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William Richards Castle William Roscoe Thayer.

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copies, or at least the titles of their contribu-
tions. Except in rare oases, space will not
permit mention of contributions to the daily



In the University of Cab'fomia Chron'-
ids for October A. W. Ryder, *9«, pub-
lished two poems of rather unusual liter-
ary merit. That on Torquemada gives
an entirely different, but perhaps truer,
picture of the man than is usually set
forth in Protestant histories. It is hard
for the average person to believe that the
man whose ideas are profoundly differ-



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1916.]



Literary Notes.



677



ent from his own may still be quite
sincere.

The Harvard Theological Review is one
of the best magazines of its kind in exists
ence. It is non-partisan — no more a
Unitarian journal than Harvard is a
Unitarian college. It compels the atten-
tion of any man who is interested in the
broad questions of religion and ethics.
Such an article as "Fra Salimbene and
the Franciscan Ideal," by Ph^. Ephraim
Emerson, '71, has absorbing historical
interest, and '*The Position and Pros-
pects of the Boman Catholic Church,"
by Alfred Fawkes, an Englishman and
the well-known author oi Studies in
Modernism, is of vital present-day value.
So also is the stirring paper on "Ethics
in Modem Business," by John F. Moors,
LL.D. *15, the tone of which is set in the
opening sentence, "Though the object
of business is money-making, its essence
is service."

The Harvard Engineering Journal has
been consolidated with the Technology
Monthly, and will be published from the
Publication Office, Technology Union
Bldg., Boston. This is a very natural
and proper affiliation resulting from the
merger of the Graduate School of Science
with Technology.

In the issue of Science for Oct. 22,
there is an interesting summary of the
doctorates conferred by various Ameri-
can universities in 1915. In all 556 can-
didates were created doctors, 247 in
philosophy, and S09 in science. This is
double the average number conferred
during the years between 1898 and 1908.
During this period Harvard, Chicago,
Columbia, Yale, and Johns Hopkins
each conferred an average of over 80
degrees annually. In recent years Co-
lumbia has given more than Chicago,
and Harvard has fallen behind both.
The most notable advance in numbers
has been in the state universities. An



interesting fact is that by far the larger
proportion of scientific degrees has
always been in Chemistry.

In a paper on the "Teaching of the
History of Science," in the issue of Sci-
ence for Nov. 26, 1915, Dr. F. E. Brasch,
of Stanford, says: "An interesting fact
is that most of our pioneering in intel-
lectual activities inevitably has its origin
in the older New England institutions.
To Harvard University belongs the
credit of first establishing a definite and
systematic course in the history of a
special field in science." (This was a
course entitled "Chemical Philosophy,
given in 1891 by Prof. T. W. Richards.)
"That the authorities of Harvard have
fully recognized the value and purpose
of this new advancement in science
teaching is revealed not alone by the
establishment of the history of science as
an independent group in their curricu-
lum, but in doing something of a mis-
sionary character as well." (This refers,
of course, to the fact that Prof. L. J.
Henderson, exchange professor to the
Western colleges last year, lectured on
the history of science.)

In his book. Fifty Years qf American
Idealism, Mr. Gustav Pollak has some-
what extended his article on "The Na-
tion and its Contributors," and has
added refMesentative conm:ienta on con-
temporary events as published in the
Nation from 1865 to 1915. As a third
section, making up about half of the
book, he has reprinted a large number of
the best essays which have appeared in
the Nation from time to time. The writ-
ers of these papers are, many of them.
Harvard men, among those represented
being Francis Parkman, 1807, Simon
Newoomb, S.B. '58, W. P. Garrison, '61,
William James, M.D. '69, S. P. Sherman,
A.M. '06, Paul Shorey, '78, and P. E.
More, A.M. '93.

In Battleground Adventures in the Civil



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Literary Notes.



[March,



War, by Clifton Johnaon (Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Co. 1915) are collected
stories of the Civil War told by non-
combatant eyewitnesses. The author
made a trip over the battlefields and
located survivors who could tell him of
their experiences during the battles. The
material was gathered among people of
all conditions — " the farmer's daughter,
the slave blacksmith, the school teadier,
the miner's son" — and are recorded as
frankly as they were related, in the
language of "education or rude illiter-
acy/' and with none of the horrors
omitted. The stories are interesting as
stories, but have slight educational or
historical value, and to either the boy or
the older student of the CivQ War can be
of but secondary importance.

