William Richards Castle William Roscoe Thayer.

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ized with a separate Faculty. That was essential both on account of its
distance from Cambridge, and because the nature of the subject requires
one of the two active terms to be held in tlie summer. With the creation
of this Faculty the reorganization of the departments formerly under the
Faculty of Applied Science is completed ; provi<1ed of courae, the author-
ity of the University to make the agreement with the Institute of Tech-
nology is sustained by the Supreme Judicial Court of the Commonwealth.
A bill for instructions to this effect has been filed by the Corporation and
it is hoped that the case will soon be ready for arg^ament.

Extension courses. Alongside of the regular work of a university, con-
ducted within its walls, there has been felt in all the larger institutions

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1916.] The President's Annual Eeport. 457

of this countiy a duty to instract the public by courses offered to persons
who can give only a small part of their time to study, but who desire to
improve themselves in general culture or in vocational lines. This is done
at Harvard under the direct charge of a Dean and Administrative Board,
and the reader who would understand in detail what has been accom-
plished is referred to the report of the Dean. The work is divided into
that of the Summer School, and that of the extension courses given in
term time. The experiment of lodging and boarding members of the
Summer School in the Freshman Halls was tried during the past summer
and proved successful. The Freshmen are obliged, in the nature of things,
to leave at the end of the year, and as the furniture in their rooms is
supplied by the College, it is possible to use these halls, with their large
dining and common rooms, for other purposes during the summer. To
live in these halls is a great convenience to the summer students, and,
what is more important, it gives them a feeling of academic community
life which they cannot get in any other way and which they value highly.

Not less interesting is the question of extension courses in term time.
For a number of years, these have been conducted by a committee repre-
senting all the institutions of higher learning in and about Boston, with
Dean Ropes as Chairman. The committee has not only tried to dis-
cover what instruction the public may want and furnish it, but has held
itself ready to give a course on any subject of college grade that any
thirty persons in the metropolitan area, capable of following it, will ag^ee
to take. This seems as liberal a use for the public benefit of the resources
of our institutions of learning as it is possible to make. No state institu-
tion could carry university extension further by direct teaching, and there
can be no question that direct teaching in the classroom where it is pos-
sible — as it is in the metropolitan area — is far superior to any method
of instruction by correspondence. In many cities where extension work
is carried on, the number of persons registered in the courses is large,
while the proportion who obtain a certificate by completing the work in
the course and taking the examination is very small. It is notable in the
repoH of the Dean that the percentage of certificates here is relatively
large, and it is chiefly to these that the substantial popular education
given by the courses is to be measured.

By means of this committee, representing the various institutions of
higher learning in this neighborhood, extension work appears to be sat-
isfactorily done for the metropolitan area. But it ought to be extended so
far as possible over the wliole State, and for that purpose during the past
year the University Council of Massachusetts was formed of represent-
atives from all the colleges of the S.tate, acting in concert with the Board
of Education of the Commonwealth. The problem of the rural districts

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458 I%6 President's Annual Report. [March,

is more difficolt than that of the large cities because people are more
scattered ; nevertheless, the endowed colleges of Massachnsetts oaght to
be able to give her people as much instruction as a state university can
in the West — and more, because Massachusetts has become largely a
group of cities. Much has already been done by Williams College at
Noi*th Adams, by other colleges in other places ; and there is good reason
to believe that popular education will be as well promoted by the Univer-
sity Council, acting in concert with the State Board, as by any state uni-
veraity in the country. The endowed institutions realize fully that their
obligations to tlie public are none the less because they are not managed
by the State.

New buildings. Besides the Widener Libraiy, the Craft High Ten-
sion Laboratory has been completed, and the Music Building has been
occupied. Music, indeed, forms, as it ought, an increasingly important
part of the work of the Univei'sity. A few more buildings are still needed,
such as a fourth Freshman dormitory, a better place to house the Uni-
versity Press, and, above all, more chemical laboratories. Chemistry 'is
of increasing importance in this country, and the war has shown us the
need of independence of German chemists.

