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show what the number of the edition is.
The Quinquennial was not known by its
present name until 1890, simultaneously
with its appearance in Eng^sh. The
covers of former editions bear the simple
title of Catalogus UniversUaiia Harv-
ardiana, while the title-page locates the
university in "Cantabrigise," which in
earlier catalogues is in "Nov-Ang-
lorum," and in "Republica Massachu-
settensi" from the close of the Revolu-



tionary War until 1860, when "Civi-
tate" was substituted for "RepuUica."

The first Catalogue, a copy of which
appears as a fronti^iece in the edition
under review, was printed in the year
1674, and from 1682 successive editions
appeared triennially as broadsides. In
these lists the names of the graduates
were printed under the year in which
they recttved their A.B., with "Mr."
opposite those who had received the
master's degree, and a * beside those who
had died. The names of "distinguished
civil and military characters" were
printed in small capitals and those who
had held any position in the College,
either as fellow or professor, were so
designated. The names were printed,
not in alphabetical order, but according
to the social position the students were
supposed to occupy at the time of en-
tering College.

The first octavo edition was issued in
1776. For a half-century the Catalogue
remained unchanged, aside from the ad-
dition of a list of instructors which was
begun early in the 19th centuiy. By
natural growth, the 32 pages of the 1776
edition expanded to 80 pages in 1827.
All the names were placed in one general
chronological list* the names of clergy-
men being printed in itafics. The de-
partments were not segregated. Further-
more, until 1830, the names of gradu-
ates of the medical and law departments
who were not gradiuites of the College,
the graduates of other colleges who held
the ad eundem degree from Harvard,
and those on whom honorary degrees
had been conferred, were not placed
under the year in which the degree was
received, but under the year they would
probably have graduated fipm the Col-
lege had they attended that department
For instance, the names of Benjamin
Franklin and of George Washington,
each of whom received the honorary



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1915.]



Notes on the Quinquennial.



388



degree of LL.D., the former in 1753, and
the latter in 1776, are placed under the
years 1724 and 1749 respectivdy, the
years in which eaxii reached the age of
18, which was the average age of Col-
lege students at graduation in those
days.

According to the Catalogue issued in
1808, the first one of the last century,
the total number of graduates at that
date was 8819, of whom 1588, or 42 per
cent, were living; 1184, or 81 per cent,
were ordained clergymen. The Library
contained 13,000 volumes. The teach-
ing force consbted of ten men: six pro-
fessors and four tutors, all holders of
Harvard degrees. One tutor taught
Latin, a second Greek, a third philoso-
phy, and the fourth geography, geom-
etry, natural philosophy, and astron-
omy. One professor taught theology,
one English and Oriental languages, and
one mathematics and natural philoso-
phy. The other three professors taught
medicine. What would be said today of
a medical school manned by three pro-
fessors and a college with three profes-
sors and four tutors!

In 1880, the form of the Catalogue
underwent a great change. It was di-
vided into three parts, each separately
paged. The first part contained a list
of officers of government and instruc-
tion, grouped in almost exactly the same
manner as are the names on pages 7 to
21 of the Catalogue just issued. The sec-
ond part in 74 pages contained a list of
graduates by departments, the A.B.*s
coming first, followed by the holders of
honorary, medical, and law degrees in
the order named. The third section was
a 4-column 28-page index of all gradu-
ates arranged alphabetically by years,
exactly as in the present edition. This
threefold division, each with its s^>a-
rate pagbiation, was retained as long
as the Catalogue was printed in Latin.



In 1890, parts one and two were paged
continuously, and in the present edition,
for the first time, the book is considered
as an entirety.

Successive editions have undergone
no material change in size and general
arrangement of the page, the differences
between them consisting mainly of a
rearrangement of contents and such
added information as the various edi-
tors thought desirable of insertion.

From 1842 through 1880, the Trien-
nial Catalogue was edited by John Lang-
don Sibley. He followed the form as he
found it and he left it but little changed.
The dates of death of graduates began
to be inserted in 1845. The number of
learned societies in which graduates were
members slowly increased. The number
of educational institutions from which
Harvard men had received degrees and
in which th^ held professorial appointr
ments constantly increased. The names
of the graduates of the Theological
School appeared first in the Catalogue
for 1851, but the practice there adopted
of having the list include the names of
all graduates of the School, whether or
not also graduates of the College, was
not adopted in the law, medical, and
honorary lists until 1872.

With the accession to the presidency
of Dr. Eliot and the opening of new de-
partments and the general rearrange-
ment of work in the University came a
change in the order of contents of the
Catalogue, and almost every succeeding
edition has contained some change in
order or the insertion of new kinds of
degrees.

