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what academic tridc of phrase blurs his
meaning. It is not the individual, hi|^y
interested in the theatre, who needs to
be stimulated by such a book as this,
but the man in the street Will he de-
rive much from passages like this? "So-
ciety is more than the sum of its indi-
viduab: so drama is more than the sum
<^ individual messages. For it is soon
discovered that under the force <^ so-
ciety there open up to view great orbits
of truth never plumbed by the telescope
of individuality" (pp. 58, 54). In "The
Theatre in the Open" and in "Festivab
and Pageantry" IVof. Diddnson is
dear and hdi^ul throu^out. He urges
that (^n-air theatres in this country
should be individual and adapted to
the immediate conditions surrounding
them, not cc^ies or sli^t modifications
of open-air theatres abroad. He tries,
and helpfully, to distinguish Pageantry
from some of its allied forms, and insiBts
on certain fundamentals if pageantry is
to take any high position artistically.
In "The Promise of an American
Drama," feding the stirrings of the
times, he makes a reader fed his own be-
lief that out of all our commercializa-
tion of dramatic art and confusion of
standards may come a drama worthy of
the best in us. A thou^tf ul book to be
read thoughtfully.

The Scholia on the Avee of Aristophanes,
by John Williams White. Boston:
Ginn&Co. 1915.
This work is the second notable con-
tribution to classical scholarship and
critidsm made by Prof. White in the
last three years, following dosely on his



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Literary Notes.



[Deoember,



V§r$e cf Greek Comedy, puUiahed in
1012. Both worici, as wms explained in
a review of the first in the Oraduaiee*
MagoMine, are in the nature of prelimi-
naiy studies to the author's projected
edition of Aristc^hanes, now happily
well under way; but the important char-
acter of their contents, the accuracy and
solidity of the learning revealed in them,
and the clarity of style with which the
facts are set before the reader raise the
works to the rank of independent treatp
ises, quite apart from their relation to
the plays soon to be published.

The Scholia embody for us today the
remains of Alexandrian scholarship, and
their extent in the case of a play, so in-
teresting in itself and so often read, is
cause for congratulation. It is, indeed,
fortunate that an age of learning, pro-
vided with materials and apparatus long
since lost, should have succeeded the
great period of classical production.
The remains of Alexandrian erudition,
thou^ meagre when compared with the
commentaries and treatises which once
existed, provide a wealth of detail re-
garding the history of the Athenian
stage, so that we know rather more
about the personal careers of the great
Greek playwrights than about most of
the Elixabethans, including Shakspere.
In Prof. White's work we have a new
edition of these Scholia, based upon a
fresh and thorough examination of all
the manuscripts of the poet containing
scholia to the Birds. The work em-
braces this new text, below which, on
the same page, is to be found an accu-
rate collation of variant readings, accom-
panied by a critical commentary by the
editor.

It is needless to point out the capital
importance oi this work for the elucida-
tion oi a play which many regard as
Aristophanes's best — a play which has
been read by many Harvard classes in



Pres. Felton's edition. But the general
reader, who may possibly think that the
book conoema only the advanced stud-
ent, will here find the first oomprdien-
si ve and trustworthy account, in Engliflli.
of the method of Alexandrian criticism
and the part it played in the transmis-
sion to posterity of the Classics. Here-
tofore the material for such a hisioiy
could be fotmd only in scattered re-
marks of scholars who from time to time
have published the papyrus fragments
which best illustrated the nature of an
ancient book. All this is now utilised,
and the result is a connected and emi-
nently readable chapter whidi no one
who is interested in the history of litera-
ture can afford to neglect.