In Brouming Studies V. C. Harrington,
g 1890-97, has compiled considerable
elementary information about Browning
and his poetry. By references to "our
last lecture" and "this semester*' the
author attempts to reproduce the meth-
od and atmosphere of the college dass-
room. But this informality becomes
banal, because Mr. Harrington has
neither anything new to say nor fresh
statement of the well-known, obvious
facts. We also find hb fervent, exclama-
tory comments, with all thdr sincere
enthusiasm, rather naive. We must,
however, credit the author with one dis-
tinct contribution: he has found that
Browning's life is divided into sixty-two
events.

The Modem Study qf Lilerature (Chi-
cago University Press, 1915) comes
from Professor Moulton as the culmina-
tion of over forty years of lecturing and
writing about literature. In one volume
he has put together all the conclusions
and much of the actual substance of his
previous works. The result is one of the
most pretentious books ever published
in America. Here, in fact, is a guide to



all types of literature; here are ex-
pounded all methods of approaching the
subject; here is a philosophy of litera-
ture. Here also is an amasing variety of
charts and diagrams by which we may
"see literature" in about forty minutes.
We must recognise certain inevitable
human weaknesses and idiosyncrasies in
Professor Moulton, such as his tendency
toward loose, unguarded statement and
toward a straining alter paradox and
striking generalizations, and his cham-
pioning of the lost cause of inductive
criticism. But these are motes in the
sunbeam. Students of literature and
general readers will acknowledge an
increasing debt to Professor Moulton for
the vast learning and enthusiasm which
he puts at their service in such a stimu-
lating way.

In the January number of the YaU
Remew, Brooks Adams, '70, defines, with
characteristic incisiveness, his idea of
" The American Democratic Ideal." Mr.
Adams comes to the conclusion, bddly
stated, that "our democratic ideal is
only a phrase to express our renunciation
as a nation of all standards of duty, and
the substitution therefor of a reference
to private judgment," — that the result of
our present course will be "to resolve our
people from a firmly cohesive mass, unified
by a common standard of duty and sdf-
sacrifice, into a swarm of atoms selfishly
fighting each other for money." If this
be true, as he believes, he fears that " the
hour cannot be far distant when some
superior, because more cohesive and in-
telligent organism, such as nature has
decreed shall always lie in wfut for its
victim, shall spring upon us and rend us
as the strong have always rent those
wretched because feeble creatures who
are cursed with an aborted develop-
ment." All this Mr. Adams foresees as a
restdt of our growing individual selfish-
ness. The man whose impulse isunhesi-



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679



tatingly to condemn liim for exaggerat-
ing the danger would be wise to read the
whole article, and then, before pronounc-
ing sentence, to stop for a moment to
analyze his own attitude toward our
national problems. There is truth in the
statement qui s* excuse s' accuse.

SHOBT REVIEWS

English Field Systems, by Howard Levi
Gray, Ph.D., *07. Cambridge: Har-
vard University Press, 1915.
A study of the manner in which the
arable lands of English townships have
been distributed and subdivided might
at first sight appear devoid of any great
interest or importance. To one who has
worked on early British history, how-
ever, it is obvious that of the few surviv-
ing documents none is more predous
than the face of the land itself. It is a
palimpsest of which little has been de-
dphered — here a line and there a line.
Yet if it could be made plain it would
solve many disputed problems. Did the
Anglo-Saxon invaders entirely obliterate
the Celtic civilization which preceded
them? How much that was Roman had
remained until their coming, and did any
traces of Imperial organization linger
after their conquest? Were the invaders
themselves free fighting men who man-
aged their common affairs democratic-
ally and elected their own leaders, or
were they serfs who obeyed hereditary
masters? To such questions as these
answers are written in hedges and
ditches, in balks and runrigs — if only
we can read them right.