Gifts, — The largest single gifts of money received during the year
have been as follows :

James J. Hill Professonhip of TraoBportation $125,000.00

TheClaasof 1890 Fund:

Twenty-fifth Anniversary Fand 80,000.00

The Matehett Fund :

The Estate of Sarah A. Matchett 50,000.00

Morrill Wyman Estate 50,533.32

John B. and Bnckminster Brown Professorship of Orthopedic


Backminster Brown Estate 25,645.92

From the Trustees under the will of Philip C. Lookwood:

For the Cancer Commission 60,000.00

Francis Skinner (Sr.) Estate :

Residuary hequest 43,148.94

Morrill Wyman Medical Research Fund 25,000.00

George R. Agassiz:

Museum of Comparative Zoology 26,000.00

Mrs. Adolphus Busch :

For the oompletion of the (Germanic Miuenm 56,000.00

Changes in personnel. During the past year the University has suf-
fered a grievous loss in the death of Ezra Ripley Thayer, Dane Professor
of Law and Dean of the Law School. In middle life, he abandoned, in
1910, a large practice at the bar to become head of the School, and to
continue his service here he declined a place on the Supreme Court of
the Commonwealth which had been the ambition of his life. Colleagues

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1916.] The President's Annual Beport. 459

and students tnisted him as a leader, were stimalated by his presence,
and feel his death as a personal bereavement of no common kind. The
Medical School lost Dr. Charles Sedgwick Minot, James Stillman Pro-
fessor of Comparative Anatomy, who died almost at the opening of the
academic year. His eminence was one of the glories of the School. Mur-
ray Anthony Potter, Assistant Professor of Romance Languages, died in
May, cut off in the middle of his second term as assistant professor. He
had been an honored member of the staff in the department for fourteen
years. Four professors emeriti have also died, — John Chipman Gray,
the last of the great figures that made the reputation of the Law School
in the last forty years ; Frederick Ward Putnam, to whose exertions we
owe the growth of the Peabody Museum and who, as Director Emeritus,
vii-tually guided it until his death ; Francis Humphreys Storer, Professor
of Agricultural Chemistry and Dean of the Bussey Institution for over
a quarter of a century until 1907, died in July, 1914 ; John Hildreth
McCollom, Professor of Contagious Diseases, died in June, 1915, only
two years after completing a service of seventeen years in the Medical

The only losses of full professors by resignation have been those of
Eugene Joseph Armand Duquesne, Professor of Architectural Design,
who was sunmioned to France as a reservist, but resigned permanently,
intending after the war to teach and practice architecture in Paris ; Dr.
Charles MontraviUe Green, Professor of Obstetrics and GynsBCology,
who retired after a long and faithful service in teaching the subject with-
out a break since 1886 ; and Dr. Theobald Smith, who left to take charge
of the new Rockefeller Institute of Comparative Pathology. Deeply as
we regret his departure, no one has a right to lament his taking a place
with opportunities for research far greater than any medical school could

Eight assistant professors have been appointed to professors' chairs :
Gregory Paul Baxter became Professor of Chemistry ; Austin Wakeman
Scott, Professor of Law ; John Lovett Morse, Professor of Pediatrics ;
Charles Henry White, Professor of Mining and Metallurgy ; Edward
Vermilye Huntington, Associate Professor of Mathematics ; John Wai"-
ren, Associate Professor of Anatomy ; Frederic Thomas Lewis, Associate
Professor of Embryology ; and John Lewis Bremer, Associate Professor
of Histology.

By the desire of the Prussian government the exchange of professors
with Berlin has been discontinued during the war ; but the exchange with
France has been, and will be, maintained. We sent there Professor Wil-
liam Allan Neilson of the Department of English, and received in return
Henri lichtenberger. Professor of German Language and Literature at

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460 Harvard and Military Training. [March,

the Sorbonne. To the five Western Exchange Colleges we sent Lawrence
Joseph Henderson, Assistant Professor of Biological Chemistry ; while
there came to Cambridge, from Knox College, William £dwards Simonds,
Professor of English, and from Colorado College, James Williams Park,
Assistant Professor of Education. We were fortunate in having Profes-
sor Anesaki of the University of Tokyo remain another year as the Pro-
fessor of Japanese Literature and Life.

