William Richards Castle William Roscoe Thayer.

The Harvard graduates' magazine online

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eral expenditure inadequately provided for by general income. For these
reasons, the deficits and surpluses here used are those of generally avail-
able income only. If the other figures had been used, including balances
and deficits of restricted income, the total for all departments would have
given surpluses of $309,000, deficits of $118,000, or a net surplus of
$191,000 ; but the non-departmental activities, taking the same set of
activities as before, would have reduced this surplus by $328,000 and
produced a deficit of $137,000 in place of the $13,000 shown heretofore.
This is because the non-departmental activities last year consisted so
largely in spending, for capital purposes, money accumulated in restricted
funds in preceding years — especially the building funds. This illustrates
the misleading character of surpluses and deficits based on both restricted
and unrestricted balances.

The most notable additions to the endowment of the University in the
last year were $150,000 of the McKay bequest for the Graduate Schools
of Arts and Sciences, the James J. Hill professorship of $125,000 for the

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646 . AnlnterpretcUumofthelVeamrer'sSeport. [June,

Baainess School, and the 26th Anniyenary Fond of the Class of 1890.
The total of endowment gifts amounted to three-quarters of a million.
Four-fifths of this is restricted.

An interesting feature of the list of gifts for immediate use is the
number of recurrent items. Gifts to the Arboretum, ^ to increase the in*
come " and used for operating expenses, amount to $26,000 ; gifts to the
Business School to guarantee it against a serious deficit amount to $22,000 ;
scholarship gifts from Harvard Clubs amount to $11,000; gifts for cur-
rent expenses of the Huntington Memorial Hospital amount to $16,000.
Not only are many items like these recurrent, year after year, but to large
degree the same names of donors recur.

In comparing the year 1914-15 with the preceding, we find an increase
of $652,000 in the account called '' Funds and Gifts," which is the ac-
count showing the balance of the University's responsibility for amounts
entrusted to it. As the gifts for capital amounted to $786,000, a deple-
tion of old funds amounting to $134,000 resulted. This was due, how-
ever, not to the exhaustion of gifts for capital, but to the fact that g^fts
for immediate use when not expended in the year of donation are added
to Funds and Gifts and subtracted later when used, as already explained.
Gifts of earlier years were expended for Freshman dormitories in 1914-15
to the amount of $200,000. So on other scores a net of $66,000 was
added to Funds and Gifts from sources not capital gifts. It is interesting
to observe that $12,700 of this arose from gain on sales of special invest-
ments. Indeed, the balance sheet shows a net final gain, accumulations
of a series of years, of $533,000 on sales of investments, of which $42,000
is gain of the year under review.

A comparison of deficits and surpluses of departments for the two
years shows striking changes. For tiie single year 1913-14 (omitting
items brought from other years or carried to them, as in the other table),
only two departments showed a surplus of general income as large as
$1000. These were the Schools of Applied Science and the Divinity
School, the former having a surplus of $16,700, and the latter of $2400.
The notable deficits were as follows : University, $25,000 ; College, $9000;
Library, $38,000 ; Business School, $16,000 ; Law School, $2000 ; Medi-
cal School, $35,000 ; Museum of Zoology, $9000. The first three of these
deficits, as the combined University-College-Library Account, were largely
taken up, however, by absorbing from an unrestricted fund $52,000 ; so
that only the remaining balance of $20,000 from these departments
entered as a part of the final deficit for the year. The deficit for the year
for all departments was in 1913-14 $76,000, as found by the same meth-
ods as the surplus of 1914-15 of $64,000 (there were no non-departmental
deficits in the earlier year). We have consequently an improvement of
$140,000 in the general relation of income and outgo.

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1916.] Seminiscences of'6Q. 647

The detuls of the improvement in the College balance are interesting.
The most important item is receipts from students, which shows an in-
crease from $569,000 to $672,000, or $103,000. Analysis shows this to
be due mainly to rental of Freshman dormitories, $77,000 coming from
this source; but since the cost of maintaining those dormitories was
$30,000, less than two thirds of the receipts were actual financial gain.
The in<»rease from tuition fees was only $28,000 ; but the increased scale
of fees has not yet gone into effect. The income from funds for instruc-
tion increased $23,000, and the actual payment for salaries increased
$23,000 — so that no effect was produced on the balance of general in-
come. General expenses connected with administration, such as clerical
service, stationery, printing, etc., were reduced by $4000. These changes
with a few other minor items converted, as has already been suggested,
the College deficit for 1913-14 of $9000 into a surplus for 1914-15 of
$66,000. Briefly, the improvement of $75,000 was due to a gain of
$47,000 in the income from dormitories and a gain of $28,000 in tuition
fees. Since, however, the College must largely support the Library, the
College surplus is only a step toward the final surplus or deficit of the
combined account.