This is the task Dr. Gray has under-
taken. Unlike certain of his famous
predecessors, he has not started with a
deep and unalterable conviction of just
what he was going to find. He has set
out to sift old evidence and new fairly,
thoroughly, conscientiously, cautiously.
It is slow work, and the temptation is



strong to hurdle an inconvenient fact, or
skirt round it, in order to arrive at an
alluring conclusion. But Dr. Gray never
weakens; he evades nothing, conceals
nothing. His reasoning is sound and
dear, his tables, maps, and quotations
are well chosen and carefully explained:
even one who has no previous knowledge
of the subject can follow him intelli-
gently, step by step. Of course he is
technical, and the uninitiated might well
be startled by such a statement as this,
from the Introduction (p. 5): ''Seebohm
with the assistance of three or four ter-
riers carries the reader back to Anglo-
Saxon days — "! Usually, however, he
is swift to define his terms.

Much of the available evidence re-
lates to comparatively recent times, and
is of interest chiefly to the student of the
endosure movement, but there is enough
material from earlier periods to prove
that the open-fidd system, two-field or
three-fidd, with various local modifica-
tions, prevailed from Anglo-Saxon days
till the era of enclosures throughout a
broad strip of English territory running
from Durham to the Channel. West of
this strip — in the counties along the
Scottish border, the hill country of the
northwest, Lancashire, certain Welsh
border districts, Devonshire and Corn-
wall — agricultural methods remained
essentially Celtic, resembling those of
Scotland and Wales more closely than
those of the English midlands. To the
east of the midland strip the author
finds dear indications of the persistence
of Roman arrangements, especially in
Kent. In Norfolk and Suffolk a system
originally Roman seems to have under-
gone modification during the Danish oc-
cupation. Essex, Surrey, and the lower
Thames basin generally, show conditions
similar to those in East Anglia or in
Kent, and have little resemblance to the
midlands.



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580



Literary Notes.



[March,



The net result, then, of Dr. Gray's re-
searches is to limit the typical open-field
system brought by the Saxons from the
Continent to a far narrower and more
definite area than has usually been as-
signed to it, and to show that Celtic
methods survived to the west of this
area, and Roman to the east of it. He
has furnished strong arguments for the
contention that the displacement of
population caused by the Anglo-Saxon
conquest was by no means as great as
has usually been assumed. He has not
entered into the discussion on the origin
of manorial organization, but he has
shown that throughout the long period
covered by his survey agricultural prog-
ress never ceased, either within the
midland strip or without. AU systems,
Celtic Roman, and Saxon, were capable
of improvement and adaptation to vary-
ing conditions, geographical, social, oi
economic. Thus a careful study of one
more phase of mediseval life proves that
in this as in so many other aspects, the
Middle Ages were neither reactionary
nor static. Experiments were tried, mis-
takes corrected, lessons learned. Even
in the "Dark Ages'* darkness may be
dispelled wherever a scholar has the skill
and the patience to let in a little light.

Human Motives, by James Jackson Put-
nam, M.D., Professor Emeritus.
Mind and Health Series, edited by
H. Addington Bruce, A.M. Bos-
ton: Little, Brown & Co., 1915.
Whatever our attitude may be toward
certain phases of the newer psychology,
it is dear that its insistence upon the
study of the individual, either normal or
pathological, has led to results of posi-
tive value. Dr. Putnam provides, in the
volume before us, a painstaking analysis
of human motives in the light of this
recent investigation into the underlying
forces which determine conduct He



believes it "worth while to emphasize
the importance of training oursdves to
see, gleaming through our immediate
and partial motives, a background of
stronger tendencies, from which these
motives derive their main significance."
In Dr. Putnam's opinion it should not be
forgotten that men are bound by a sense
of obligation which may be defined as
"ideal," essentially religious in its na-
ture, as well as by the imperfectly recog-
nized passions, ambitions and cravingi
of daily life. Motives must, therefore,
be interpreted in the light of our evolu-
tional history in relation to our broadly
conceived social relationships. In the
development of this general theme he
discusses in the first chapter the relative
significance of the philosophic and psy-
choanalytic viewpoint; in the second, the
relation of the individual to the creative
energy; in the third, the history of the
psychoanalytic method; in the fourth
certain principles revealed by this
method in their relation to education,
and in the final chapter the attempt is
made to show that human progress Ls
essentially the discovery of new reUtion-
ships between the inner worid of ideals
and the world of experience. The merit
of the book lies in its breadth of concep-
tion and the frank acknowledgment that
no final explanation of motives may be
reached until we are willing to evaluate
empirical experience in the light of meta-
physical conceptions. Eadi is meaning-
less without an appeal to the other or, as
Dr. Putnam puts it, " the genetic method
leads straight and of necessity to the
philosophic method." This will doubt-
less meet with opposition both from the
idealists and the empyrists. The follow-
ers of Freud and the psychoanalytic
school are tenadous in their adherence
to experience in the interpretation of
conduct and the metaphysicians are
unquestionably skeptical of the often



