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Offering of Hope, bom ever new;
Offering of Love, forever true.
Alma Mater.

Sages and saints in days of yore
Thy watchword kept their eyes before.
And in the front thy banner bore.
Alma Mater.

By thee our youthful steps were led
In wisdom's paths their way to tread.
Her words of truth our daily bread.
Alma Mater.

Armed for each call for God and right
Thy sons e'er hold all burdens light.
Upborne for thee and in thy might.

Alma Mater.
Down through the ages yet to be
Thy faithful sons shall cleave to thee.
And sing thy praises loyally,
Ahna Mater! Alma Mater! Alma Mater!



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HE n/IRVJ^RD
GR71DU71TES

Volume XXIV. — JUNE, 1916. — Number XCVI.



CONTENTS

PRONTISPIBCB— John Winthrop, 1732, Edward Wigglesworth, 1749, John Jeffries,
1763, Abbott Lawrence Rotch, A '91.

THE BLUE HILL METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVA-
TORY Alexander McAdie, '85 . 605

SAMUEL OILMAN, AUTHOR OF "FAIR HARVARD" Henry Wilder Footf, '97 610

PROM A GRADUATE'S WINDOW 617

MEDALLIC HARVARD Dr. Malcolm Storer, '85 618

DAVID WILLIAMS CHEEVER . . J. C. Warren, '63 . . 626

RECENT BIOGRAPHIES :

Charles Francis Adams: An Autobiography Worthington Chauncey Ford, A.M., '07 633

Union Portraits W. R. Thayer, *8i . . 634

Theodore Roosevelt; the Logic of his Career . . . . W. R. Castle, Jr., '00 . 635

AN INTERPRETATION OF THE TREASURER'S

REPORT W. M. Cole, '90 . 638

REMINISCENCES OF '66 George Batchelor, '66 . 647

THE END OF THE YEAR The University Editor. 652

THE UNIVERSITY: Corporation Records, 663; Overseers'
Records, 670 ; Radcliffe College, 672.

STUDENT LIFE Dwight Harold -Ingram, '16 . 675

ATHLETICS . . . ' Dwight Harold Ingram, '16 . 682

THE graduates: Harvard Clubs, 688; Memorial of J.
Arthur Beebe, 691 ; News from the Classes, 692 ; Non- Aca^
demic, 731 ; Literary Notes, 734; Short Reviews, 738; Books
Received, 749; Marriages, 750; Necrology, 752; University
Notes, 755; First Annual Report of the Committee on the Use
of English by Students, 758 ; Varia, 760.

ILLUSTRATIONS: John Winthrop, 1732, Edward Wiggles-
worth, 1749, John Jeffries, 1763, Abbott Lawrence Rotch, A '91,
605; Blue Hill Observatory, 609 ; Some Harvard Medals, 618 ;
The C. W. Eliot Medal, 623 ; David Williams Cheever, '52, 626.



II^A^IIH



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OFFICERS

OF THE

HARVARD GRADUATES' MAGAZINE ASSOCIATION.



HENRY WINCHESTER CUNNINGHAM, «2, of Boston, Mass.

FRANCIS JOSEPH SWAYZE, '79. OF Newark, NJ.
GEORGE DICKSON MARKHAM, '81, of St. Louis, Mo.
JAMES JACKSON STORROW, ^S^, of Boston, Mass.
THOMAS WILLIAMS SLOCUM, '90, of New York, N.Y.

ftecretarp.
JAMES ATKINS NOYES, 'Sa, of Cambridge, Mass.

(RxtMunx.

WINTHROP HOWLAND WADE, »8i, OF Dedham, Mass.

I^ffr the term ending in igr6»
WILLIAM COWPER BOYDEN, '86, OF Chicago, III.
ROGER ERNST, '03, of Boston. Mass.
RALPH LOWELL, '12, of Boston, Mass.

