William Richards Castle William Roscoe Thayer.

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distress. Degrees were conferred, according to the records, ^^ by a gen-
eral diploma." The Crimson, in a brief historical article on Commence-
ment exercises, recently published, states that '' some time previous to
1725 the solemnities were transferred to the Old South Meeting House,
where they continued to be celebrated until 1758." But that does not
seem to be in accordance with the facts. All the exercises that have been
held seem to have been conducted in the old College Hall, or in the old
First Parish Church, which tlie College helped to build, or in the newer
Parish Church, or in Appleton Chapel, or in Sanders Theatre. Sanders
Theatre has served from 1876, that is to say, just forty years.

In connection with the transfer of the exercises to the Stadium (which
is in Boston) some one has raised the query whether the College charter
makes any requirement as to the conferring of degrees at
10 gxant ^^ the University in Cambridge." The answer is that neither

the original charter nor any subsequent statute says any-
thing about the right to confer degrees. Rather curiously the University's
right to confer degrees rests upon no formal grants in the charter or by
statute. On what basis, then, does the right rest ? On the fact that in the
first one hundred and forty-four years of its existence the College did
grant degrees and the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780 sanctified this
power by providing '^ that the President and Fellows in their corporate
capacity, and their successors in that capacity, their officers and servants,
shall have, hold, use, exercise and enjoy, all the powers, authorities, rights,
liberties, privileges, immunities and franchises which they now have, hold,
use, exercise and enjoy." That is the basis of our degree-granting power
-» a privilege exercised in colonial days without formal authority but sub"
sequently embalmed in the organic law of the Commonwealth.

. In University gossip during the last few months various questions con-
nected with athletics have had a prominent place. The Report of the
Vaxlou ttli- Graduate Treasurer of Athletics, issued in March, showed
litto proMams ^ marked increase in the number of men who take part in
some form of outdoor sport The figure was 1847 for the year ending in
June, 1915, as compared with 1472 for the year preceding. This does

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1916.] The End of the Tear. 665

not inclade, moreover, the large nmnber of students who uoe the TJuiversity
tennis courts from time to time, but who are not candidates for any of
the tennis teams. Were these included, the total number would be greatly

The figures are significant. They indicate that the policy of providing
attractive opportunities for outdoor exercise, even to those who are not cap-
able of playing on any College or Class team, is meeting widMiiM
with success. Tet much in this direction remains to be done, lattrsfftln 01l^
The totals do not even yet include half of our student popu- **" **
lation, if one counts the members of graduate and professional schools.
These latter, although they are not '^ material " for University teams, are
none the less in equal need of encouragement and opportunity so far as
physical exercise is concerned. They need these tilings, in fact, even
more than the average undergraduate, whose tendency to overwork him-
self mentally is not an appreciable danger in any academic community.

Were it not for this steadily broadening interest on the part of the whole
student body, the year-after-year increase in athletic expenditures would
give fair ground for serious concern. For the year 1914-15,
the entire expenses of conducting the athletic interests of HtrrazA ttn-
the University were $158,311.90. This is more than the en-
tire budget of the Harvard Law School, which last year was $154,868.68,
including salaries, scholarships, care of buildings, and all expenditures on
current account. It is far more than the gross income of many colleges in
the country. More than half of it went for the training and expenses of the
four major University teams, football, baseball, track, and the crews. The
football team cost nearly one quarter of the whole, or $35,668.70. Reck-
oned in terms of cost per individual player, this means an outlay of about
one thousand dollars for every man in a squad of thirty-five during the eight-
weeks season, or more than tlie average undergraduate spends during an
entire year at Harvard. All the major teams put together attracted only
558 men at an expense of $90,000; the minor athletic interests drew nearly
twice as many and cost only about half as much. Despite our earnest en-
couragement of general athletics, therefore, the bulk of the available athletic
money is still going to the gladiators. It will be replied, of course, that
the major teams earn their income by their gate-receipts and hence ought
to have the spending of it, in which claim there is doubtless some validity.
The University football team earned more than three times what it spent;
it really carried the financing of the other athletic interests on its shoul-

The entire business management of Harvard athletics, by the way, has
been placed upon a highly efficient basis by the Graduate Treasurer. The
system of record-keeping, accounting, auditing, and the whole matter of

