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Webster and 8 other members of Congress and of the United States
Senate ; George Ticknor, the predecessor of Longfellow and Lowell as
Smith Professor of French and Spanish ; 2 governors, 4 college presi-
dents, 3 justices and a chief justice of Connecticut and of Canada.

The underlying idea in compiling a catalograe of this character should
be to prepare the list in such away as to enable the user of the book to ob-
tain the information he is seeking in the shortest time and with the least
inconvenience possible. While any set method of grouping degrees is open
to criticism as one that will puzzle and confuse the occasional user, and
after all, most users of such a catalogue are only casual users of the same,
a criticism of the method here adopted does not seem to be without reason.
The holders of honorary degrees of all kinds, 14 in number, are grouped
together, without separation, in one chronological series. The graduates
of the three leading professional schools, Medical, Law, and Theological,
are likewise grouped separately, but with subdivisions for the most recent
years. The arts and science degrees, however, are peculiarly grouped. For
instance, 39 men have received the degrree of Mining Engineer : 8 during
the years 1870-75, and 31 during the years 1906-14. The earlier degrees
appear on p. 586 of the Catalogue, under the group-heading " Civil En-
gineers and Mining Engineers." The later, together with 9 other degrees,
appear on pp. 589-94, under the g^oup-heading " Masters in Engineering,
etc." There seems no valid reason for dividing the M.E. degrees in this
way. Presumably the desire to group all the degrees granted in the School

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1915.] Jiew Books. 63

of Applied Sciences was the cause of such separation. If so, then it would
seem that the S.B. degree list shoold be divided, and that those degrees
granted before 1906 shoold be grouped with the C.E. and earlier granted
M.E. degrees, for all three were granted for work in the Lawrence
Scientific School, and that the S.B. degrees granted after 1906 should be
grouped with the A.B. degrees, for such were granted for work done iu
the College.

Incidentally in this connection it seems proper to suggest that Mechan-
ical Engineers and Mining Engineers ought not to be referred to by the
same abbreviation, M.E., as is done in the Catalogue. It would be better
to refer to the former by the letters M.K, and to the latter by the letters
reversed, E.M., as is done by most institutions granting d^^rees in both
subjects, or by using the longer abbreviations, Mech.E., and Min.E., as
is done by the U.S. Bureau of Education.

The S.M. and S.D. degrees are also divided, those granted in 1910
and earlier years being grouped with the '' Doctors of Philosophy, etc.,"
and those granted after 1910 being grouped under the head of '< Mas-
ters of Eugineering, etc," while the S.D. d^;rees granted gratia honoris
appear in the list of honorary degrees.

The A.M. degrees granted by Harvard are of five classes. Those
granted ad eundem and gratia honoris appear in the list of honorary de-
grees, mixed together ; those granted after examination appear separately
in the group '^ Doctor of Philosophy, etc." ; those granted in course, 5254
in number, are listed with the A.B'8 without separation ; while those granted
in connection with other degrees are so interwoven with them that the
only way to locate them is to read the book through from beginning to
end. The number of such degrees granted was 276, of which number 67
were granted in connection with Ph.D., 57 with M.D., 132 with LL.B.,
and 20 with S.T.B. Information regarding them does not appear to be
consistently fuiiushed even in connection with the professional degree
with which g^ranted. An excellent illustration of what is meant appears
in the record of the two graduates of the Divinity School in 1888, as
given on p. 797. The statement is there made that one member of the
class received S.T.B. and A.M., and nothing is said about the other, ex-
cept to refer to his A.B. degree, thus leading the casual reader to infer
that the second received the degree of S.T.B. only, whereas, as a matter
of fact, both received the A.M. degree in connection with the S.T.B. A
separate list of those receiving the A.M. degree with a professional de-
gree seems to be warranted, though probably the need of a separate list
of the A.M. degrees granted in course does not exist.

No degree was granted to graduates of the Divinity School previous
to 1870, but after 1874, all graduates received a degree. During these

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54 New Books. [September,

intervening years some men graduated with a degree and some without
Both classes are grouped together. They should he separated as is done
on the second column of p. 801.