The destruction of their city cast many of the distingnished professors
of the University of Lonvain adrift, two of whom we were able to bring
to Harvard for the second half-year. They were Professor L^n Dupriez,
who gave courses in the Civil Law and Parliamentary Government ; and
Charles Jean de la Valine Poussin, Professor of Mathematics.

In this report it has been possible only to touch briefly upon some of
the topics of more general interest, and to the reports of the various Deans
and Directors the friends of the University are referred. Many of them
will find it encoun^ing to read the remarks of Professor Fisher about
the condition of the ti*ees in the College Yard.

J. A. L. BLAKE, '02.

Thebe is, I think, no doubt that tlie students of Harvard Universify
wish to prepare themselves to take commissions in case this country needs
their services in war. There are several methods open to them, all of
which have merit and some of which might well be combined.

In the first place, there ir the Massachusetts Militia, and the Common-
wealth is fortunate in possessing a very efBcient militia, one of the very
best, in fact, in the United States. There are, in Boston, organizations of
infantry, cavalry, field and coast artillery, which, by their efficiency and
the character of their personnel, make excellent schools for the college
man. In the Boston militia companies there are, between Oct 1 and
July 1, usually about 30 to 40 weekly drills in the armory, then a few
afternoons of rifle practice at Wakefield in the spring and summer, and
a summer camp of eight days' duration, devoted largely to field truning
and manoeuvres. The militia teaches well close order drill, guard duty
and ceremonies, all of which have great disciplinary value. The time
that can be devoted to shooting and to field training is far from adequate,
however, particularly for the latter, and there is but seldom sufficient op-
portunity for the theoretic study of military matters.

Second, there are the summer camps under the charge of the regular
army held in various parts of the country. These are splendid, almost

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1916.] Harvard and Military IVaininff. 461

ideal schools for field training, particalarly for the man who has had
little or no previous experience. A good idea of the main points of rifle
shooting is also given ; but the term is so short, about four weeks, that
there is not opportunity to put .much effort into the niceties of drill, or
into ceremonies, which, as has been said before, have gt*eat disciplinary
value. During some, at least, of these camps of last summer, guard duty
was not touched on at all. It is impossible also to teach in the field much
about the theoretic end of the profession.

To these two opportunities for training two new ones have been added :
the *^ Harvard Regiment *' and the courses in Military Science. The Har-
vard Regiment should, like the militia, give ample opportunities for in-
struction in close order drill, guard duty, and the various ceremonies.
Whether, however, there will or can be included within the scope of the
regular wor^ of the regiment either instruction in nfle shooting or in field
training would seem doubtful. The winter armory work in the militia
often grows monotonous and it is only the prospect of the approaching
camp that keeps the interest alive. It is to be feared, therefore, unless
the Harvard Regiment makes some arrangement for field training through
the army camps or otherwise, that intefest in it will gradually die out and
the regiment cease to exist

Last, and by no means least, there are the courses on Military Science,
History, etc, to be given by Harvard University. These, if properly con-
ducted, should be of the greatest value and the highest interest In the
course of Lectures on Tactics, for instance, it should be possible to have
map problems, and, in tlie section work, map mancBuvres and tactical
walks also.

Such being the various means oi instruction and training open to the
student, what would be the best way in which he might take advantage
of them ?

In the first place, it is clear that the theoretic instruction as given in
the College courses is absolutely essential. In no other way can the stu-
dent expect to get the same amount of valuable information in the same
time. There is, it is true, a splendid school for men of the militia who
aspire to be officers, at Charlestown, for which Lieut-Col. W. W. Stover
deserves the credit. But this school is practically open to only two men
in each militia company.

In addition to this theoretic instruction it is obvious that the student
needs practical experience in discipline, drill, and field training. He can
get only part of this in the Harvard Reg^iment in Cambridge and perhaps
not the most important part at that. He should, therefore, surely attend
at least one army summer camp in addition.