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656 The End of the Tear. [June,

ticket distribatioDy h«8 been enonnooely improved. Today it is beyond

Several other matters dosely connected with athletics have been themes
of discnssion since the last issue of the Magazvne. One of them is the
(f) Tsm hmn question of rearranging the lecture and laboratory hours so
^^^ that at least two hoors of clear daylight would be available

to every stadent for outdoor exercise on every week-day throughout the
College year. As matters now stand, there are some regular classes be-
tween 1.30 and 4.30 on every afternoon except Saturday. Many instruc-
tors prefer these afternoon hours ^- some of them because an elective
course which meets at 2.30 or 3.S0 is likely to be taken by serious stu-
dents only. Those who regard play as more important than work are not
apt to encumber it with their presence. Relatively speaking, Uie number of
courses which meet in afternoon hours is not large ; the majority of students
(if we except those who have laboratory studies) have their entire after-
noons free under Uie present arrangements. It has been suggested that
in the first half-year Uie classes which now meet from 1.30 to 3.30 should
be transferred to the period from 4.30 to 6.30; in the second half-year,
as the days grow longer, they could be shifted back again. Or it might
be possible to begin the classroom day at 8 instead of at 9 in the morning.
The problem, however, as Dean Briggs has said, is one that calls for more
ingenuity in its solution than anybody has as yet been able to supply. An
elective system, particularly in an institution which combines graduate
and non-graduate instruction in the same classes, requires a considerable
range of classroom hours. Various studies which appeal to the same groups
of students cannot well be slated for the Bame hours. If so, they cease to
be really elective. Concentration of hours means a cramping of elective
opportunities. Even at present there is ground for suspecting that not a
few students elect hours rather than studies, that their choice of studies
is not made with an eye on the whole curriculum, but only upon that part
of it which would demand their attention neither too early nor too late in
the day. Foreign universities use evening hours to advantage ; in this
country we have not followed that practice to any considerable extent.
Nor would it probably prove popular, at the outset, with either students
or instructors.

Another mooted question of recent weeks has been the proper powers
of coach and captain, respectively, in the matter of choosing the Uni-
^^ versity crews. The question was brought to the front by a
captain la- petition asking the Committee on the Regulation of Athletic
^^ Sports to place definitely upon the coach the ultimate re-

sponsibility for selecting the men who make up the crews. There has
not been the slightest sign of friction between the captain and the coach-

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1916.] The End of the Fear. 66T

ing staff under Mr. Herriek's direetion ; but many nndergradaates seem
to have regarded the matter as one of principle. The Athletic Committee
settled things by making clear that final anthority rested neither with
captain nor with coach in any branch of College athletics, bnt with the
Committee itself. That was the proper ground to take. The question
whether captain or coach should be supreme in any matter is not one to
be determined by general rale. The best interests of eyery College sport
require that the two shall work in harmony and not disagree. If they
differ on important questions of policy, it is not for one to overrale the
other, but for the Committee on the Regulation of AUdetic Sports to have
the last word. While it was under discussion, the question received far
more newspaper prominence than its impoi-tance warranted.

This year, for the first time, the Division of Education provided during
the month of May a series of conferences or informal lectures upon ath-
letic questions, intended for principals and teachers of see-
ondary schools where atldetic problems are constantly pre- tt&Mtoslatilt
senting difficulties, and also for those Harvard students who
later expect to be teachers in schools or to be employed as coaches of
school teams. No fees were charged for the conferences and they were
well attended. Mr. Joseph Lee, '83, of the Boston School Committee,
spoke on '^ The Place of Athletics in Education," Dean Briggs, '75, on
'' The Ethics of Athletics," Dr. Sargent on <' Athletics and Health," while
others dealt with the actual problems of administration and coaching.
The conferences were intended to place at the disposal of the schoob the
University's long experience in these matters.

After the mid-year examinations three prominent student athletes
were suspended for failure to do satisfactory work in their studies. As a
college we have always muntained to the outside world (e) xaklBc tlit
that Harvard requires the members of all athletic teams to J^^ *• "■
maintain satisfactory records in their classroom work ; but
it is doubtful whether this assurance has always been accepted at its face
value. The impression seems to prevail everywhere that somehow or
other all colleges find ways of keeping their reserves of bone and sinew
intact, and that the roster of those dropped each year does not often con-
tain the names of students who figure in the newspaper headlines. This
year the action of the Administrative Board gave what the Crimson
termed " a distinct shock to the undergraduate mind, with its complacent
smugness in regard to probation." It is to be hoped that it also gave to
the general public some evidence that the CoUege is living up to its
preachings in the matter of what it requires from athletes as regards
scholarly performance. The loss of these men is a serious blow to at least
two of the intercollegiate teams, but to have refrained from a reasonable

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658 The End of the rear. [June,

enforcement of oar standards would have been a far more serious blow
to the reputation of the University. Not the least significant thing about
the whole episode is the fact that this drastic action could be taken with-
out an outburst of protest on the part of the undergraduates and a deluge
of comphiints from the alumni. In some other colleges, there is reason to
suspect, that is what surely would have occurred. Such outbursts have,
indeed, come upon the heads of college faculties at times with less rea-
son. In this ease the action of the disciplinary authorities was received
in excellent spirit and the example for the future will undoubtedly be
a good one.