In the Medical School the degree of M.B. was given the earlier gradu-
ates. In 1811, the degree was changed to M.D.y and the latter degree
was conferred on all living graduates of the School who had not already
received it. The numher of M.B. degprees granted was 51, but there is no
list showing who had received the M.D. degree prior to 1811. Such a
list should be given showing the names of the recipients of the M.B. de-
gree and of the M.D. degree for the years 1788-1810, as carefully as is
done in the case of M.D. and Dr.P.H. degrees for the years 1911-14
on pp. 669-74.

The innovations that appear in this Catalogue consist mainly in the
insertion of dates in connection with the various positions held and in
designating the names of the undergraduate winners of the first Bowdoin
Prizes, the recipients of final honors and distinctions granted at gradu-
ation, and the names of the first ten scholars of each class receiving the
A.B. degree from 1777-1887.

Many affect to believe that those who rank near the head of the class
do not attain prominence in after life. While this may be true of some,
it is by no means universally so, and while the majority of us may state
with pride that we are in the same class as Oliver Wendell Holmes, father
and son, Charles Sumner, John L. Motley, James Russell Lowell, Francis
Parkman, Alexander Agassiz, Phillips Brooks, John Fiske, Henry Cabot
Lodge, Theodore Roosevelt, Profs. Benjamin Peirce, Langdell, Palmer,
and Richards, and a host of others who did not rank among the first ten
scholars of their class, we nevertheless have a secret respect for Profs.
Bowen, Child, Hale, Byerly, and Eittredge, who ranked at the head of
their respective classes ; Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Edward Everett
Hale, Presidents Hill and Eliot, Profs. Torrey, Lane, Goodwin, and
Hart, who ranked second ; Judge Hoar and Presidents Steams of Amherst
and Thwing of Western Reserve, who ranked third ; John D. Long and
Profs. Levering, Laughlin, Briggs, and B. O. Peirce, who ranked fourth ;
Prof. John Chipman Gray, who ranked fifth ; Alexander McKenzie, who
ranked sixth; Prof. James Barr Ames, who ranked seventh; Wendell
PhilHps and Presidents Felton of Harvard and Hyde of Bowdoin, who
ranked eighth ; Profs. J. B. Thayer, J. M. Peirce, and F. G. Peabody,
who ranked ninth ; and Prof. Charles Eliot Norton, who ranked tenth in
his class.

In order that this new material might not increase the size of the Cata-
logue unduly, the list of professors and instructors has been compressed
into a list of endowed professorships and tlieir holders followed by one

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1915.] New Books. 55

general list of instmcton, while mach information appearing Jn former
Catalogues has been omitted : all reference to College appointments be-
low the rank of professor, presidents of the Alumni Association, princi-
pals of schools, superintendents of city schools, and editors of the Quin-
quennial Catalogues, while reference to membership in foreign societies
has been materially reduced in number. As instances of the reduction
may be mentioned Newcomb, S.B. 1858, reduced from 30 societies in
the 1910 Catalogue to 14 in 1915 ; Agassiz, A.B. 1855, reduced from 29
to 10; Pickering, S.B. 1865, from 18 to 8; Davis, S.B. 1869, from 12
to 4; Gould, A.B. 1844, from 10 to 6 ; Scudder, S.B. 1862, from 10 to 1 ;
Putnam, S.K 1862, from 8 to 1 ; and Packard, S.B. 1862, from 10 to 0.

In the summary on p. 862, it is stated that the whole number of de-
grees conferred by the University is 42,302. This is not strictly correct,
for this summary does not include the 43 who graduated from the Medi-
cal School with the degree of M.B., and later received the degree of M.D.,
nor does it include the 5254 A.B.'s, who received the A.M. degree in
course, nor the 276 who received the degree of A.M. in connection with
a professional degree. If these are included, then the total number of de-
grees conferred by the University would be recorded as 47,875.