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581



cnidely empirical methods of the Freud-
ians. Dr. Putnam maintains that such
supposed underiying antagonism not
only does not in reality exist, but that a
proper understanding of human conduct
demands a synthesis of the two points
of view. His argument is maintained
throughout with deference to those who
may disagree with him, but always with
force and personal conviction. The book
is a distinct step in progress toward a
reconciliation of hitherto opposed ap-
proaches to a fundamental problem and
as such should have a wide cirde of
sympathetic readers.

The Liberty oj Cituenekip, by Samuel W.
McCall. New Haven: Yale Univer-
sity Press. 1915.
Tlie book is a series of lectures deliv-
ered at Yale on the responsibilities of
dtisenship. Those of us who form our
opinion of public men from the news-
paper reports of their speeches, are apt
to fail to grasp a statesman's underlying
political philosophy. And in view of the
condition in Republican politics today
this book is especially timely. In it one
sees Gov. McCaIl*s basic and sober no-
tion of the state and of its relation to the
individual, whereas a view of his chance
actions and of his words from time to
time might fail to betray his depth of
thought. Some of the most important
political aiid sodal issues before the
United States are brought up for discus-
sion. The central problem running
through the series of lectures is that of
keeping the Government from encroach-
ing upon the liberty of the individual. Is
liberty a good thing? What is the value
of our Constitution? Shall the people be
able to get what they want when they
want it? Shall we strive for uniformity
or diversity in human character? What
things should the Government do?
What restraint should be placed upon



the individual and what upon the Gov-
ernment? Is our political plan of divi-
sion of power — chedu and balances —
and the dual system of State and Na-
tional Governments having jurisdiction
over the same territory desirable? With
Professor Burgess, in his ReooneUiaHon
qf Oovemment with Liberty, Gov. McCall
holds that increasing numbers of laws
and increasing activity of the state have
characteriied this country for the last
twenty-five years. This means the de-
crease of voluntary activity and the in-
crease of compulsory activity in the con-
duct of men and women. Freedom goes
as compulsion enters. But why is free-
dom desirable? The individual has a
right to liberty. Here Gov. McCall
shows himself one of the "natural rights
scfaool" and some, who will agree with
him in his conduaon, will disagree with
his daim that individuals have natural
rights. They will daim that the right of
sodety to act according to its own inter-
est is the only right; that the good of
sodety wiU come with a maadmum of
individual liberty. They will agree with
his additional reasons: that liberty is
'*an agency in pushing forward dviliza-
tion"; that liberty stimulates variation,
thus bringing larger chance of adapta-
bility to the environment. This means
sodal progress and sodal strength.
Besides being socially desirable, liberty
is "essential from the standpoint of the
devdopment of character." Probably
we cannot separate the individual's
strength from society's good, but, if
we can, we must admit that "we have
stronger men and women and a greater
nation" if man "may wander over the
meadows and through the untended
woods, and even conquer if he may the
difficulties of the mountain-top and dare
to look upon whatever may be seen upon
the wide stretch of the land or in the
whole sweep of the sky." This thought



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Literary Notes.



[March,



of the neoeifity of liberty b the oentnl
theme. But the author would not have
liberty degenerate into anarchy. The
great taak of education is to aid men to
to understand their enviionment that
their voluntary actions will be socially
minded and intelligently effected. This,
therefore, is a good book for an extreme
radical to read, but he may oome to see
the futility of over-lawmaldng and the
stupendous task that the educator has
before him. As most t^taching, preach-
ing, and book-writing is mors worth
while in the problems raised than in the
conclusions readied because it stimu-
lates thinking rather than practises dog-
matism; so this book may well be used
by classes of both young and mature
men as a point of departure in the dis
cussion of the problenis of social life and
united activity. The problems ring true
because proposed by a practical states-
man. The solutions suggested are preg-
nant with meaning because made by a
man who views' the whole political situ-
ation with the eyes of a philosopher.

