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William Richards Castle William Roscoe Thayer.

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titular prothonotary, or clerk, of the ap-



pellate courts of Pennsylvania, and he
retained this position until his death on
July 4, 1915.

Chief Justice Mitchell was always
much interested in the study of the law
as a science. For many years he was
prominent on the editorial staff of the
American Law Register, an old and
widely read law journal, and frequently
contributed studious and valuable arti-
cles to that periodical. He had also a
dose association with Weekly Notes of
Cases, a series of Pennsylvania rqwrts
that holds a prominent place in the legal
history of that State. Even after he
went ui>on the bench he found time to
contribute to the literature of his pro-
fession. Either before or afterward, he
helped to revise Troubat and Haly*s
(Penna.) Practice, — the standard work
on that subject, — and brought out an
edition of Williams on Real Property
with American notes. He also wrote a
History cf the District Court, and a classic
Mantud on Motions and Rules, giving
much other labor to a Digest of Pennsyl-
vania Reports, which he was never able
to finish. His most important contribu-
tion to the law, however, is to be found
in his opinions. These are characterized
by remarkable clearness and vigor, and
are written in a style so attractive as to
be readily understood by hiymen as
well as by lawyers. As an appellate
judge he did great public service by
bringing order into subjects which had
become involved by apparently conflict-
ing decisions. As an illustration, an im-
portant act of the legislature relating to
accidental injuries in railroad yards had
given rise to a great number of suits
through the uncertain way in which the
act had been construed in the earlier
cases. Judge Mitchell reviewed all of the
cases, classified and distinguished them
in one of his greatest opinions, and there-
after there was no more litigation on the



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subject, to the great advantage of the
public and of the suitors.

He was one of the first members of the
Union League of Philadelphia — a patri-
otic organisation that dates from the
early years of the Civil War, and is still
(while now social in character as well)
one of the most important and influen-
tial Republican societies of the country.
He always had a fondness for historical
studies, and for many years presided
over the council of the Pennsylvania
Historical Society. In 1901 Harvard
honored him with the degree of Doctor
of Laws, and for several years he was an
Overseer of the University. He was a
discriminating collector of prints, mainly
of portraits, but his large collection was
dispersed several years before his death.

In many respects he was a notable
personage. His mind was unusually vig-
orous, his thought was lucid, his gift of
clear expression was exceptional, and as
a natural result his views upon any sub-
ject were likely to be convictions. He
had read widely and judiciously, and a
genuine literary quality informed every-
thing that came from his pen. Although
he had but few intimates and lived a
rather reserved life, he was fond of so-
ciety and his conversation was always a
delight. He was highly regarded for his
character and attainments by all who
knew him or knew of him, and the jubi-
lee of his admission to the bar — which
was celebrated in November, 1907 —
was a remarkable occasion, both for the
number and distinguished character of
the participants, and for the note of
genuine respect and admiration that
prevailed, mingled as it was with a much
warmer feeling due to his unfailing
courtesy and kindliness.

He never married, and for many years
was a familiar figure at one of the prom-
inent Philadelphia clubs.



WAR NOTES.

The Second Harvard Unit.

The Second Harvard Unit for service
in the War Zone under the British (rov-
emment has been recruited* and sailed
on the steamship Noordam, of the Hol-
land-American line, from New York
on Nov. 16. It was originally the wish
of Sir William Osl», Regius Professor
in Medicine in Oxford University, that
some of the American Medical Schools
might send contingents to take charge
of British War Hospitals, and his idea
was eagerly seconded by Prof. Harvey
Gushing and Robert Bacon, with whom
he conferred in En^and. From this
sprang the First Harvard Unit, which
was dispatched under the leadership
of Dr. Edward H. Nichols last June, and
performed a tour of three months' duty
at a British base hospital "somewhere
in France," and by the conspicuous ex-
cellence of its work commended itself
highly to the authorities. A tentative
arrangement had been made, whereby
the Harvard Unit should be succeeded
by contingents recruited from Johns
Hopkins and Columbia, each to serve for
three months, but the British War Of-
fice, finding it an expensive luxuiy to
pay the expenses of and equip so many
men for so brief a period, dedded that
they could not accept the services of the
other contingents unless they paid their
own expenses; this finally resulted in the
enterprise being given up.