In 1863, after graduation at the Meadville Tlieological School, I en-
tered as a Sophomore the class of '66 at Harvard College. Dr. Thomas
Hill was then President He, Benjamin Peirce, and Louis Agassiz were
neighbors and warm personal friends, but let me say, in passing, that
not one of them was qualified by reason of executive ability to be Pres-
ident of Harvard College. In many ways Dr. Hill was the intellectual
peer of his neighbors and friends and was so regarded by them, but the
executive gift so prominent in the " make-up " of his successor was lack-
ing. Let one incident illustrate. It happened that I had been brought
within the range of personal acquaintance with him and he not infre-
quently spoke to me in a familiar way about anything that happened to
be on his mind. There was no College Dean in those far-off days and
the burden of discipline fell upon the President At three o'clock in the
afternoon it was the custom for the President to sit in his room in Uni-
versity Hall to meet any students who had complaints to make, apologies
to offer, or sentences to receive. One day, as I was going to a three
o'clock recitation, I saw Dr. Hill advancing with a paper in his hand.

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648 Reminiscences of ^&&. [Janei

We met at the foot of the 8tepe, and stopping, he accosted me with this
remark, '' Batchelor, I have just worked oat a new spiral. It is 8<Hne-
what like the spiral of Archimedes, hut it is not identical with it." We
parted, and I reflected, '' Poor man, he is going upstairs to deal with
delinquent and refractory students with his head full of mathematics
when he onght to haye all his wits about him.'' No wonder that he did
not always remember what he had said, and that students sometimes
accused him of making promises that he did not f ulfiL

To illustrate the remark made above about the three great men,
Peirce, Agassiz, and Hill, not any of whom, as I said, was qualified to
be President of Harvard College, I may cite the famous episode when a
brilliant class of young men left the Museum because they could not
agree with Agassiz in regard to the way in which the discoveries made
by Agassiz and his pupils should be reported to the general public
These young men were all afterward eminent as professors or scientific
investigators at Bowdoin College, Brown, Tale, and Harvard, and also in
the U.S. Coast Survey. Prof. Edward S. Morse was one of these recal-
citrant pupils, who made a brilliant discovery concerning the brachio-
pod, which up to that time had been classed as a molludc. He proved
that it belonged to the class vermes, a worm, in the same family with
lingula. His demonstration was given to the American Association for
the Advancement of Science at a meeting in Salem. It was a brilliant
performance and thoroughly convincing. At the end of it, all eyes turned
to Morse's former teacher, Louis Agassiz. He sbwly walked to the
platform. The silence was profound; then he said with deliberation,
^' Gentlemen, for the first time in the history of science we are in a con-
dition to study the brachiopod intelligently." Great applause greeted
this magnanimous recognition of the achievement of his former pupil.

During my residence in Cambridge the Thayer Club was organized
at the suggestion of Nathaniel Thayer, who fitted up a building stand-
ing near the comer of Mass. Avenue — then called Main Street — and
Eirkland Street This was formerly the terminal station of a branch
of the Fitchburg Road running from Boston to Cambridge. The club
was managed by students and furnished good board at a low rate, pre-
paring the way for the uses afterward made of Memorial HaU.