For the term ending in igty*
OWEN WISTER, '82, of Philadelphia, Pa.
JAMES DUNCAN PHILLIPS, '97, of Topsfield, Mass.
ARTHUR ADAMS, '99, of Quincy, Mass.

For the term ending in igiB*
VALENTINE HORTON MAY, '95. of Seattle, Wash.
HENRY SMITH THOMPSON, '99, of Concord, Mass.
BENJAMIN LORING YOUNG, '07, of Weston, Mass.



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CCDitow of t^t 98ga?ine«

William Richards Castle, Jr., *oo. Editor.
William Bennett Munro, ^'99, University Editor.
D WIGHT Harold Ingram, '16, Student Editor.

WiNTHROP Rowland Wade, *8i.



The Harvard Graduates* Magazine is published
quarterly, on September i, December i, March i, and June
I. The annual subscription is three dollarB; single copies,
eightT-five cents each.

Communications for the Editor should be addressed to
Mr. W. R. Castle, Jr., No. 3 Grays Hall, Cambridge,
Mass.

All business communications and subscriptions should be
sent to Mr. W. H. Wade, at the office of the Magazine, 99
State St., Boston, Mass.



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Copyright, 1916,
By Thk Harvard Graduates* Maoazinb Association.



The Rircrside Press, Cam
bridg^e, Mass.. U. S. A.
Electrotyped and Printed
by H. O. Houghton A Co.



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PROF. JOHN WINTHROP,

CLASS OF 1732.

Acting President 177^-74.



PROF. EDWARD WIGGLESWORTH,

CLASS OF 1749.

Acting President 1780^1.



DR. JOHN JEFFRIES,
CLASS OF 1763.



PROF. ABBOTT LAWRENCE ROTCH,

h '91.
Founder of the Blue Hill Obeervatory.



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THE

HARVARD GRADUATES' MAGAZINE.

Vol. XXIV. — JUNE, 1916, — No. XCVI.



THE BLUE HILL METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATORY.
ALEXANDER McADIE '85, A. Lawrence Rotch Profestor of Meteorology.

Harvard men may be said to inbei-it a right to be interested in me-
teorology. Trae, we hare no claim on Torricelli, wbo, three years after
Harvard's first President took office, proved by a simple experiment
that the atmosphere exerted pressure. Nor can we claim Pascal, prov-
ing that pressure decreased with elevation; nor Boyle, experimenting
on the Spring of the air, discovering the law of pressure and invei-se
volume, and thfts outlining the fundamental equation of thermodynamics.
We do, however, find, quite early in the history of the College, John
Winthrop, of the Class of 1732, HoUis Professor of Mathematics and
Natural Philosophy, studying the cause of droughts and measuring the
rainfall. As early as 1750 the Corporation paid for certain rain gauges,*
and this at a time when such investigations were held by many as reflec-
tions on the wisdom of Providence.

Another Harvard professor, Edward Wigglesworth, of the Class of
1749, and, like Winthrop, for a time acting President, was a prominent
meteorologist; and some of his observations, especially those made in
1784, are remarkable for detail and accuracy.

In this same year. Dr. John Je£fries, of the Class of 1763, made the
first balloon voyage over London, dropping cards of greeting to admir-
ing friends below. This ascent was far from being spectacular only; for,
as a matter of fact, it was made for scientific study of the air at high
levels. Jeffries carried with him a reliable barometer, a thermometer of
special make, a hygrometer, an electrometer, a mariner's compass, and
seven small bottles for obtaining samples of air at different heights. He

» 1760. April 2. CoOtge Book, rv, 31t
Profem' 15. That one A thirty Bhillings, Eigrht pence & 4/5, be allowed to the

wLtibrop's ^^f«»' of Nat. Philos. & Mathem. in fall Duohargre of hia Ace" of Jaly
Aec* al- 1749. being an AcC of YeMeUa prepared for Measuring the Quantity of
lowU Rain.