At this juncture a friend of Harvard
came forward with an offer of enough
money to send a Second Harvard Unit,
if this could be raised. The present
Unit, therefore, has been recruited for
service for six months, with the under-
standing, however, that some substitu-
tions will have to be made for men who
cannot stay for more than three months,
the extra expense thus entailed not bdng



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391



assessed upon the British Government.

The Unit consists of SO men and 86
nurses under the leadership of Dr. David
Cheever, *97, M.D. 1001, a member of
the faculty of the Harvard Medical
School. The personnel is composed large-
ly of Harvard men, although several
others institutions are represented. Un-
doubtedly the most notable and inter-
esting recruit is Dr. Wilfred T. Grenfell,
who has enthusiastically volunteered to
accompany the Unit, and will probably
serve as next in command to Dr. Cheever
and give the Unit the benefit of lus great
experience both in administrative and in
surgical matters. It will probably be im-
possible for Dr. Grenfell to renuun for
the whole length of time of the Unit's
service. The business affairs of the Unit
have been in the hands of Herbert H.
White, 'OS, former Grad. Treasurer of
Athletics, who has volunteered his ser-
vices without compensation and will
accompany the Unit abroad.

The contingent goes under a clause of
the Geneva Convention, which allows
a neutral country to send sanitaiy or
medical officers to one of the belligerents
without their sacrificing their neutrality,
provided that the belligerent shall notify
the enemy of their coming. No condi-
tions will be made to the British Govern-
ment as to the destination of the Unit,
but it is probable that it will be sent for
service to a base hospital in France,
very likely the same one which was
nuinned by the preceding group. Pos-
sibly, however, the exigencies of the
campaign in the Balkan States or Dar-
danelles may make its presence in the
Mediterranean area of more value.

Harvard Dentists in the War Zone.
EuGENB H. Smith,

Dean of the Denial School.
On the 26th of last June there sailed



with the Harvard Surgical Unit, in
charge of Prof. E. H. Nichols, of the
Harvard Medical School, three dentists
from the Harvard Dental School. These
dentists were Dr. V. H. Kasanjian, the
head of the Prosthetic Technique Lab-
oratory of the Harvard Dental School,
and Dr. Ferdinand Brigham and Dr.
Frank H. Cuahman, recent graduates.
After their arrival in England, th^ were
made lieutenants in the Royal Army
Medical Corps of Great Britain and
inunediately sent to a field hospital in
France. Before leaving for the war zone
Dr. Kazanjian had already nuule a rep-
utation for himself in the treatment of
the surgery of the jaws. He had treated
successfully in the school clinic, for
several years, a great number of com-
plicated, multiple injuries of the jaws,
and was therefore eminently fitted to
deal with the nuuiy terrible jaw in-
juries received by the soldiers in the
trenches. His work along this line in the
field hospital in France has astonished
and greatly impressed the entire surgi-
cal corps. To give the reader some clear
impression of the nature of some of these
terrible injuries that Dr. Kazanjian and
his associates are called upon to treat,
I will quote from various letters re-
cently received:

Dr. Brigham writes : " One thing about
our surgical work makes it noticeably
more difficult than civilian work and
that is the mutilation or injury to the
face or head that often accompanies the
fractured jaws. At present the hospital
is carrying more patients here than at
any time previous, and as far as I know,
the American Ambulance at Paris is the
only place in Europe or England where
surgical cases such as we have can be
as well treated. We naturally call our
cases fractured jaws, but as a matter of
fact there usually goes with this condi-
tion a mutilation of the face, nose, head.



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throat, etc., which can easily result in a
bad deformity for life. The authorities
here realise that if Dr. Kasanjian will
stay, countless men can be saved from
mutilation and even death by giving
him full swing and concentrating jaw
cases under his care."