This edition of the Catalogue is by far the best that has been issued.
It bears evidence of great care in editing, the order of presentation of
material, the use of abbreviations, and the collocation of dates are uniform,
the typography is excellent, and the proof-reading has been carefully at-
tended to. The number of errors is almost infinitesimal. It is to be hoped
that the present editor may have charge of many editions in the future,
though it can hardly be expected that successive editions will show as
much improvement over the present as this shows over its predecessors.


One approaches anything on the tariff question by Prof. Taussig with
respectful diffidence, for he is such a veteran writer on this subject that
he is expected to be armed with every argument to support his view, and
to demolish ruthlessly every opponent. But it would belittle him to sug-
gest that he would not welcome all sorts of arguments in review of any
position which he might take.

In the preface of his most recent book, <* Some Aspects of the Tariff
Question," he says that the results stated are the conclusions and deduc-
tions from the work of over a quarter of a century, and that it gives him
satisfaction to record that subsequent events have justified, in the main,
the reasoning of his article published in 1889.

1 Some AspeeU ofUu TarUT Quutian, By Prof. F. W. Tanng, '79. Harrard Uni-
Tinitj IV«ot: Cambridgo, 1910.

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56 New Books. [September,

It is n^ doubt true tbat if Congress could be indaced to forego, as Prof.
Taussig wishes it might, the political advantages derived from discussion
of the tariff question, advantages which the average Congressman will not
easily surrender, and commit the whole subject to the consideration of
a commission composed of experts, combining protectionists and free-
traders. Congress reserving the power to act on the commission's reports
from time to time, the results to be obtained by the country at large would
be of much greater value than from anything so far accomplished. Prof.
Taussig would himself be a very useful member of such a commission,
and his great knowledge might Uien be of as large practical, as it is now
of theoretical, value. Perhaps, however, it is too early in our political
development reasonably to expect the establishment of such a non-partisan

The first three chapters of the book present certain preliminary prin-
ciples, or, more correctly, perhaps, the bearing of certain ascertained facts
on such principles. Fart II is a discussion of the tariff as it relates to
sugar ; Part III as it relates to iron and steel ; and Part lY discusses the
relation of the tariff to textiles. In each part the history of the various
industries is very interesting, and, to the ordinary reader, the statements
must appear convincing. Probably among those who have been most
intimately connected with the several industries, however, will be found
some who will dispute statements of fact This is inevitable, for it is
always hard for an outsider to get the exact point of view of the man
whose whole time and attention have been directed to the given industry
and whose earned experience may be quite as valuable as the deductions
of the theorist, at least as to the bearing of a tariff on that particular in«

Prof. Taussig's discussion of labor and machinery is instructive and
enlightening. He explains the higher wage of the American workman on
the theory of greater efficiency, or perhaps of greater effectiveness. This
is the generally accepted theory, but the average higher cost of living has
its share in the wage. The net result is not that the American wage-
earner, with his higher wage, merely buys and pays for those things
which the European worker boys, and then comes out on the same par ;
he has money over and above his living needs, with the net result as
above, that he is better paid. The American laborer displays superior
ability in the handling and use of labor-saving machinery, most of which
is the product of American brains. But this machinery is being used
more and more in Europe, and if the laborer there acquires the deft skill
and ability of the American, is not the protection afforded by the tariff
going to be lost ? Prof. Taussig answers his own question by suggesting
further improvements in the machinery, whereby the American will con-

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1915.] Ifew Books. 67

tinad to keep ahead — and to pay the highest wage. But it is evident that
this system must have some limit, and the question obstinately intrudes
itself again. Must the American laborer, then, be reduced to the wage of
the lowest price competing nation? Here Prof. Taussig answers that a
blessed time of perfect equality may come to all nations, when trade will
largely cease between them, since there will be no advantage to be gained,
except in those conunodities in favor of which inevitable differences of
soil, climate, and natural productiveness will give some countries certain
advantages. But he does not regard this day of universal leveling as very