Since the change to a Quinquennial
in 1880, five different hands have edited
it. E^h has endeavored to add some-
thing new to the Catalogue, with the
result that its size had become such as to
cause the present editor to realise the
need of pruning it. The information con-



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884



Notes on the Quinquennial.



[Deoember,



tainad in each additional volume has
Sieatly increaied the value of the book,
but the frequent change d editors, each
with his own ideals, has permitted many
inconsistencies to cre^ in, resulting in a
certain lack of uniformity when the vol-
ume is considered in its entirety.

Honors noted in the Quinquennial
Catalogue.
£. C. PiCKBBiNO, s *e5.
A number d important dianges have
been made in preparing the Quinquen-
nial Catalogue of 1915. Among others,
new rules have been adopted as regards
the honors to be recognised. A brief dis-
cussion of this matter, in the Catalogue
of 1910, will be found in the Harvard
Oraduates* Maganne, September, 1910.
A list was first prepared of all those to
whom more than ten lines had been a»-
signed from 1686 to 1914. An abridg-
ment of this list is given in Table I. It
was formed by omitting all cases in which



the number of lines was fifteen, or less.
The sU(6oesnve columns give the letters
designating the degree, the year in which
it was conferred, the name of the can-
didate, and the number of lines in the
Catalogues of 1910 and 1915, respec^
tively. The honors recognised may be
divided into collegiate degrees, posi-
tions hdd, and membership in selected
societies. Evidently, the qutee occu-
pied by the second of these classes
should not be used as a test. Accord-
ingly, the numbers of degrees and so-
cieties are given in the fifth and sixth
columns. The last column indicates the
nature of the man's work, C denoting a
college president; L, a literary man; N,
a naturalist; P, a physicist (used in the
broad sense); S, a statesnum. A large
part of these graduates of the College
and Scientific School later received
honorary degrees. Their names then
appear twice in the table. An asterisk
is used to indicate that the man is dead.







TABLE


I.










Dtgrt%


rear


Name


1910


1916


Dv.


See.


a.


A.B.


1811


•Everett, E.


18


18


8




s


*•


1817


♦Bancroft, G.


22


21


8




L


"


1831


♦MoUey, J. M.
♦LoweU, J. R.


19


16


9




L


"


18S8


15


17


9




L





1844


•Dalton, J. C.


13


16


4




N


«


1844


•Gould, B. A.


21


16


5




P





1851


•Goodwin, W. W.


20


17


11




L


•<


1852


Choate, J. H.


18


17


15




S


««


1853


EUot, C. W.


18


22


13




c


"


1855


•Agassis, A.


46


26


7


16


N


**


1861


Sawyer, W. C.


9


16


4


16


L


«


1877


LoweU, A. L.


9


17


15




C


**


1880


Roosevelt, T.


17


21


18




S





1886


Richards, T. W.


16


21


15




P


S.B.


1857


•Agassis. A.


46


26


7


16


N


«


1858


•Newcomb, S.


54


42


18


19


P





1861


Langley, J. W.


8


16


3


19


P


"


1862


Putnam, F. W.


25


16


3




N





1865


Pickering, E. C.
Davis, W. M.


25


25


10


11


P


«


1869


25


17


7




N


A.M.


1753


•Franklin, B.


18


17


5




S


i(


1874


Wadsworth, M. E.


12


16


4




N


M.D.


1833


•FUnt, A.


9


17


3




N



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1916.]



Notes on the Q^%nquennial.

TABLE I, contimiued.



885



D^ort


Ynr


Name


1910


1916


DtQ.


Soe.


CI.


M.D.


1863


Goodale, G. L.


15


16


8


3


N


4<


1869


♦James, W.


18


17


9


6


N


LL.D.


1787


•Jdferaoa, T.


10


17


6


4


S


«


18S5


♦Everett, E.


18


18


8


9


s


•<


1843


♦Bancroft, G.


22


21


8


9


L





1848


♦Agassis, L.
♦MoUey. J. L.


27


23


5


16


N


«


1860


19


16


9


6


L


c<


1871


♦Marquis, Ripon.


13


16


3


4


S


«


1875


♦Gray, A.


92


22


9


11


N


«


1876


♦Gilman, D. C.


17


18


11


3


C


•*


1876


♦WUtney. W. D.


26


21


10


10


L


«


1878


♦Marquis, Duffeiin.


16


16


11


6


S


«


1883


♦Walker. F. A.


21


18


12


7


c


«


1884


♦LoweU, J. R.