Dr. Cushman writes : " Dr. Kaxanjian's
surgical work has been something out of
the ordinaiy to most of the medical men,
and the other Sunday, when we took
three of our cases to a clinic of medical
men from all about here, his exhibit ex-
cited more interest than any of the
others. We have rather an interesting
jaw case in the ward now, transfored
from another hospital a week ago. One
might say that the man had a shell all
to himself, for he has a wound in his
forearm, another in the upper arm, an-
other piece of shell burrowed through
his chedc and fractured one side of his
mandible between the bicuspids and
molars, and the larger piece entirely
took away one side of his face, includ-
ing the eye, nose, antrum, and that side
of the maxilla. It surely is remaricable
to see how the man's spirits rose as the
wound cleaned up from its frightfully
septic condition. When he came in,
about all he could do was to lie there on
his bed and moan, but the other morn-
ing 1 was very much surprised, indeed,
to go into the ward to dress his wounds
' and have him ask if he might get up and
go out doors. That seems to be much
the way with them all. As they become
more comfortable their wonderful cour-
age comes back to them. I had the good
fortune to go with Dr. Faulkner and
Dr. Kasanjian to an Indian hospitial the
other morning to see a Hindu whose
mandible from molar around to molar
on the other side was completdy gone,
together with all the tissues from his
mouth, clear to his hyoid bone. He was
a terrible sight, and nothing can be done



for him, for it is too far for Dr. Kasan-
jian to visit him there, and they were
unable to spare a man of his own caste
to come with him here.*'

In a very recent letter received from
Dr. Kasanjian, he says: "We are doing
a distinct woric that was needed very
badly, and I am sorry to say it will have
to be discontinued at our dq>arture, as
there are very few who are able to prac-
tise surgery of the jaws. Meanwhile,
the great offensive movement has
started at the western front and the
wounded are coming very rapidly and
our wards are crowded with these frac-
tured jaw cases."

These quotations confirm the favor-
able reports from the medical men of the
Unit, in regard to the importance of the
woHe of Dr. Kasanjian and his associ-
ates. Indeed, so important has it be-
come that the medical authorities of
Great Britain recently cabled to Presi-
dent Lowell for a leave of absence for
Dr. Kasanjian, in order that he might
continue his good work. This President
Lowell has granted, and we are given
to understand that Great Britain will
build and equip a dental hospital for
Dr. Kasanjian, giving him full charge
of the same, and making it a centre to
which, from the various field hospitals,
complicated cases of fractured jaws may
be sent for treatment.

It is, indeed, a source of great pride
and satisfaction that the Harvard
Dental School is able to furnish such
competent men for this humane and
important service.

Red Cra$s Work in Serbia,
Dr. G. C. Shattuck, '01.
I have been asked to write about the
woric of the American Red Cross Sani-
tary Commission in Serbia, and in par-
ticular to tell something of what was
done by the Harvard men connected



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with this CommtBsion. It ahould be
imdentood that do member of the Com-
nusnon, except Dr. Strong, knows ex-
actly what was done by other members
ol the Commission or can form a com-
|»ebensive idea of the woik as a whole.
Therefore, I shall make a few general
statements about the work, and then
proceed to describe some of the things
which I saw myself.

Dr. Strong was the first member of
the Commission to arrive in Serbia.
In April, a few days after his arrival,
he organized an International Health
Commission, the orders of which could
be promptly enforced in all parts of
Serbia. The formation of such a Com-
mission was extremely important for
many reasons, and particulariy to co-
ordinate the woric of the Serbian au-
thorities, and of the British, the French,
the Russians, and the Americans, all of
whom were represented on the Board.
Dr. Strong, as director, traveled con-
stantly in order that he might have per-
sonal knowledge of the situation in all
parts of Serbia; and he instituted sani-
tary work in Montenegro as well as in
Serbia.

The American Red Cross Sanitaiy
Commission was financed jointly by the
Red Cross and by the Rockefeller
Foundation. A group of ten men, in-
cluding Drs. F. B. Grinnell and A. W.
Sellards, of the Harvard Medical School,
and myself, sailed from New York on
April 3 and met Dr. Strong in Skoplje, or
Uskub, as the town was called by the
Turks, eariy in May. Meanwhile, Dr.
Strong had gathered up several Ameri-
can doctors in Serbia and had taken with
him Mr. C. R. Cross from Paris. Mr.
Cross was a member of the Class of 190S
and later graduated from the Law
School. He offered to help in any way
that he could. He travded for a time
with Dr. Strong, then went to Montene-



gro with Dr. Grinnell, and afterwards
returned to Paris, where he was killed
in an automobile accident. For nearly
a year before his death Mr. Cross was
in Europe working constantly with
energy and devotion to duty.