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606 The Blue Hill Meteorological Ohaervatory, [June,

reached an elevation certainly exceeding 2 kilometres (6560 feet) ; and
his observations were turned over to and discussed by the Royal Society.
The samples of air were analyzed by no less a chemist than Cavendish.
On January 7, 1785, about five weeks after the London ascent, Jeffries
crossed the English Channel, leaving the cliffs of Dover and landing
with his aeronaut in the forest of Guines, in Artois, near the Field of
the Cloth of Gold. Thus a Harvard man was the first to pass by way of
the air from one country to another separated by the sea. Jeffi-ies was a
keen meteorologist, one whose interest did not flag with advancing years.
He kept detailed records of the weather in Boston from 1774 until
March 4, 1776, when they were evidently interrupted by the Revolu-
tionary War, and again from 1790 until 1816. It may be well to re-
call that 1774 was tlie year in which Priestly discovered oxygen and
1784 the year in which Cavendish published liis first papers giving an
analysis of the air, an analysis so precise that a century's refinement in
measuring has hardly changed his figures.

The records kept by Jeffries have been given to the library of the Ob-
servatory by one of his descendants, Mrs. James Means, of Boston.
Singularly enough, they overlap another series of detailed weather obser-
vations, those made at New Bedford by Samuel Rodman, begimiing in
1812, and continued by his son, Thomas R. Rodman, '46, without break
until the latter's death in 1905. These, also, are in the library, a gift
from Miss Julia Rodman. Taken together, the two records cover a
period of 126 years and thus constitute the longest authentic series of
climatic data in our country.

Harvard men have a further right to be interested in aerography, or
the science of the structure of the atmosphere, because pioneer work in
this field was begun at Blue Hill Observatory, now a constituent part of
the University. Indeed, in this connection a prominent* foreign meteor-
ologist publicly declared that '^ nothing in American meteorology is more
inspiring than a consideration of the history of Blue Hill Observatory."

The Observatory is located in the extreme southern part of the town
of Milton, 11 miles due south of Cambridge. It is on the summit of a
hill rich in historic associations. Previous to colonial times, a sub-tribe
of the Algonquin Indians, known as the Massachusetts, inhabited these
parts. We are told that the word '^ Massaadchuseuk " was applied to
and perhaps means Great Blue Hill, and that the name of the Common-
wealth is probably derived therefrom. On one of Captain John Smith's
earlier charts, the locality is named ^'Chevyot Hills'*; and a good
neighbor tells me that he has seen in the British Museum a chart on
which the doughty captain and the young prince, afterwards Charles I,
amused themselves by latinizing all the Indian names, in which process



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1916:] The Blue BUI Meteorological Observatory. 607

the Chevyot Hills became " Mons Massachasettsensis," no inconsiderable
name.

The summit is the highest land within 20 miles of the sea from the
Maine Boundary to Florida, and at times is visible to mariners as far as
40 miles, the distance varying greatly with weather conditions. It is an
old landmark, figuring in early surveys as well as in later and more pre-
cise determinations. The President of the Graduates' Magazine Associ-
ation, who lives at the foot of the hill, has called my attention to the
following entry in the manuscript diary of John Whiting of Dedham :
^< 1756 July 8 A Beacon Raised on Blew Hill." The spelling must not
be taken as indicating extreme windinessy although it is rather signifi-
cant that in the full course of time the vagaries of the wind should be
studied at this point and a record of velocities and durations of the
winds from all directions faithfully made, hour after hour, minute by
minute, for many years. ,

The Observatory was founded by A. Lawrence Rotch, h '91, Har-
vard's first Professor of Meteorology, while yet a young man, in fact, in
the year he was graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
nology — 1884. He did this on his own initiative and against the advice
of friends. During his life he maintained the Observatory and, in addi-
tion to pursuing his own investigations, generously enabled others to do
special work in meteorology, offering facilities not to be had elsewhere.
At his death the Observatory was willed to Harvard University, with an
endowment fund of $50^000.