15


17


9


5


L


«


1884


♦Newcomb, S.


54


42


18


19


P


«<


1885


♦Agassia,A.


46


26


7


16


N


M


1885


♦Gould. B. A.


21


16


5


9


P


<•


1886


♦Dana, J. D.


27


22


6


14


N


«


1886


♦Hall, J.


23


19


7


8


N


«


1886


♦T-angley. S. P.


22


17


8


5


P


i<


1888


Choate, J. H.


18


17


15


3


S





1888


♦Gibbs, W.


16


16


8


4


P


«


1889


Patton. F. L.


15


22


10


1


c


«


1891


♦Goodwin. W. W.


20


17


11


5


L


<4


1893


Retzius, G.


40


28


8


14


N


**


1900


Welch. W. H.


14


17


10


4


N


«


1901


♦van't Hoff, J. H.


37


28


' 7


17


P





1901


♦v. HoUeben. C. L. T. W.


17


18


2


8


S


4i


1901


Pritchett, H. S.


17


17


14


2


c


•*


1902


Roosevelt. T.


17


21


18


4


s


«


1903


♦James, W.


18


17


9


6


N


«


1903


Pickering, E. C.
Osier. W.


25


25


10


11


P





1904


16


20


14


3


N


«


1905


AngeU, J. B.


19


24


14


4


C


M


1905


Taft, W. H.


13


20


14


1


s


«


1906


Barlow, T.


12


16


12


4


N


•<


1907


Bryce, J.


32


42


28


12


S


"


1907


Root,E.


12


20


17


2


S


«C


1907


Wilson, W.


16


24


15


3


S





1908


Van Hise, C. R.


14


20


9


4


c


««


1909


BuUer, N. M.


16


23


19


3


c


• •


1909


EUot, C. W.


18


22


13


9


c


«


1909


Judson. H. P.


11


16


9


3


c


«<


1909


Peterson, W.


11


17


19


7


L


«<


1909


Remsen, 1«


13


18


9


3


C


"


1909


Schurman, J. G.


14


18


10


1


C


«


1910


Maclaurin. R. C.


14


16


8


2


C


S.T.D.


1909


♦Brown, F.


12


16


11


9


L


Litt.D.


1909


M^er. E.
Ri<4iu^ T. W.


16


18


6


7


s


S.D.


1910


16


21


15


5


p



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386



Notes on the Quinquennial.



[December,



Additional degrees were awarded to
Gray, A.M. (Hon.) 1844; Aganis, A.,
S.B. 1862; Pickering, A.M. (Hon.) 1880;
Bryoe, LittD. 1909; Eliot, M.D. (Hon.)
1909.

If no change had been made in the
honors recognized in the Catalogue, the
number of lines would remain unchanged
for the dead, and would, in general, in-
crease for the living. The increase for
all the statesmen, college presidents, and
physicians amounts, on the average, to
four lines in each dass. For the literary
men there is no change, while there is a
decrease of five lines in those devoting
themselves to the physical and natural
sciences. In the first of these two classes,
there are four astronomers and three



chemists, but no mathematicians, phys-
icists, or engineers, eminent enough to
be included in the table.

The honors attained by graduates in
the different departments of the Uni-
versity are shown in Table H. The suc-
cessive columns give the degree, the
department, the period, the number
receiving the degree, the number having
11 to 15, 16 to 20, more than 20 lines,
all combined, and the ratio to the latter,
of the total number of graduates. The
successful life of the Lawrence Scienti-
fic School histed from 1851 to 1880. The
second line gives the corresponding
period of the College. The fourth line
relates to the degrees A.M., Ph.D., and
S.D. attained after examination.



TABLE II.



Degree




Period


Number


11-16


le-to


>«?


AU


Ba^


A.B.


College


168^1914


22447


39


9


5


53


423





**


1851-1880


8472


25


4


4


33


105


S.B.


Scientific School


1851-1880


229


12


3


8


18


13


Ph.D. etc.


College


1869-1914


3927


11


1


3


12


327


M.D.


Medical School


1788^1914


5288


1


3


3


4


1322


LL.B.


Law School


1820-1914


5654


5


3


3


5


1131


S.T.B.


Divinity School


1817-1914


652


2


3


3


2


326


TJ.D. etc.