On the whole, Prof. Taussig treats the sugar situation from a stand*
point of disapprobation ; as though the country would, or might, be better
off without any sugar tariff, excepting, possibly, for revenue purposes.
What he says about Hawaii seems, to one thoroughly acquainted with the
situation there, as unfair and misleading. He gives no suggestion of any
other consideration entering into the matter of reciprocity or annexation
than his own views. He omits absolutely any references to the urgent
statements made to Washington from time to time, beginning three
quarters of a century ago, by military and naval men, as well as others,
tiiat it was of the utmost importance to the United States that Hawaii
should not become the property of any other nation, and should eventu-
ally be owned by this country. The reciprocity treaty was given for the
purpose of holding and increasing American influence in the Islands. It
resulted in diverting to the United States practically all of the buying of
the Islands, thus benefiting business here. It made things prosperous in
Hawaii, so that wage-earners began to accumulate savings, which were
invested in the various sugar companies, until now there are between nine
and ten thousand owners in the less than one hundred sugar estetes. Nor
is it true that the sugar situation brought about annexation. From the
Hawaiian standpoint, that step was due wholly to the national desire for
relief from a state of constant political unrest, which was destructive of
all order and business. The final revolution, of 1893, was not guided or
controlled by the sugar men, who occupied, in so far as they joined in at
all, only minor positions. The representative British sugar men bitterly
opposed American annexation. The final transfer was an act of military
necessity, with which the sugar question had nothing to do, and the ac-
quisition of Hawaii has proved to be a profitable investment.

Now as to the result of the protective sugar toriff in America : Some
years ago domestic production furnished about a tenth of the amount of
sugar needed by the country. Today it is more than a half, and, had
it not been for the Democratic policy of removing the duty, the country
would, at no distant date, have produced not only its own supply, but

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68 A Modest Plea for the ^^Bttmanities.^^ [September,

much more. Nothing is said in the yolame of the fact that, while the
general cost of living has increased daring the last forty years, the price
of sugar has steadily fallen. This has, of comrse, compelled the producer
to retrench, and as a consequence we find today, in Hawaii, at any rate,
the most scientific caltivation and manufacture of sugar which the world

Chapters IX to XIII are devoted to the iron and steel industry. Many
facts are cited which go to show that not all of the tremendous develop-
ment and prosperity was due to the protective tariff. Such facts as in-
creased facilities in bringing ores and coal together over long distances,
the discovery that smelting witli other than anthracite coal was practi-
cable ; the enormous increase in Uie use of tlie Bessemer process ; the
substitution of iron and steel in building and manufacturing operations ;
the failure of the labor unions to force a dominating influence ; all go to
prove that other factors than a high protective tariff stimulated the g^wth
of the industry. But it is not denied that heavy duties, particularly at
first, had great influence in giving the initial impulse.

The remainder of the book is devoted to textiles, with particular refer-
ence to silk, cotton, and wool. The growth of each is sketched with a
master hand, and is more than interesting. The *' very existence of the
silk manufacture is due to protection." But it is shown that during this
development, "forces not peculiar to the United States, but of inter-
national scope, have been at work." Regarding cotton the author says,
*' Whatever may have been the influence of protection, it has not been
enfeebling." With regard to woolens, he says, '* lack of progress . . •
seems to be discernible in some directions." '< But on the whole, the evi-
dence is that in the United States at least, high protection has not been
inconsistent with enterprise, invention, forging ahead."

It is evident, all the way through this very interesting and important
book, that the author's personal inclinations are against protective duties.
His theory is, apparently, that the effect of protection is to give a bonus
to the various classes of producers and manufacturers, at the expense of
the consumers. The value of the book is increased by helpful and highly
instructive diagrams, which show clearly that the domestic price of a com*
modity is not always controlled by the duty.


Just a year ago, speaking as President of the Harvard Alumni, I
quoted Loweirs famous definition of a university as a place '* where noth-
^ AddroM deliyered at the Radoliffe Commeneement on Juno 23, 1915.