Some of us undergraduates were unsophisticated enough to think that
Commencement Day at Harvard College was worth the attention of un-
dergraduates and other people. At that time, Harvard Hall, not yet cut
up into smaller rooms, was usually sufficiently large to accommodate all
the grraduates of three years' standing who chose to attend the dinner of
the Alumni. This dinner was furnished by the College, and at one time
the members of our Class were informed that so long as we lived we

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1916.] Reminiscences of 06. 649

should have one dinner a year at the expense of the College and in due
season a copy of the Triennial Catalogue. (In respect to this promise
our Alma Mater has been a faithless mother.) On Commencement Day
some of us attended the exercises in the First Parish Church in Harvard
Square, and when the procession formed, about twenty of us fell in be-
hind the graduates. All went well until we reached the door, where the
famous Jones, the bell-ringer, was taking tickets. The attendance at the
dinner was already in excess of the capacity of the hall, and arrange-
ments had been made to divert the tail of the procession, which contained
the younger members, to the hall of the Thayer Club where a collation
had been prepared. We undergraduates, however, did not follow the end
of the procession, but immediately fell in at the steps of Harvard HalL
The supply of tickets having given out, Jones stepped aside, the doors
were closed, and two stalwart policemen stood with clasped hands, resist-
ing any further progress on the part of the undergrradnates. I was near
the doors and the pressure behind me was very great After a decent
interval, evidently intended to allow the holders of tickets time to take
their seats, the good-natured policemen suddenly withdrew their opposi-
tion. The doors flew open, and I was plunged nearly headlong many
feet into the hall, where I came up standing in the presence of the ven-
erable Dr. Andrew Preston Peabody, the man who probably had the
love and reverence of more graduates of Harvard College than any other
member of the Faculty, before or since his time. He smiled on me be-
nevolently, and with characteristic gesture pointed to a bench near the
wall and said, ^^ I think you will find a seat over there." I accepted the
hint and found myself seated with the Class of 1836, of which the famous
Dr. Bigelow receiyed me with great kindness, saying, *' I think yon have
earned your dinner.'' The other members of the Class made me feel en-
tirely at home and removed any scruples I might have had about eat-
ing a dinner to which I was not entitled. (In passing, I may say that
Dr. Bigelow was once on the witness stand under cross-examination by
Benjamin F. Butler. He treated Dr. Bigelow with such marked disre-
spect that the judge interfered, saying, '^Tou should remember, Mr.
Butler, that Dr. Bigelow is a learned member of the Faculty of Harvard
University " ; to which, having Professor Webster in mind, Mr. Butler
replied, <' Oh, yes! we hung one of them the other day.") The dinner at
the Thayer Club was a somewhat jovial and tumultuous affair, but
Charles E. Grinnell, '62, who presided, reported at Harvard Hall before
we adjourned, with the remark in closing, '^ But I drove the coach."

I continued to attend the dinners of the Alumni and was rewarded by
seeing and hearing many eminent men whose presence and whose speeches
are now among my treasured memories. I saw, for instance, the youth-

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650 Seminiscences qf '66. [June,

f al Phillips Brooks appearing for the first time, introdoced by CoL T. W.
Higginson with praise for his patriotic seryioe in Philadelphia, where he
was said to be one of the few ministers who dared to preach a patriotic
sermon, thereby, as it was charged, carrying partisan politics into the
pulpit I saw the first appearance of Joseph H. Cboate, handsome, elo-
quent, aadacioas then as ever since. It has always been with a touch of
awe, mingled with admiration that I have remembered Choate's tribute
to James Walker in Harvard Hall. It was the last day, as we all knew,
that James Walker would appear among the Alumni as in any way an
officer of the University. He had been Professor, Overseer, and Pres-
ident, and was now retiring from the ofifice of Overseer. In the President's
room at Harvard College there hung, at that time, a photograph, of
which a copy hangs in my library, of five ex-presidents of Harvard Col-
lege : Josiah Quincy, Edward Everett, Jared Sparks, James Walker, and
C. C. Felton. In some way I learned that Choate was to speak, and,
having some knowledge of his attractive qualities as an orator, I waited
to hear liim. He came late in the afternoon when a considerable number had
left, ignorant of the treat in store for us patient waiters. In due time he
was called, and began what seemed to be a rambling, if not untimely,
account of the five ex-presidents. Beginning with Josiah Quincy, he
gave a brief sketch of his character and career, passing then to Edward
Everett, whom he described with a rare choice of epithets. About this
time his audience began to prick up their ears and anticipate what was
coming. We gathered about the youthful orator, handsome as a Greek
god, until, passing from Jared Sparks, he stepped before Dr. Walker,
and, bowing with an air of the most profound reverence, began, " And
you, sir " ; and then followed a panegyric of an old man uttered by one
of his former pupils, which, I venture to say, was never surpassed.