University


1692-1914


874


94


31


18


143


6



Few honors were awarded during the
early years of the College. A large por-
tion of the total number graduated in
recent years and are still too young to
have attained distinction. A compari-
son of the second and third lines shows
that the proportion of gradiuites of the
Scientific School who attained distinc-
tion was eight times as great as the cor-
responding proportion for the College.
The leader in the Scientific School is
Newcomb, 42 lines, with A. Agassiz,
second, 26 lines. Agassis also gradiuited
from the College and is the leader, but
his distinction does not come from his
work there. Accordingly, Eliot, 22 lines.



becomes the real leader. In the three
older professional schools, the number of
eminent men is suspiciously small. The
leaders in the Medical School are Flint
and James, with 17 lines. In the Law
School, Ordronaux leads with 14 lines,
and in the Divinity School, Wilson and
Huntington, with 11 lines.

The candidates who have received
honorary degrees stand on a different
basis. They are selected for their emi-
nence from the entire world, and na-
turally their honors are very great.
Their leaders are Bryce and Newcomb,
with 42 lines each, followed. by Retzius
and van*t Hoff, with 28 lines.



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John Clinton Ghay.



387



The condition that a candidate must
be present is a serious restriction in
the list of those receiving honorary de-
grees. If a university, after careful con-
sideration, would eadi year award one
degree to the man regarded as the most
eminent in the world, a very remarkable
list would eventually be formed. This
would also, in the future, have great
value as indicating contemporaneous
judgment regarding living men. In
astronomy, this method has proved very
successful in the award of the Bruce
Medal, and in the election of honorary
members by the American Astronomical
Society.

All of the Presidents of Harvard Col-
lege have been selected from its own
graduates, with the exception of the
first two, Dtmster and Chauncey. Their
number is 22, thdr average term, 13
years. The longest terms are Eliot, 40
years, and Holyoke, 88 years.

Three of the Presidents of the United
States, John Adams, John Quincy
Adams, and Theodore Roosevelt, are
graduates of the CoUege, and have re-
ceived honorary degrees. These have
also been awarded to Washington, Jef-
ferson, Monroe, Jackson, Grant, Taft,
and Wilson. Among other eminent men
who have received honorary degrees,
but are not included in Table I, may be
mentioned Lafayette, Hamilton, Web-
ster, Clay, Lyell, Henry, Longfellow,
Sumner, Scott, Emerson, and Carlyle.
Among eminent Americans who have
not recdved an honorary degree, may be
mentioned Lincoln, Sherman, Fulton,
Irving, Edwards, Morse, Rumford, and
Morton.

The change in the rules regarding the
honors to be included in the Catalogue
has in a measure corrected the defect
mentioned in my former article, namdy,
that literary men did not receive as much
recognition as scientific men. In some



cases, the change has been an unfoi^
tunate one. For instance, the record of
A. Agassis has been reduced by 20 lines,
from 46 to 26. Two of the most highly
prised positions for a scientific man in
the United States are omitted. They are
the positions of Secretary of the Smith-
sonian Institution, and Superintendent
of the United States Coast and Geodetic
Survey. Accordingly, Henry appears
only as "Prof. Nat. PHlos., CoU. N.J."
and Bache as "Prof. Nat. Philos. and
Chem., Univ. Pa." Some positions
might be abbreviated, as "Prof. Didac-
tic and Polemic Theol. Presbyterian
Theol. Sem. Chicago," and "Prof. Rela-
tions Philos. and Sci. to the Christian
Religion, Princeton Theol. Sem." Prom-
inence is generally given to political
positions as " Memb. Joint Comm. U.S.
and Gt. Britain on Canadian fisheries"
and "Chairman Deep Waterways Comm.
U.S. and Canada," while Washington's
principal title has the undignified ab-
breviation "President U.S."

JOHN CLINTON GRAY.
P. B. Olnby, '64.

John Clinton Gray, LL.B., '66,
LL.D., '18, was born in New York
Dec. 4, 1848, and died at Newport, R.I.,
June 28, 1915. His father, John Alexan-
der Clinton Gray, was for many years
a prominent and much respected mer-
chant in New York City. The son, John
Clinton Gray, in early youth attended
school at Geneva, Switzerland, and, on
returning to New York, entered the Uni-
versity of the City of New York, and
graduated there in 1864, receiving the
degree of A.B. Thereafter he took a
course in civil law in the University of
Berlin, and then entered the Harvard
Law School in 1865, taking the degree of
LL.B. in 1866.

Soon after leaving the Law School, he



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888



James Tyndale Mitchell.



[December,



entered upon the general practice of the
law in the city of New York» forming a
partnenhip with the late J. Alfred Dav-
enport, '06, under the firm name of
Gray & Davenport. Afterwards, Ed-
ward C. Perkins, '79, became a mem-
ber of the firm, the style of the firm
becoming Gray, Davenport & Per-
kins.