Thomas Carlyle : Haw io Know Him^ by
IVof. Bliss Ferry. Indianapolis:
Bobbs-Merrill Co. 1015.

liiThomusCarlyU:EowtoKnowHisii,
Prof. Peny interprets vividly the at-
titude of this great Victorian toward
society. Deq>ondent and denundatoiy
as Carlyie*s words were, more often de-
structive rather than constructive, thqr
struck so deep into the evib of his day,
that we do well to look back upon him
with critical understanding. This book
is not so much a biography as an inter-
pretation of Carlyle. The man's books
were so intensely personal, revealing
completdiy his theory of human life and
conduct, that Prof. Perry's aim is to ex-
hibit, as far as possible in Cariyle's own
words, the working of his mind. But
bef<»e Carlyle begins to speak. Prof.
Peny prepares the way with sympathy
and warm regard, dwelling little upon
his difficult style and bitter tongue,
much, in illuminating estimates, on the
strength and feariessness of his bo<^.
We are impelled, in this time ci social
unrest, when the covering of false secur-
ity is being stripped from us, to turn



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869



again to his words. We feel a keener
appreciation for one who was too sincere
a beb'ever in humanity to be satisfied
with less than the truth; we need his
message. Simply, vividly, affection-
ately, the struggles of his youth, his un-.
systematic education, his spiritual con-
flict8» his refusal to lower his intellectual
standards, his literary theory and its ap-
plication are made dear. Then, in his
own incomparable words, Carlyle com-
pletes the picture. Prof. Peny suggests
a new purpose for the biographer: "to
invite a new generation of hurried and
preoccupied Americans to look back
steadily and wisely upon a great figure,
and to study that figure in the light of
Carlyle's own varied and stimulating
and magnificent utterances."

Shdbume Essays, IX, Aristocracy and
Justice, by Paul Elmer More,
A.M. '08. Boston: Houghton Mif-
flin Co. 1915.
The eight preceding volumes of Shelr
bume Essays have been made up almost
exclusively of discussions iji various
literary topics. They have never been
merely this, however, as Mr. More has
always felt free to use his subject as a
text from which to deduce his trenchant
criticisms of life — exactly, it may be
said, as the great poets or novelists on
whom he has written have made their
own writings a criticism of life. In this
ninth volume the method is reversed.
The estimate of life, the criticism of ex-
isting conditions, is direct, and the great
figures of the past are used to illustrate
the new text. Mr. More has always been
a classicist in literature, an apostle of
the claims of reason and will, which re-
sult in orderliness of thought, as against
the emotional drifting of the romanti-
cists, which leads finally nowhere, un-
less it be to the mad-house. He is also
a classicist in his outlook on life. He



holds fast to the lessons of history; he
believes in discipline, in the righteous-
ness of authority when it is exercised by
a "natural aristocracy." He recognizes
the strength and the value of tradition;
and, above all, he "believes fiercely"
in liberty. But he does not believe in
mob-rule; he is contemptuous of the as-
sertion of the eternal righteousness of
the whim of the majority; he knows that
progress will come only through the true
uplift of the masses by the chosen few,
not by the much-pieached but never^
theless visionary leaven in the masses
themselves. He by no means despairs
of democracy, but he has the courage
which few have to say, "The cure of
democracy is not more democracy, but
better democracy.*' The book cuts vig^
orously at the cant of the times. It
faces facts, and insists on keeping facts
separate from emotional theories. One
can imagine that the average politician,
on reading the book, would be very an-
gry — except that the average politi-
cian is so accustomed to his sham world
that it appears true to him, and the
world of fact, set against the imperishable
background of history, appears only as a
bad and dangerous dream. Aristocracy
and Justice is a book which cannot be
neglected whether one agrees with it or
not.

The Second Partition of Poland, by R.

H. Lord, '06, Instructor in History.

Harvard Historical Studies, xni.

Cambridge: Harvard University

Press. 1915.
Up to the present time the most im-
portant account of the Second parti-
tion <A Poland has been that given in
Seybel's History, merely a very small
part of a very large book. There ha^
been no special work on the subject in
any European language. Mr. Lord has
studied extensively in the archives of



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Literary Notes.



