oral surgery department in charge of Prof.
Schroder. The types of injuries which I observed amongst the German
soldiers were the same as those which I had been treating in Paris.
The methods of treatment were also similar. I found, however, that each
clinic seemed to adopt one method of treatment to the exclusion of all
others, and there was considerable rivalry between clinics as to methods.

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288 The Opening of the Year. [December^

In Paris, it was common to find several methods used in a given clinic.
My observations convinced me that the Grerman dentists were giving most
inteUigent care to the face injuries of their soldiers and that the Govern-
ment was providing large numbers of dental hospitals as well as operators
near the front Considering the fact that the German Grovernment began
at least 15 years ago to put its soldiers' teeth in order, and that there is
a liberal supply of dentists to attend the men now fighting, it is reason-
able to conclude that no other nation now fighting takes as good care of
its soldiers' teeth and the injuries of the face resulting from gunshot



W. B. MUNRO, g m

The opening of the present college year found the new Harry Elkins
Widener Memorial Library ready for business. Books were transferred
TlMMwLi- during the summer vacation, the catalogues and deliveiy
toarylBut ^j^j^ were ready for service even before College opened,
and the various professors' studies were ready for occupancy. In every
way the building has met and even surpassed expectations. Many branch
libraries, which heretofore have been scattered throughout the College
precincts, are now housed together, so that books can be readily exchanged
among them as needed, and the necessity for duplication in the purchase
of books more easily avoided. For example, the special libraries of the
Bureau for Research in Municipal Government and of the Graduate
School of Business Administration were formerly at opposite comers of
the College Yard, one in Wadsworth House and the other in Lawrence
Hall. Students interested in such subjects as the regulation of public
utilities or fire prevention or public accounting often found occasion to
use materials in both of these libraries, but naturally at great inconven-
ience. Today these collections are housed in nearby adjoining rooms.
Many similar examples might be given. The offices and studies in the
new building have also proved a convenience both to instructors and to
students in the matter of consultations with their teachers.

Another great service to instruction is represented by the various sem-
inary rooms, or rooms for research courses, with which the new Library
is splendidly provided. It is now possible for a professor to have his
office or study, his seminary and consultation room, and his special li-
brary, all within a few feet of one another. The advantage of this in a
variety of ways can be readily understood.

The new Library has attracted a large number of visitors during the

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1915.] The Opening of the Year. 289

opening months of the college year. An actual count shows that about
two thousand persons enter the main doors every day. Many of the visit-
ors have been attracted not merely by the new Library building itself,
but by the Robert Grould Shaw collection of theatrical portraits, pro-
grams, etc., which is now safely housed on the top floor. Many came
also to the exhibit arranged in connection with the Richard H. Dana,
Jr., '37, centenary. The daily circulation of books among members of
the University has abo shown a marked increase over previous years.
Taking it all in all, the new Library has proved to be the most far-reach-
ing addition to the University's plant that has come into existence for a
long period of time.

The figures of enrolment for the year present several features of
interest and significance. A year ago the total number of students in Har-
vard College showed an increase of over one hundred. For ^ ^|, jmf^
the present year another advance, though not quite so strik- "Histrttlon
ing, has been made. The total registration in Harvard CoU^e on Octo-
ber 28, 1915, the twenty-seventh working day of the year, is 2516, as
compared with 2473 on October 29, 1914. In the Freshman-class enrol-
ment there has been a slight loss ; the Junior and Senior classes are also
somewhat smaller. The marked gain in Sophomore registration is, of
course, the result of last year's increased number of Freshmen. But there
is also an important gain in the number of Unclassified students, that is
to say, of students who have come to Harvard after spending one or more
yean as undergraduates in some other college or university. The net
gain in Harvard College is 43.

Lest it be thought that the small drop in Freshman enrolment is the
result of the Uni?ersity's decision to increase the tuition fees, let it be ex-
plained that this increase does not go into effect until the next academic
year. The slight decline need cause no surprise in any case, since last
year's increase of Freshman enrolment was so large as to create a well-
founded doubt that any such advance could be maintained this autumn.

In the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences there has been a substan-
tial gain of 63 students, or more than 10 per cent of last year's enrolment.
The increased registration in this department of the University has been
steady and sure during the last few years. At present it ranks next to
Harvard College and the Law School in point of numbers. The Gradu-
ate School of Business Administration, likewise, shows ability to make
progress in number of students. Its total registration of 179 is the larg-
est in its history, and represents a gain of about 15 per cent over the
enrolment of a year ago. There should, therefore, be no doubt in the
mind of any one that this branch of the University's graduate instruction is
making an ever-widening appeal to young men desiring a business training.
When it is remembered that the Business School has kept strictly to its

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The Opening of the Year.



Oct. 28,


Oct. 29.



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Online LibraryWilliam Richards Castle William Roscoe ThayerThe Harvard graduates' magazine → online text (page 39 of 103)