The firms of Gray & DavenpcMt and
of Gray, Davenport & Perkins engaged
in the general practice of the law, at-
taining a well-deserved success in the
profession.

In January, 1888, Gray was appointed
a judge of the Court of Appeals of the
State of New Yoric to fill the vacancy
caused by the death of Judge Rapallo.
In the fall of 1888 he was elected a judge
of that court for the full term of four-
teen years, and in 1902 he was reelected
for a second term. He served as judge of
the Court of Appeals from 1888 to the
end of the year 1918, when he was re-
tired by the age limit prescribed by the
Constitution of the State. Thus he
served as judge of the highest court of
the State of New York for the period
of more than twenty-five years.

Judge Gray's career on the bench of
the court fully met the high expecta-
tions of his many friends. His opinions,
contained in some 100 volumes of the
Reports of the court during his term of
service, cover questions arising in crimi-
nal law, commercial law, equity, the
law of wills and trusts, real-estate law,
corporation law, — in fact, questions
arising in all departments of jurispru-
dence.

These opinions show that he ap-
proached the decision of cases submitted
with an open mind, and that he spared
no effort or labor in the thorough inves-
tigation and examination of a given case;
and having ascertained the facts, he
then applied the rules of law and prin-



ciples of justice to its dedsion. His opin-
ions further show judicial ability of a
high order and wide learning in the vari-
ous branches of the law. Their oondu-
sions are convincing in their logic, and,
withal, expressed in dear and fordble
English.

These high qualifications and attain-
ments of Judge Gray made him an orna-
ment to the b^ncfa, and justly com-
manded the high respect and the entire
confidence of the bar. His deportment
on the bench at all times was marked by
dignity and unfailing courte^. He lis-
tened patiently and attentivdy to the
argument of counsd, and when, occa-
sionally, he asked a question, it was plain
that his object was not to interrupt, but
to obtain further light upon some point,
or to call the attention of counsd to a
possibly different view of the question
involved. It is a satisfaction to know
that the long and faithful service to the
public of Judge Gray was appreciated
by the people of his native State, who
twice elected him a judge of their high-
est court.

Judge Gray's private life was in all
respects admirable. He was a good and
loyal friend, a genial companion, and a
devoted husband and father. His sud-
den death, at a time when there was a
reasonable expectation of years of fur-
ther usefulness, was a great shock to his
many friends and his devoted family.

JAMES TYNDALE MITCHELL

Hon. J. B. McPhibson,
U. S, CxreuU Juige, PkOaddphia.

James Tyndale MitdieU was bom in
the town of Belleville, Illinois, in No-
vember, 1884. He bdonged to a Virginia
famfly, but his immediate ancestors had
left that State two years before because
their views on the subject of slavery
were out of harmony with the opinions



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Jame» Tyndale JUitchell.



389



generally prevailiiig in the South. His
grandfather was a prominent Whig and
a personal friend of Henry Clay, The
grandson was sent to Philadelphia in
1841, where he was instructed under pri-
vate tutelage and in the public schools.
He completed the high-school course in
1852, and was graduated with honors at
Harvard in 1855. Among the members
of his class were Phillips Brooks, Prof.
Alexander Agassiz, Cien. Francis C. Bai^
low, and others of distinction. Return-
ing to Philadelphia he entered the office
of Creorge W. Biddle, then a leader of
the Pennsylvania Bar, and also attended
law lectures at the University of Penn-
qrlvania. In November, 1857, he was
admitted to the bar, and not long after-
wards became an assistant to the city
solicitor, and served in that position for
several years. l/Vhile his success in pri-
vate practice was not exceptional, his
admirable qualities both personal and
professional soon brought him friends
and reputation, and in 1871 at the early
age of 37 he was elected to the bench of
the District Court, a busy and much
respected tribunal, where he performed
his duty most acceptably for several
years. The courts of Philadelphia were
reorganized not long after 1873, and he
was then transferred to the common
pleas, this being a court of general origi-
nal jurisdiction, corresponding to the
Siq>reme Court of New York, or the
Superior court of Massachusetts. He
sat in the Common Pleas for 12 or IS
years, growing continually in the confi-
dence of the bar and the community,
and in 1888 was elected a justice of the
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. In this
position he served until 1909, presiding
as chief justice during the last few
years. Upon his retirement at the expi-
ration of his term he was chosen by his
former associates in the court as the



Online LibraryWilliam Richards Castle William Roscoe ThayerThe Harvard graduates' magazine → online text (page 53 of 103)