[December,



Vieiina and Moacow, the two places
where there is most material, and has
also gone through the records in other
European cities. The result is that he
has produced a very scholarly and im-
portant book which can never be super-
seded and will of necessity be the stand-
ard authority on the complicated and
interesting subject It is, of course, not
a book for popular reading, as it goes
into minute detail, but is one which can
never be ne^^ected by historians. The
style is dear and direct, unfolding with
precision the whole wretched story.
There are full notes and a good biblio-
graphy.

Play in EdueaHon. By Joseph Lee. New
York: The Macmillan Company,
1915.
How Men are Made would be a title
by no means inappropriate, according
to modem fashion in titles, for Mr. Lee's
remarkable disniBsion of the forces which
build a human being. What he has
written is a philosophy of human de-
velopment, a treatise on human nature
as it declares itself during the period of
growth. He interprets life from a new
angle by presenting the clearest and
most illuminating account ever so far
presented of the springs iA action which
oompd a normal child to become a man.
The familiar claim of the publisher's
advertisement, however exaggerated in
such a notice as this it may appear, is in
this case actually an understatement:
"No one interested in this subject can
afford to miss it." It is nearer the truth
to say that no one can afford to miss it
who is interested in any subject at all
in which the nature and destiny of man
are objects of concern.

The book is immeasurably more im-
portant than a manual of play or a
scientific monograph on the instincts.
Mr. Lee disclaims any attempt to draw



practical conclusions; but a dear, iMt>-
found, and vital theory carries its own
consequences. The theory is none the
less true because it is expounded in a
style with something of the knife-like
•thrust of Emerson, but with greater con-
tinuity and the advantage of an unob-
trusive but ddightful whimsicality of
statement. The complaint that the book
is not sdentific is like the accusation
that an artist is less accurate than a



To paint the child and show him
father to the man is perhaps inevitably
to paint the super-child. Mr. Lee knows
individual children in plenty; he is never
abstract for lack of illustration: but the
eager parent who sees his offspring in a
new halo of meaning because he has
read Play in Education may be fated to
disappointment when his youngster fails
to exemplify at every stage the full
power of "the achieving instincts.**
These moving forces of all humanizing
activity, play or work (of which Mr.
Lee finds seven, the instincts of hunting,
fighting, curiosity, creation, rhjrthm,
nurture, and team-play), are not incar-
nated in equal balance and vigor in every
child. This fact Mr. Lee knows very
well, and in his chapter on The Dieloeo-
Hon of CimUzed Life he shows in part
why it is so; but he does not give to in-
dividual differences all the emphasis
they deserve. As William James's gar-
dener remarked, "The difference be-
tween one man and another may not
be very great, but it 's often the most
important thing about 'em."

It is possible also that Mr. Lee has
not done justice to the only means of
salvation granted to a half-made man
— rational purpose. We can, after all,
take hold of oursdves and make some
kind of a life out of such scraps of en-
dowment and ravded ends of devdop-
ment as we happen to have at hand —



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Literary Notes.



871



if only we have won some inaight into
tlie meaning of our own poor existences.
Mr. Lee has made a great and illuminat-
ing contribution to that end; wherefore
it may be pardonable in him not to in-
sist that the truth which he has so
hdped to reveal shall make us free.
Freedom itself, as the evei^present
puzzle of all thinking about man, Mr.
Lee has not attempted to ignore. But he
is interested primarily in the working of
those divinities within us which shape
our mortal ends; and into the problems
of religion and the possibilities of re-
generation he is not concerned to go.
At the edge of the field which he has so
admirably cleared stands a forest the
shadows of which are perhaps heavier
and more ancient than those he has so
well dispdled.

Same Problems in Market Dietribution,
By Arthur Wilkinson Shaw. Cam-
bridge: Harvard University Press.
1915.
Mr. Shaw maintains that the basic ill
in business is the fact that while busi-
ness men have concentrated upon the
problems of production, they have not
given any thou^t to distribution and
its problems. Distribution, the process
of adjusting goods to the wants of the
consumer, involves "physical supply"
and "demand creation" as forces, with
middlemen, salesmen, and advertising
as the agents. These last three exist,
side by side; the problem for each dis-
tributor is when and how to combine
them.