The World Decision^ by Robert Herridc,
'90. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
1916.

Important writers have not succeed-
ed, in general, in expressing in any-
thing like adequate form the agony of
Europe. Kipling, when he writes of the
war, becomes a mere journalist; and in
France Maurice Barrfo loses that subtle
artistry which has so often made his
books of highest value and influence.
But to Europeans the war is a part of
themselves; they cannot look at it objec-
tively. Robert Herrick was not actually
a part oi it. He was a deeply moved
qwctator, and, in order to make his
countrymen in America feel it as he did,
he called to his aid all his training as a
writer, every legitimate device of his
craft. This is not to suggest that he ever



descends to the artificial; the subject u
too vital and he felt it too keenly to
make that possible. Mr. Herrick was io
Italy when that country declared war.
He analyses the causes whidi led to the
decision; he describes the scenes in Rome
in a way which reveals the Italian decs-
sbn as the inevitable expression of the
popular will. With keen psychological
analysis he tears away the superficial
motives of desbe for conquest, of the
higher wish to redeem compatriots from
a foreign yoke, and shows the great deci-
sion of Italy to have been the will of the
people to preserve the Latin tradition
against a resurgent barbarism that takes
delight in the crime of the Zttfutoato.
The negative influence of the politician,
Giolitti, the positive influence of the
poet, d'Annunsio, — matters of whidi
we have heard so much and have under-
stood so little, — are here shown in their
true meaning, as the tiny springs which
set in motion a madiine long since made
ready for action. Had Italy not been
spiritually prepared to make the "great
decision" in the way it was made the
people would have listened to the "safe-
ty first" appeal of Giolitti, in his "Caro
Carlo" letter, and would have shrugged
their shoulders at the fervent patriotism
of d*Annunzio. Not befme has the Ital-
ian position been so illuminatingly set
forth. The second part of the book, on
France, is a masteriy description of the
French response to the call of duty, of
the quiet, far-seeing determination of
the "poilu" — facts which have already
received the fervent admiration of Amer-
ica. In the last part Mr. Herrick appeals
to his own countrymen to range them-
sdves courageously and nobly on the
side of their spiritual inheritance of lib-
erty, as against the Teutonic adoration
of material force. He pleads for pre-
paredness, backs his arguments with
logical and convincing reasons.' The



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588



book does not pretend to be neutral, for
Mr. Herrick understands that no intelli-
gent man can or ought to be neutral in a
world-criais involving profound moral
questions. Its analysis of national char-
acter — American as well as French and
German — is incisive and true. It is a
passionate appeal from a man who
thinks and who can adequately express
his thoughts.

Commeniaary to the Germanic Laws and
MedianaL Document. By Leo Wie-
ner. Professor of Slavic Languages
and Literatures at Harvard Uni-
versity. Cambridge: Harvard Uni-
versity Press, 1915.
. In less than 300 pages Prof. Wiener
has written a renuurkable book, extraor-
dinary in the range and minuteness of its
learning, startling in the conclusions to
which he asks assent. Upon the basis of
a phenomenal acquaintance with Euro-
pean and other languages and a pro-
longed exploration of mediaeval docu-
ments, he seeks to rewrite the history of
the languages, laws, and institutions of
the Middle Ages from the point of view
of the continuity of Roman influences.
While, however, the most extreme Ro-
manists have hitherto limited them-
selves to denying the originality of the
Germans in the field of law and govern-
ment. Prof. Wiener boldly attacks the
Germanic vocabulary by tracing back to
Roman words and formulae such terms
as vassal^ ffraf, seneschal, essoin, fief , feud,
and a host of others. From the history of
words he deduces the history of institu-
tions. "All the words connected with
the idea 'debt, guilt, pledge* have in the
European languages arisen from the cor-
responding Latin terms, as the whole
criminal procedure of the Germanic laws
is but an evolution of the edicts of the
Theodosian Code." The assimilation of
Roman law by the Germans is likened to



the adoption of American law by the
Cherokees and Chickasaws. The lin-
guistic basis for such theories is incon-



Online LibraryWilliam Richards Castle William Roscoe ThayerThe Harvard graduates' magazine → online text (page 79 of 103)