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1916.] A Modest Plea for the ''Humanities:' 69

ing usefal is taught." I fear that this pregnant sentence would dow he
generally regarded as little more than an amusing paradox and that
even here in Cambridge its wit and humor and deep, underlying truth are
somewhat dimmed. So I quote it once more because I would fain say a
word in behalf of the " useless " things which were once the main if not
the sole object of all aniversity education, but which have now been poshed
aside and which in these enlightened days are treated with kindly con-
tempt as little better than the harmless pleasures of lovers of futile

More and more rigidly has the stern practical test of utility been ap-
plied to all university teaching. More and more has the question been
asked in regard to every branch of learning, ^' What use will this be to
a student when he or she goes out into the world and is called upon to
deal with the business of life ? " The first test and the simplest was how
far the education of a university would aid its graduates in earning a
living; in other words, the money test was applied. This, so far as it ap-
proached the precincts of the university at all, had hitherto been con-
sidered in connection with the work of the professional schools alone, but
now the university has gone to the point of trying at least to teach its
students directly how to make money in purely money-making pursuits
with no trace of general or even of professional learning about them.
This represents the extreme to which the utilitarian theory of the highest
education has proceeded. But long before this point was reached, the
sciences had not only entered upon the field in old times consecrated to
the classics, as they are familiarly described, but had taken the lion's
share of the domain. That there was good reason for some change every
one must admit, nor can it be denied that the ancient and long-continued
monopoly of Greek and Latin in the higher education had become, in a
measure certainly, an anachronism. But it seems as if the pendulum had
now swung too far in the new direction.

Men cannot live by bread alone, nor, in the highest sense, can educa-
tion be confined to methods of money-getting or be of the first order if
the " humanities,^' as they used to be pleasantly called, are wholly thrust
aside and neglected. It was not by accident that the literature and learn-
ing of Greece and Rome bore uncontested sway for centuries in all the
universities, old and new, of Western civilization. Consider for a moment
the facts upon which the classical education so long rested in unques-
tioned supremacy. There was a strong and brilliant movement as early
as the twelfth century to scatter the darkness which had settled down
upon Europe after the downfall of the Roman Empire and in which men
had been groping about for eight hundred years. This movement did not
then culminate, but it opened the way for what has ever since been known

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60 A Modest Plea for the ^'Humanities:' [September,

as the Renaissance of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the point at
which modem histoiy is said to begin.

That period is not inaptly named a rebirth, for men felt, indeed, as if
they had been bom again when they drew np from the darkness and r^
leased from the prison of the palimpsests the manuscripts which brought
them face to face with the history, the art, the literature, the thought,
and the civilization of Greece and Rome. But there was much more than
this. That was the time when the human mind suddenly broke forth into
light and freedom. Men began to question everything and knowledge
started on a new career. They sought to establish the place of the earth
in the universe and set out to discover the siee, the shape, and the motion
of the planet upon which they lived. The doors of science were flung
open and inquiry entered in. The material conditions of life were once
more considered after long neglect The drainage, the water-supply, the
baths of ancient Rome began to suggest that it was, perhaps, unwise to
discard them, as Greek art had been discarded, merely because they
were the work of pagans, and the idea dawned that plague-ridden cities
and filthy habits were not essential to eternal well-being, and that the
salvation of the soul was not incompatible with wholesome bodies and
with public health.

All these things and many others were but outward manifestations of
the liberation of the human intellect which made that era forever memo-
rable, and which was felt in a thousand ways. The world identified this
liberation of the mind with the revival of learning, as it was called, which
' was in effect the discovery and rehabilitation of Greek and Roman litera-
ture and art. How far this bringing the classics again to light, accom-
panied by the resurrection of long-buried statues, was the cause of the
great intellectual movement of the Renaissance, and how far it was merely
one result of tlie movement itself, we need not now inquire.

That the revival of the classics was coincident with the Renaissance
and had an enormous influence upon tlie thought of the time is beyond
doubt. To. classical learning, therefore, men felt themselves so deeply
indebted that it took possession of all the seats of the higher education
and was in fact the higher education itself. The classical writers became
the touchstone by which men were tested, not only intellectually but
socially. The education of a gentleman meant that a man had at least
been brought in the presence of the classics, even if he remembered no-

Online LibraryWilliam Richards Castle William Roscoe ThayerThe Harvard graduates' magazine → online text (page 7 of 103)