The first contingent of members of
the Commission was followed by a sec-
ond group of twenty or more which ar-
rived toward the end of June, and sev-
eral of these were Harvard graduates.
The Commission included men of va-
rious attainments. There were sanitary
engineers, public health physicians^
sanitary inspectors, many of whom
had been trained under Gen. Gorgas
at Panama, and there were practising
physicians, and laboratory experts, a
bacteriologist, and a water examiner.
Dr. Grinnell was soon sent by Dr.
Strong to take charge of the work in
Montenegro. Dr. Zinsser, of Columbia,
was to study typhus from the bacterio-
logical point of view, Dr. SeUards was
to undertake other laboratory work, and
it was my privilege to study tjrphus
fever from the clinical standpoint. We
agreed to work together so far as pos-
sible, and having found in the Paget
Hospital in Skoplje a favorable oppor-
tunity for beginning work without de-
lay, accepted the invitation of the
British physician in charge to join the
staff of that hospital.

The buildings known as the Paget
Hospital, or "Shesta Reserma Bol-
nitza" (0th Reserve Hospital), were
used formerly for the Military Academy
and for barracks. They are sitiuited on
elevated, rolling ground about a mile
from the town of Skoplje in the midst
of a most beautiful and fertile valley
bounded to north and south by rugged
hills and dominated on the west by
snow-capped mountains.

I had charge of two wards of 45 beds
each, most of them occupied by typhus



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patients in various stages of the disease.
Near the hospital were some large stables
used as a prison-camp for Austrian sol-
diers. Nearly all the prisoners had had
typhus, and a very large proportion had
died of it. They were allowed to go
freely about the hospital grounds, and
nuiny of them served as orderlies in the
wards. Being immune to typhus from
having had the disease, it was not nec-
essary to take precautions to protect
them.

There was a considerable nursing
staff of English sisters, and a few Ser-
bian women worked in the wards. In
order to protect themselves from the
body louse which commonly transmits
typhus, the sisters wore a one-piece
garment of white linen which but-
toned across the shoulders and over this
a blouse of the same material hanging
to the knees. The hair was carefully
covered, the sleeves were held close to
the arms by elastic bands, and, in or-
der that there should be no opening at
the ankle, the legs of the garments were
prolonged into coverings for the feet.
Over these the sisters wore Turkish slip-
pers or high leather boots according to
the weather. I urged the sisters in my
wards to wear rubber gloves in order to
protect their wrists more completely,
and to wear a strip of gauze across the
nose and mouth as a mask, because I
thought there was danger of contracting
typhus through the air as a result of the
coughing of patients; but the gloves
were soon discarded as being difficult to
work in and the mask as being too hot
and uncomfortable. One of the sisters
contracted typhus toward the end of the
epidemic, and I think that she got her
infection from a very sick patient who
coughed a great deal, and whose life, I
think, she saved by unremitting care.
She recovered from the typhus, but suf-
fered afterwards from distressing nerv-



ous symptoms from which it is probable
that she has not yet fully recovered. We
physicians wore cotton trousers with
feet attached, and rubber boots. The
trousers were tied around the waist, and
the upper part of the body was covered
with a short tunic tied below the top of
the trousers and pinned closely around
the neck. Rubber gloves were then
pulled over the sleeves of the tunic and
fastened in place with elastic bands or
adhesive plaster. I used a gamse mask
for a time, but gave it up because the
weather was hot and the mask slipped
into my mouth when I talked. I was
veiy careful not to let a patient cough
in my face.

The appointments of the wards were
of the simplest character. The toilets
were managed by the bucket system,
there being no plumbing. Water for
bathing and other purposes was heated
in sheet-iron wood-burning stoves stand-
ing outside. When one or two patients
at a time came for admission to a ward,
they were stripped, clipped, and bathed
by the orderlies behind a screen on the
steps of the pavilion. When large num?-
bers of patients had to be admitted,
they were sent to a wash-house where
clipping and bathing could be done
wholesale.