The best method, however, which is at present available, would appear

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462 The Spiritual History of Divinity Hall. [March,

to be to enlist in the Massachusetts Militia and to supplement that train-
ing by attendance at one of the regular army sunmier camps, preferably
dunng the first or second year of the enlistment.^ With this combination
the student, though of course he would not be a finished officer, should
possess a very helpful working knowledge of the duties of a second lieu-
tenant in that particular arm of the service in which he has specialized.

There is another aspect of the situation — the value that the College
man may get from this military training for the business of everyday
life. Tliera is no experience more valuable than learning first to take
orders ; and later, in some degree, to give them. Military methods, in a
modified form, are well adapted to many business problems. Beside this,
the College man will meet in the militia or at the army camps many men of
a type different from his, and, that on a footing of absolute equality. Some
of these men will become real friends and some very valuable acquaint-
ances. The habit and experience which the College man thus gains of
dealing with men of various upbringing and social position will stand him
in good stead all through life. Ask any man who has been in the militia,
for instance, whether he has found the time he has spent in militaiy train-
ing to have been wasted so far as ordinary life is concerned. He will
almost surely tell you that he regrets no moment of it



This venerable building, within whose walls linger so many happy
memories, was completed nearly ninety years ago, in 1826. Its erection
was the curious consequence of a movement organized, not to maintain
a University School of Theology, but, on the contrary, to remove tlie
troublesome subject of theology from among the responsibilities of the
University. On May 13, 1824, the Corporation of the University an-
nounced its opinion that ** The purposes of the Theological Institution
will be more effectively answered by separating it from the University,
and by placing it under the control and management of a number of di-
rectors, who will be able to devote to it a more constant attention than
can be expected from those to whom the various and important concerns
of the University are committed.*' Accordingly the " Society for Pro-
moting Theological Education in Harvard University," which had been
organized in 1816 to promote studies appropriate to the ministry, under-

^ The Colle^ coimes should probably be taken during: the aecond and third yean
of the enlistment.

3 An Address at the Meeting of Alumni of the Harvard Divinity School, June 23,

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1916.] The Spiritual History jof Divinity Hall 463

took this " general oversight and superintendence " subject to " the right
of visitation and the appointment of professors by the Governing Boards
of the University." The Corporation, however, were soon advised that
this delegation of authority was illegal, and the Society, deterred from
accomplishing its purpose of divorcing theological studies from academic
life, found itself committed to the more salutary task of reinforcing the
University's work by the provision of Divinity Hall. ** It is a time,"
wrote the Treasurer of the Fund, in words which under present condi-
tions seem touched with irony, *^ when the price of building materials of
every description is unusually high. An edifice, however, has been raised,
of 156 feet in length by 40 feet in breadth, containing every conven-
ience and pleasant accommodation for 42 students, together with a chapel
and library for their use, the total cost not exceeding $28,000." The
Directors of the Society were further responsible for naming the build-
ing, though, as they suggested in their report for 1826, they ** will be
ready to change that name for that of any benefactor of the Institution
whose donation, in their judgment, shall entitle him to such honor." The
graceful lines of its exterior have often been cvedited to Bulfinch, and
the tradition survives that sight-seers of that generation regarded Divin-
ity Hall as the finest expression of academic architecture in Cambridge.
The records of tlie University, however, disclose the fact that the design
was that of one Thomas W. Sumner, whose name is otherwise lost to Uie
history of art, but who deserves honorable mention for this restrained
and graceful design. The building was at once dormitory, lecture hall,
and library ; and though the demands of a new century have made the
erection of a new Library Building necessary, there still lingers in the
memory of older graduates a curiously satisfying recollection of the in-
sufficient and stuffy little Library, with its long tables for friendly lec-
tures, and its rows of books with their insistent intimacy. James Russell
Lowell once said that the education of a Harvard student consisted chiefly
in rubbing his back against the College buildings ; and it is equally cer-
tain that for many years a Divinity student could with difficulty escape
that part of his education which was secured by rubbing his back against
the dusty shelves of venerated, though unread, theologians.