At International meetings of meteorologists. Professor Rotch was
always warmly received, being often the only American present. He en-
joyed a friendship of many years standing with Hann, Hildebrandsson,
Mascart, Kdppen, Assmann, de Bort, and Shaw, an intimacy productive
of good, not only to himself, but to American meteorologists generally.
How much his talents and presence were appreciated may be gathered
from the tribute of Sir Napier Shaw, Director of the British Meteoro-
logical Office, himself a progressive and untiring leader, who, speaking of
Professor Rotch, said : " No one knew better that meteorology is a coop-
erative science; and no one was more ready to help his colleagues."
Through these friendships, the best features of observatory life and pur-
pose, as practised in Europe, were transplanted to this country. With one
of his colleagues, M. L^n Teisserence de Bort, a brilliant Frenchman of
Scotch descent, Rotch undertook the first systematic campaign of explo-
ration of the air over the ocean ; and to these two must be credited the
discovery of variation in the height of the stratosphere with latitude and
with season. The word " stratosphere " itself was, in fact, first used by
de Bort and, although for a while the term '< isothermal region " was



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608 The Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory. [June,

used, meteorologists now generally have come back to the use of the
other term as more tmlj describing the conditions met in the upper
levels. To make it somewhat plainer, let us say that usually, as one
rises in the atmosphere, the temperature falls. Thus, even on a summer
day, the temperature at a height of 2000 metres is low enough to freeze
water; and at 8000 metres cold enough to freeze mercury. This fall
continues until a certain level (in this Uititude and at this time of the
year, summer, about 10,000 metres, or 6 miles) is reached, when there
is no further fall, but sometimes a rise. The region below the level is
called the " troposphere " and the region above the ^^stratosphere." Ob-
servations in the stratosphere have been obtained to a height of 37,000
metres (23 miles). The highest records obtained from manned balloons
are 10,500 metres (6 miles), and that is about as high as man may ex«
pect to reach. The highest kite records do not exceed 7500 metres (less
than 5 miles). Rotch was the first to obtain, by registering balloons,
records of temperature, pressure, humidity, and air drift at great heights
over the American continent. He was also the first to fly kites at sea,
and to obtain trigonometrical measurements of pilot balloons.

In the important and now much-discussed field of aviation, the Observ-
atory has attempted to do for the aviator what the hydrog^pher does
for the navigator ; that is, to furnish charts showing what may reason-
ably be expected at certain altitudes for given localities and seasons. In
Professor Botch's last book. Charts of the Atmosphere^ written in col-
laboration with A. H. Palmer, '09, the currents of the air for vaiions
heights are discussed with special reference to the needs of airmen.

Nor have the clouds been overlooked. There are two really noteworthy
memoirs on cloud formation published in English ; one of these is the
work of the investigators at BIuq Hill, while tlie other is an official re-
port prepared by Professor F. H. Bigelow, '73, for many years in the
U.S. Weather Bureau, but now associated with the Argentine Meteoro-
logical Office.

The Observatory was the first institution in our country to employ the
metric system and use the international symbols and form of publication.
It is peculiarly appropriate, therefore, that it should now be the first and
only meteorological observatory in the United States using scientific units
in expressing temperature, pressure, and air flow. For the past three
years, in the published summaries of the Observatory, pressures have
been expressed in kUobars^ or percentages of a standard atmosphere,
known as a '* megabar " atmosphere. It may all seem somewhat involved
and confusing to us of the present generation who have never known any
units but the inch, the degree Fahrenheit, and the mile per hour ; but the
new system makes for clearness and accuracy ; and coming generations,



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1916.] The Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory. 609

being spared the difficulties from which we now suffer, ought to bless as.
It is only necessary to remark that the new system of units brings me-
teorology or aerography, which seems a better term, into step with phys-
ics, chemistry, and thermodynamics, and does away witli the old arbitrary
and unscientific notation. An illustration may help. In the violent storm
of March 1, 1914, the pressure, or, as the old mariner would say, " the
glass," fell to a lower point than was ever before known in New Eng-
land, 28.47 inches at sea level. Those familiar with weather charts know
that any reading below 29.00 inches is low ; but even to professional
meteorologists the first figure given only roughly indicates the degree of
pressure change. Indeed, the official forecaster would need pencil and
paper and time to answer an inquiry as to the intensity of the falL The
record at Blue Hill was expressed simply as 941 kilobars. Inasmuch as
1000 kilobars is the standard pressure, or absolute atmosphere, one sees
at a glance that during this particular storm the pressure fell 59 kilobars,
the meaning of which is 5.9 per cent of the whole atmosphere.