It seems to me worth while after these many years to put on record
the true story of Prof. Evangelinus Apostolides Sophocles and his famous
hens. Not long ago I saw in this journal the statement that he kept hens
in his room and fed them with Malaga grapes. The true story runs in this
way : A part of the ground in the rear of Fay House, now included in
Radcliffe College, was inclosed as a poultry yai*d, and here Prof. Sopho-
cles was allowed to keep his hens. He had twenty or thirty of fine breeds
that he cherished. Each one had a name, and they were taught to answer
to their names when he fed them, sometimes with rare delicacies. He
imported grapes and little sacks containing dates and almonds chopped
up and pressed together. With these he regaled his favorite fowls, much
to the envy and disapproval of the boys, sons of Dr. Charles E. Vaughan,
'52, who lived in the house adjacent and whose poultry yard adjoined
that of Fay House. Now and then, but rarely, Sophocles would share with

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1916.] Seminiscencesofee. 651

the boys the feast provided for the hens. ELis regard for the hens was too
strong for his sense of justice, and he palled down a paling from his yard
and also from that of Dr. Yanghan adjoining, so that the hens could ran
out into Dr. Vaughan's vegetable and flower garden. This act the boys
promptly resented. They caaght a beaatifol white leghorn which had come
throagh the gap in the paling, and sent her back over the fence with one
wing painted red and the other green. Sophocles promptly replaced the

The Class of '66 did not enjoy some advantages that have since their
day been spread before undergradaates in lavish profusion, but they did
have some precious privileges which came through personal contact with
such men as Sophocles, Jeffries Wyman, Asa Gray, Louis Agassiz, Francis
J. Cliild, W. W. Goodwin, 6. M. Lane, E. W. Gumey, Benj. Peirce,
James Russell Lowell, and others, scholars of renown, but also rare ex-
amples of modest simplicity and well-rounded manhood. *' To know some-
thing and to be modest about it" was, according to K B. Hoar, the aim
of a scholar at Harvard College at that time.

Longfellow, Parsons, and Lowell met every Wednesday evening to
discuss and criticize in the making Parsons*s translation of the Divina
Commedia. The next morning Lowell brought to the Class, that was
trying to read it, a report of anything interesting that happened the night
before. Lowell detested formal examinations. He told us that our '' final "
would be an ^^ oral," and warned us that, with Prof. Parsons and Maj.
Maggi on the committee, we might have a hard time. ^^ But, no matter,
gentlemen, you are marked already."

Gray and Wyman were feeling their way in the wake of Darwin's
Origin of Species, three years old when *66 began its course. Wyman
set the pace for both of them when he gave a course of lectures on com*
parative anatomy, including embryology. Everything led up to a con-
firmation of Darwin's theory. At the close I asked him, '^ Do you wish
us to understand that you accept Darwin's explanation ? " *^ No," he said,
'* I don't intend anything of the kind ; I give you the facts and let you
draw your own conclusions." Prof. Francis Bowen was, at this time, the
active and earnest opponent of '^ The Mud Philosophy," which he thought
was subversive of morals and religion.

E. W. Gurney made Latin literature interesting. He conducted his
exercises with suavity and perspicacity. He contrived, with the approval
of the Class, to make each man the judge of his own demerit. After the
resignation of Pres. Hill he was mentioned as a possible successor, but
the successful candidate was Charles William Eliot, who promptly re-
lieved himself of responsibility for the discipline of the students. The new
office of Dean of the Faculty was created and Gumey was appointed.

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652 The End of the Tear. [June,

Let one incident illustrate his method of teaching. We were reading
Cicero's Epistles, In one passage he described a htwsnit in which it was
made clear that witnesses had been suborned oYemight. One, whom we
will call Nemo, had not looked at his lesson, but in translating got on
fairly well until he reached this part of the story ; then, with a helpless
air, he looked np and said, *^ I don't think I understand this." With the
utmost kindness Gurney said, ^'It means, Mr. Nemo, that they had
learned their lesson before they came in, in the morning." As this was
an exact rendering of the meaning the CLiss set up a shout and Nemo
sank into his seat

The Class election of '66 was a stormy affair. Rivalry between the
Hasty Pudding Society and the O. K. ran high. To come between them
as a rival for official honors the Pi Eta Society was formed. The election
lasted from 7.30 p.m. to 1 a.m. The present writer was moderator with
an experience that has stood him in good stead ever since. The ticket
finally elected was, Orator, Moorfield Storey ; Poet, Amos Kidder flske ;
Odist, Henry Foster Bnswell; Chief Marshal, Robert Swain Peabody;
Assistant Marshals, James Oscar Parker, Frank Wright; Class-Day
Committee, George Derby Welles, William Levi Parker, Justin Ed-
wards Gale; Chaplain, George Batchelor; Cbss Secretary, William
Gilson Farlow ; Chorister, George Laurie Osgood ; Class Committee, John
Davis Williams, Edward Henry Clark.