The passing of the years has left Divinity Hall a topographical sym-
bol of the progress of learning. At its erection it stood among open
fields, where students of Divinity refreshed themselves by cultivating
little gardens, for which one of them devised what he described as a
** self-weeding apparatus," — an invention which might perhaps have been
as profitably applied to the minds of students as to their crops. Like the
studies which it was built to foster, however, Divinity Hall has become
beset on every side by the monuments of neighboring sciences. In front

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464 27ie SpirUtial History of Divinity Ball. [March,

stands the vast expanse of zoological learning, embracing in its hollow
square the entira animal kingdom, from insects in the north wing to In-
dian skulls in the soutli. Yet, even here the eastern fi*ont of this great
area is still bound by the study of moral ideals and religions faith ; and
the modest but resolute facade of IMvinity Hall faces the colossal bulk
of the natural sciences with an unperturbed tranquillity, as though it re-
peated the tolerant anticipation of a poet who often paced these vei-y

*' And not by eastem windows only,

When daylight comes, comes in the light ;

In front the sun climbs slow, how slowly,

Bat westward, look, the land is bright I "

On its southern side Divinity Hall has welcomed to intimacy the mod-
ern criticism of the Bible which the Semitic Museum symbolizes ; while
at the entrance of Divinity Avenue the ancient conservatism still controls
the approach and warns the unsuspecting visitor by a sign: ** Private
way, dangerous passing." On the east the Spartan simplicity of Divinity
Hall is confronted by the Sybaritic splendor of the rejuvenescent An-
dover ; and tlie School, which like an elder brother has remained in the
. old home, seems to turn its Puritan back on the penitent prodigal as
though it snid to the Corporation, " Thou never gavest me a palace where
I might make merry with my friends." Even the wooden fence which
still divides the two Institutions is a symbol of an era of transition. It is
a shaky and tottering structure, perforated by many apertures, through
which heretical teachers or orthodox students may pass in either direc-
tion without hindrance. The fence remains, but no one keeps it in repair,
and some day it will crumble of its own weight, and between the diversi-
ties of administration there will be nothing but an open field of the one

These external characteristics of Divinity Hall are, however, by no
means its most suggestive aspects. The quiet old building has had not
only an architectural but a spiritual history. Through its corridors pass
the shades of prophets and dreamers ; in its Chapel linger the echoes of
fervent prayers and noble hymns ; its primitive Library was the modest
lecture-room of a long series of masters whose names and works sum up
the entire history of liberal theology in Amenca. Here the two Henry
Wares, father and son, maintained their apostolic succession ; here An-
drews Norton expounded his Christological Arianism and compiled his
defense of Scripture, while his fair daughters, pacing the neighboring
groves of Shady Hill before the scrutinizing eyes of Divinity students,
were fitly designated as Norton's "Evidences of Christianity." Here
John Gorliam Palfrey anticipated the modern teaching of Old Testa*

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1916.] The Spiritual fftstory of Divinity Hall 465

ment criticism before a class so modest in dimensions that he described
it as consisting of one mystic, one sceptic, and one dyspeptic. Here
George B. Noyes set forth so prematurely the modem view of Old
Testament prophecy, that he was threatened by the Attorney-General
of Massachusetts with prosecution for blasphemy; and here Convera
Francis made known the philosophy of Germany to the transcendent-
alists of New England. And what shall I more say ! For the time would
fail me if I spoke of Hedge, the poet, historian, and Germanist; of
Oliver Steams, the ascetic but tender-hearted Puritan ; of James Free-
man Clarke, the prophet of universal religion ; or should permit personal
affection to dwell on the precious names of Ezra Abbot, most erudite
and humble of scholars, or of Joseph Henry Thayer, equally loyal to the
letter and to the spirit of the New Testament, subdued to that he worked
in like the dyer's hand ; or of Carroll Everett, that tranquil mind, set
like a transparent lake high up among the hills of thought, to which one

Online LibraryWilliam Richards Castle William Roscoe ThayerThe Harvard graduates' magazine → online text (page 63 of 103)