Before I had been long at the hospital
a trainload of patients arrived in Skoplje.
Eighty of these were assigned to the
Paget Hospital and sent out in carriages,
each vehicle taking four or five patients.
They were laid on the grass outside the
wash-house, and many, exhausted by
the journey, required brandy or other
stimulants before being moved. Many
others, thin and haggard, but stronger,
straggled across the grounds to the
wards attired in night-shirt and slip-
pers. On that day, 40 patients entered
my wards — a number impossible for
me to examine with care. I went around



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the ward feeling the pukes, listening to
the hearts, and picking out the sicker
patients for more particular attention.
The rest received routine treatment.

This particular group of patients
showed a peculiar cast of countenance
which I attributed to the fact that they
had been for several days on a train,
probably almost uncared-for, with little
food, and insufficient water. The fea-
tures were pinched, the skin was dry,
the brows knitted, and the eyes staring.
Like most of the inhabitants of Serbia,
th^ were bronzed by the sun, but in
spite of this, there was a bright red flush
over the cheek-bones, a common thing
in typhus fever. These men showed no
emotion and little interest. The pre-
dominant expression was not that of res-
ignation, but of courageous endurance,
the most characteristic quality in the
Serb when ill, as I have seen him. He
shows neither fear nor despair and sel-
dom indulges in lamentation. During
convalescence he early takes an interest
in food, and begs to be sent home for
"bolivani," or furlough. With return of
strength he shows merriment, geniality,
and humor.

The Serbs have been called the Irish
of the Balkans, and one of them had such
a genial smile that he reminded me of
the song about Kelly. In one of the
other wards there were two patients
with relapsing fever who were taken
sick at the same time, who entered to-
gether, and who ran an exactly similar
course of fever. A rivalry sprang up be-
tween them, and when one had a sud-
den rise of temperative so high that it
went off the chart, far from viewing this
with alarm, he pointed to it with delight.

After about two months' work at the
Paget Hospital, Dr. Sellards went to
Belgrade to continue his studies there,
and a few weeks later, there being very
little typhus at Skoplje, I finished my



clinical work and went to Belgrade with
Dr. Strong. I stayed there for a few days
at the American Hospital where Dr.
Ryan is still in charge.

The hospital stands on a hiU at the
outskirts of the town, and was respected
by the Germans who were entrenched
across the river. The town showed com-
paratively little damage, except along
the river front, where all buildings, in-
cluding the barracks, had been*reduced
to ruins. The bridge across the river had
been wrecked, but at that time the bat-
teries were exchanging only occasional
shots, none of which fell in the town. A
German aeroplane made almost daily
flights in the morning over Belgrade, and
was always greeted by a fusillade of
shrapnel which, when it burst, looked
like powder puffs in the sky. The shots
were nearly always wide of the mark.

One morning, however, the German
made three trips, each time dropping
bombs in the town. The third time he
was met by a French plane which opened
fire upon him. Almost immediately the
German began to descend in wide circles
and presently disappeared from my
sight behind the roof of one of the hos-
pital buildings. He must have been
wounded, for he subsequently lost con-
trol of his machine and fell from a con-
siderable height into the mud on the
bank of the river.

After leaving Belgrade I went with
Dr. Strong to Vallievo to inspect the
graveyard. There had been many Aus-
trian prisoners in Vallievo, and the
death-rate from typhus among them is
said to have reached 70 per cent. The
dead had been buried in great square
pits, and insufficiently covered with
earth, so that the graveyard became
offensive to the neighborhood. The
French, who were working in Vallievo,
had already carried out the necessary
measures.



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Dr. Strong then asked me to go to
Pristina to supervise sanitary woric
which was being conducted there by
members of our Commission. Th^ were
living in tents in the military reserva-
tion, and running a mess of their own.

The hotels in Serbia are so infested
with bed-bugs that we avoided them
whenever possible, and when obliged
to spend any length of time in a place
we fumigated and cleaned our quarters
or else went into camp. The work at
Pristina consbted in cleaning and disin-
fection of hospitals, the jail, some large
barracks and stables used for quartering
the soldiers, disinfection of clothing,
bathing of soldiers and prisoners, build-
ing sanitary privies, and vaccinating
against typhus fever and cholera.

Bathing and disinfection of clothing
were carried out by means of converted
refrigerator cars, into one of which
steam could be tiuned to sterilise the
clothing while the men were bathing
mder shower baths in the other. This
system was first used in Manchuria by



Online LibraryWilliam Richards Castle William Roscoe ThayerThe Harvard graduates' magazine → online text (page 54 of 103)