Originally the middleman exercised
five functions. Three of these — sharing
the risk, transporting the goods, and
financing the producer — have today
been preempted by the insurance,
transportation, and banking companies.
Two alone remain to him — the selling
and the re-sorting and re-shif^ing.



Nevertheless, he is demanding and re-
ceiving, perhaps unconsciously, pay-
ment for aU the original five, which has
meant an excess tax on the ultimate con-
sumer. Mr. Shaw suggests that the
solution of this difficulty will probably
be a new middleman, whose profits will
come from a more rapid turnover of
goods with reduced compensation per
unit. It is the distributor's function to
bring an article before the public in such
a manner as to satisfy fully its conscious
or subconscious needs. He who thus
aids in the refinement and satisfaction of
human wants is a social benefactor. Yet
as long as waste exists, this accurate
satisfaction is impossible, resulting in a
continuing social loss. To lessen waste
in distribution both the student, with
his "scientific research methods," and
the business man, with his problems and
experience, must cooperate to create a
body of organized knowledge. This is a
brief and inadequate sunmiary of the
views of Mr. Shaw, the editor of "Sys-
tem." As a successful business manager
he has himsdf put his theories into
actual operation. He does not pretend
to be able to cure prevalent business ills,
nor to solve, once and for all, the prob-
lems of distribution. He has merely
undertaken the introductory analysis
essential to an ultimate solution.

Bibliograj^y of Municipal Oovemmeni,
By Prof. W. B. Munro, g '99.
Cambridge: Harvard University
Press. 1915.
Prof. Munro has given us a volume of
valuable references for municipal re-
search. The preface reveals the mode of
procedure he adopted in compilation.
He endeavors to cover a variety of nuir
terials, not only for the general reader,
but for the special student and exhaus-
tive seeker as well. Most attention is
paid to municipal affairs in America, aa



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872



Literary NoteB.



[December,



European materials no longer occupy
that pooition of interest they once held
Only recent publications are included
aad empfaacis is placed upon materials
appearing within the last ^\e years.
Furthermore only readily accessible
materials are presented, thus eliminating
much of the delay and trouble attend-
ant upon the investigation of obscure
and inaccessible sources. The criteria
followed in determining the amotmt of
space to be devoted to each topic have
not been the writer's own prejudices,
but the amount of public interest each
topic has aroused and the relative im-
portance of the function in municipal
affairs. The hock, aims to be compre-
hensive but not exhaustive, and since
it contains five thousand references the
worker in municipal matters can wdl
conceive what a bulky volume would
have resulted had Professor Munro been
less discriminating. The volume has
nine chapters and a minutely detailed
index. General works on municipal af-
fairs, political machinery and direct
legislation, municipal organisation,, city
planning and public improvements,
public utilities, sanitation and public
health, public safety, education and
general betterment, and municipal fi-
nance are each presented in turn. For
each reference the pagination is given,
as well as brief summaries of aU that
have come under the writer's personal
attention. All tities not so treated are
supported by the authority of the many
experts who assisted Professor Munro
in his work. The book as a whole prom-
ises to bridge the gap between municipal
affairs of today and those of fifteen years
ago when the last comprehensive com-
pilation was made. It should satisfy a
much felt need. This is one of the
Harvard publications which will be
very widely used and will therefore
be good for the University.