Farlow soon resigned and Charles Edwin Stratton, elected in his
place, has ever since been the friendly and efficient guardian of the inter-
ests of '66. Of the 14 Class-Day officers, 11 survive; of the 113 who
were graduated fifty years ago, 48 are living and at work. It is hoped
that all of them will be alive, in good health and able to partake with
good appetite of the Class Dinner which will mark the dose of the first
half-centary of their post-gradaate life.




Once again, fresh air and elbow-room have triumphed over an old tra-
dition. The inadequacy of Sanders Theatre on Commencement Day has
long been recognized by all, — Corporation, Faculty, and

_ BliM graduates. The place simply will not contain even a good

^'^ fraction of those who desire to attend the Commencement
exercises and who have a right to be there. The situation, accordingly,

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1916.] Hie End of the Tear. 658

bas become in many respects nnf oitonate. To the members of the Senior
class, as well as to their parents and other immediate relattves and f riends,
the ceremony of conferring the degrees ought to be the most impressive
event of a college career. For a long time, however, it has been nothing
of the sort The exercises of Class Day, and not those of Commencement
Day, have ranked as the great f ocas of interest during the closing week
of each College year. Class Day has quite overshadowed Commencement
Day. By the time the Commencement Day proceedings are at hand many
of the alumni, instructors, and even some of the Seniors themselves, have
gone. Of those who remain only a portion have been crowded into San-
ders Theatre on what has too often been an intensely hot June morning.
There, after listening somewhat impatiently to the orations, they have
seen the hundreds of young men admitted en bloe to the ** society of
scholars " and have been overglad to emerge into the fresh air again.
Commencement Day has been, in fact, an anticlimax, a sort of recessional
toward the end of a week given over to processions, ball-games, spreads,
reunions, and general revelry. The time when it was the red4etter day
of the year, not only for the College bat for the whole community, has
long since gone by. And the chief reason for this decadence is to be f onnd
in the cramped arrangements under which the ceremonies have had to be

For the current year, at any rate, the Governing Boards of the Uni*
versity have decided to try a new experiment in the hope that the Com-
mencement exercises may be restored to their old primacy. The exercises
of June 22 will be held at the Stadium. They will take place in the
morning, before the sun is high enough in the heavens to make the
Stadium seats uncomfortable. Those who have been assigned the Com-
mencement orations may have some difficulty in making themselves heard ;
but if that should lead to shorter orations and fewer of them, it may not
be an unmixed eviL The main point is that far greater opportunity will
be g^ven to the Seniors in the matter of inviting their relatives and friends.
The number of seats available will be the same as that reserved for the
Class Day exercises, namely, about 8500, with the possibility of adding
another thousand or two if needed. The number of seats in Sanders
Theatre is about 1400, with standing room for perhaps a hundred per-
sons more. There is no good reason, therefore, why the Commencement
proceedings should not be as largely attended as the Class Day exercises
have been during recent years, and they can be made far more impres-

It goes without saying that much will depend upon the weather. Tet
a rainy day is apt to make Commencement a fizzle no matter where it
is held. At the worst the exercises will be transferred back to Sanders

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654 The End of the Year. [Jane,

Theatre if the day should render outdoor proceedings impossible. In any
case, that is a matter upon which all the events of the dosing week must
always be ready to take their chances.

Will this be the first occasion upon which the Commencement exercises
have been held outside the limits of Cambridge ? One thinks naturally of
MttnUoBs ol ^^® years of Babylonian captivity in which the University
2^|^j^^ was forced to take refuge in Concord ; but no public Com-
V"^ mencements were held during this period of confusion and

Online LibraryWilliam Richards Castle William Roscoe ThayerThe Harvard graduates' magazine → online text (page 88 of 103)