Again, temperatures are expressed in degrees absolute, vapor pressure
in dynes or units of force, the direction of air flow in degrees, and the
velocity in metres per second. Rainfall is measured in millimetres and
rainy days are those on which 1 millimetre of rain falls, which is prefer-
able to the old 1-100 of an inch. This is a matter of importance in many
suits at law, especially in the interpretation of the phrase " working days "
in contracts. In all of this educational propaganda, Blue Hill Observatory
has been the prime mover and indeed originator.

The library of the Observatory contains probably the best collection of
meteorological books, pamphlets, journals, and records available to the
student, outside the city of Washington. It has at present nearly 8000
bound volumes and over 15,000 unbound books and memoirs. Through
the courtesy of Professor E. C. Pickering, *65, the observations and cer-
tain discussions are published annually as part of the Harvard Observa-
tory Aniials. Many scientific contributions have appeared in various me-
teorological journals throughout the world and a detailed list would fill
many pages. Courses of instruction are given, but chiefly for graduate
students.

The purpose of the Observatory is essentially research and exploration
of the air ; and yet it has been impossible to restrict the work entirely to
theoretical investigation because of the intimate relation between human
activities and weather ; and so it has come about that the Observatory
plays no small part in serving the public, a service which, of course,
is entirely without compensation. It is gratifying to be able to use our
knowledge for the good of the community. It would surprise the readers
of the OraducUes^ Magazine to learn of the many ways in Tf^ch the Ob-



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610 Samuel GUman^ Author of ^^ Fair Haroard.^^ [June,

sei-vatorj is of use ; but a single illastration mast saffice at present. The
railroads of this section, steam and electric, morning, noon, and night,
Sundays and holidays not excepted, try to keep in touch with the Ob-
servatory, and use directly and to advantage, in the maintenance of traffic
and for the comfort and safety of the traveling public, all information
vbich can be given them concerning weather conditions.

For reasons which are self-evident the Observatory cannot be opened
to the general public, yet no one with a genuine interest in meteorology
has ever been turned from the door. Any graduate of Harvard or friend
of the University will, on making the fact known, be admitted and
welcomed.



SAMUEL OILMAN, AUTHOR OF "FAIR HARVARD." »

HENRY WILDER FOOTE, W

It is well for us not to forget how largely the South was represented at
Harvard throughout the first half of the 19th century. The mercantile
and social ties between Boston and Charleston were numerous and strong,
for the shipmasters from Salem, Boston, and Newport were familiar
with Charleston Harbor, and many a New England youth came here to
establish himself in business as the representative of a Northern firm,
while there was a steady stream of young men going North for their edu-
cation, sometimes to Yale and Princeton, but more often to Cambridge.
Harvard's roll of graduates between 1800 and 1860 includes members of
many of the most distinguished families of your city. Harvaixl men of
the present generation hardly realized, perhaps, how large the Southern
contingent at Harvard was in those days until the list of Harvard gi*adu-
ates who served the Confederacy was made up, a few years ago, as com-
pletely as the inadequacy of the records permitted. The list, printed in
the Harvard Graduates* Magazine for March, 1912, showed that 257
graduates or former students at Harvard had served in the Confederate
army, the large majority of them as commissioned officers. Fifty-two of
this number were killed in action and twelve more died of disease or



Online LibraryWilliam Richards Castle William Roscoe ThayerThe Harvard graduates' magazine → online text (page 83 of 103)