The WrUmg$ of John Qidncy Adanu,
Vol. V. Edited by Worthington C.
Ford. A 07. New York: The Mae-
millan Company. 1015.
The fifth volume of TJU WriJbmgM i^
John Quincy Adams is, in some req>ects,
the most interesting which Mr. Worth-
ington C. Ford, h '07, has edited. It
covers the years 1814-16 when Adams
was in St. Petersburg and at Ghent,
where he helped to negotiate the treaty
of peace. In addition to his revelations
about the diplomatic work in which be
was directiy engaged, there are many
allusions to the historical events aad
personages of that time. His comments
on N^xdeon, after both the first and
second abdication, on English policy, on
the general condition of Eur(^)ean civi-
lization, and on our American situation,
are always weighty and often penetrat-
ing. His insistence, for example, that
the United States must uphold ri^t and
honor, though it be defeated in ten wars,
ought to be read today by every Ameri-
can who trembles lest, by upholding
right and honor now, we may irritate
arrogant aliens. This volume must con-
firm the impression made by its pred-
ecessors that John Quincy Adams had
the soundest and most varied training
of any of our American diplomats in the
first century of the Republic, and no
other, except possibly Jefferson, had
such wide intellectual interests. His
letters, although primarily those of a
statesman, are lightened by anecdotes
and personal touches. Mr. Ford has done
his editorial work with his customary
completeness.

BOOKS RECEIVED.

V*A11 publioatioDfl received will be ackziowl-
edged in this column. Works by Harvard men
or relating to the University will be noticed or
reviewed so far as is possible.

The Modem Study cf LUerature, by Richard
Oreen Moulton, Professor of Litcorary Theory
and Interpretation in Chicago University.



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Marriages.



378



CSuoMBo: Tbe Unirenity of Chicago Preis,
1916. aoth,9S.6a

S9m/9 far ColUoe Men, Second Seriet.
Choaen by Norman Foenter, '10, F. A. Man-
chMter, and Karl Yows, Ph.D. '07. New
York: Henry HoU A Co., 1016. Cloth. $1.50.

The Tin-Plate Jnduatry, by Donald Earl
Dunbar. '13. Hart, Sohaffncr db Man Prise
Eaeay in Eoonomios. Boston: Houghton
MiffinCo.. 1916. Qoth. $1.00.

The Stoic PhUoeopkif, by Gilbert Murray.
New York: G. P. Putnan's BoDa, 1016. Cloth,
$.75.

Browning Studiee, by Vernon C. Harrington,
'96-Vr. Bostaa: Riehnd G. Badaer, 1916.
Cloth, $1.50 net.

The Trainino for the Sffective Life, by
Charles W. Eliot, '68. Boston: Houston
Biifflin Co., 1916. Cloth, $.36.

The High PrieeUee, by Robert Grant, '73.
New York: Charles Soribner's Sons. 1916.
Cloth, $1.85.

The Caee of the American Drama, by Thomas
H. Dickinson. Boston: Houghton Milflin Co.,
1916. Clotfa, $1.60.

The Aims and DefecU of College BducaHon,
by F. P. BosweD. Ph.D. '04. New York: G. P.
Putnam's Sons, 1916. Cloth. $.80.

Human Motiwee, by James Jackson Putnam,
'66, M.D. '70. Boston: Little. Brown A Co.,
1916. aoth, $1.00.

CarlyU, H&w to Know Him, by Bliss Perry,
Pkx>fessor of English. Indianapolis: The
Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1916. Qoth. $1.26.

JetAaofCaetUe and the Making of the Span-
ieh Nation, l^St-tSOJ^ by Irene L. Plunket.
New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1916. Cloth,
iDnstrated, $8.50.

The StewanMdp of Faith, by Prof. Kirsopp
Lake. New York: G. P. Putnams Sons, 1916.
doth, $1.60.

WHUam Psim, by Rupert 8. Holland. '00.
New York: The Maomillan Co., 1916. Cloth.
$.50.

Bffvoswn FronhUn, by B. Lawrcnoe Dud]«y,
'00. New York: The Marnnillan Co., 1916.
Ooth, $.50.

Arietoeracy and Justice, Shelbume Essays,
iz. by Paul Elmer More, A.M. '98. Boston:
Houston Mifain Co., 1915. Qoth, $1.26.

A BihUography of Municipal Cfoeemment in
the United State; by Prof. W. B. Munro, Ph.D.
'00. Cambridge: Harvard UniTersity Press,
1916. Cloth. $2.60.

National Ftoodmario. Week by Week Ob-
serrations on American Life as seen by Coif
Imt's. Edited by Mark SuUivan, '00. New
York: George H. Doran Co., 1916. doth,
$1.50.

Conunentary to the Oermanic Lawe and Doc-
ummUa, by Prof. Leo Wiener. Cambridge:
The Harrard Unhrecrity Preoi, 1916. Cloth,
$3.26.

The Second Partition cf Poland, by R. H.
Lord, '06. Cambridge: Tbe Harrard Univer-
sity Pnas, 1916. doth, $3.26.



BneHth Field Syt/tme, by H. L. Gray, '08.
Cambridge: The Harvard University Press,
1916. doth. $2.76.

The Poetry Cff Oiaeomo da Lentino, by E. F.
Langley, A.M. 'Oa Camfaridge: The Harvnid
University Press, 1916. doth, $1.50.

The BeohOion ef the Bnglieh Com Market,
by N. S.B. Grss. Ph.D. '12. Cambridge:
The Harvard University Press, 1916. Cloth,
$2.50.

An Abridgemont cf the Indian Affaire, con-
tained in four folio volumes, transacted in the
Colony of New York, from the year 1678 to
the year 1761. Edited by Prof. C. H. McD-
wain, A.M. '08. Cambridge: The Harvard
University Press, 1916. Cloth, $2.60.

The New Hudeon Shakeepeare. School Edi-
tion. Boston: Ginn A Co., n.d. 9 vols, doth,
$.30 per vol.

The Life of John Hay, by W. R. Thayer, '81.
Beaton: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1915. 2 vols,
doth, $5.00.

The Boy SootOe cf Snow-Shoe Lodge, by R. S.
Holland, '00. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippinoott
Co.. 1916. doth, $1.26.

The Houee that Woe, and Other Poeme, by
Benjamin R. C. Low, LL.B. '05, New York:
John Lane Co., 1916. Boards, $1.25.

The Log of a Noncombaiant, by Horace
Green, '08. Boston: Houghton MifBin Co.,

1915. doth, $1.26.

Plane Analytic Geometry, by Prof. Maarfme
B6oher. '88. New York: Henry Holt A Co.,

1916. doth. $1.00.



MARRIAGES.

%* It is requested that wedding announce-
meuls be seat to the Editor of the Cfraduate^
Magaeine, in order to make this record more
neariy complete.

1878. Herman Frank Vickery to (Mrs.)

Anna Louiae Howe, at Biookline,

Aug. 14, 1915.
1882. Robert Codman to Mai^aretU

Biddle Porter, at Bar Haiiwr,

Me., Sept 16, 1916.
1888. Charles Mortimer Bddbaw to

Maud Eleanor Chase, at San

Francisco, CaL, Oct. 1, 1915.
1888. Arthur Clark Denniston to Leal

Maiy Boorman, at Oshkosh;

Wis., Aug. 5, 1915.
1886. Henry Edward Fnuer to Jean

Marion Humphrey, at Boston,

Sept. ft, 1915.



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874



Marriages,



[December,



[1887.] Joseph Sunud Ward Thoron to
Louisa Chapin Hooper, at Bos-
ton, Oct 2, 1915.

(1808.1 Ernest linooln Manning to Lil-
lian Blanche Quincy, at Rutland,
Vt., Aug. 21, 1915.

1894. William Read Buckminster to
(Mrs.) Mary A. £. Buckmin-
ster, at Utica, N.Y., Aug. 89,
1915.

1894. Harold Wellington Home to Anna
Garfield Davis, at Weston, Sept.
9, 1915.

1894. Charles Lewis Lawrence to Viola
Knowles Backus, at Boston, Aug.
15, 1915.

1894. John Randall Nichols to BeUe L.
MacLityre, at Boston, June 86,
1915.

1894. Tliomas Edwards Sherwin to
Emily Blodgett, at Lincoln, Sept.



Online LibraryWilliam Richards Castle William Roscoe ThayerThe Harvard graduates' magazine → online text (page 51 of 103)