Speaking of the influence of the aluomi in such matters, it may be
worth while to say a word about the relation of alumni associations to
■vok-nkliic general college pdicy. This is prompted by the assertions con-
tilt tlnmal corning these bodies made by John Jay Chapman, *84, in his
article on ^' The Schoolmaster," in the May issue of the Atlantic Monthly.
The alanmi associations, Mr. Chapman assures us, are a clog in the wheels
of American education. Their influence is reactionary, embodying '^ the
consolidated prejudices of half-educated men." Nothing can be done
without humoring the alunmi and they have to be humored in the wrong

Now, it may be that Mr. Chapman's strictures hold true, in part at
least, of some small colleges where the alumni are firmly knit together
A wort tB ^^^ where they have been encouraged to express freely their
their dslMiM opinions even on the details of college policy. But they
are not true of Harvard and never have been. Neither the Harvard
Alumni Association nor the Federation of Harvard Clubs has ever under-
taken to tell the Governing Boards of the University what they should or
should not do, nor have they ever sought to put " pressure " upon them
in an indirect way. On the contrary, they have let the immediate Uni-
versity authorities lead the way, and then have come forward in loyal
support Suggestions and opinions from alumni have not been lacking, it
is true ; but these come, as a rule, when they are asked for. No one who
has closely followed the course of events at Harvard during the past
decade, the expansion of activities, the altered rules relating to the choice
of studies, the great experiment embodied in the Freshman HaUs, the
new plan of admission to college, the tutorial system — no one can have
followed the course of these changes without appreciating the great help,
both moral and financial, which the alunmi have given to them all. If the
Harvard alumni were wedded to conservatism, we could scarcely have had
these great changes in a relatively few years. To take a single instance
— the establishment of the general examination and the tutorial system

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1916.] Tht End of the Year. 659

in the Division of History, Goyernment, and Economics. This scheme,
one of the most courageous and promising in American education, was
first proposed by President Lowell. It was worked out in detail by the
Division concerned, and then presented to the Faculty. There it met vig-
orous opposition, but was finally adopted. To put it into effect, however,
required a considerable sum of money and some members of the alumni
were asked to provide it They did so cheerfully, without a word of ques-
tion as to the novelty or wisdom of the plan. Every department of the
University, moreover, will bear testimony to the assistance and encourage-
ment which it receives from its Visiting Committee. The long list of
scholarships provided by Harvard Clubs all over the land affords a strik-
ing evidence of alumni loyalty, generosity and wisdom. The idea tliat
these associations are a dead-weight upon academic progress will get scant
support in this community.

The most conspicuous appointment of the last few months is that of
Prof. Roscoe Pound to be Dean of the Harvard Law School. While Dean
Pound may be regarded as one of the newer members of j^^^ Poud ot
the Law School staff, having come to Harvard only six years **• ^^ S«io«l
ago, he is no tyro either in the teaching of law or in the work of law-school
administration. Continually since 1899 he has served as a teacher in other
law schools, at the University of Nebraska, at Northwestern University, and
at the University of Chicago. For four years he served as dean of the law
school in the first-named institution. Dean Pound is not a graduate of Har-
vard College or of the Harvard Law School, although he attended the latter
institution for one year in the late eighties. His appointment to the dean-
ship has been universally commended, for the post is one of great honor
and responsibility, demanding an occupant of broad outlook and worldly
wisdom. Few jurists are more favorably known throughout this country.
Scarcely any American exponent of the law is better known abroad. Dean
Pound, as the profession knows, is not merely a lawyer or an expounder
of the law, but a legal historian, philosopher, and practitioner all rolled into
one. By way of avocation, he is also an entomologist of no mean order.

Three additions to the staff of the Law School have also been made.
Arthur Dehon Hill, I '94, has been appointed Professor of Law. Since
graduating from the Law School he has been practising in Boston. Prof.
Albert M. Kales, '96, Pjrofessor of Law at Northwestern University,
comes to Harvard next September. Zechariah Chafee, I '13, is appointed
Assistant Professor of Law, with duties to begin at the same time. On
the other hand. Prof. J. D. Brannan, '69, retires from active teaching
after a service of eighteen years in the Harvard Law School, having come
from the University of Cincinnati in 1898.

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660 The End of the Year. [June,

Other appointments and promotions in the UniTersity during the last
few months are the following : 6. H. Chase, '96, has been promoted to
Oth«r affsofait- ^^® John £. Hudson Professorship of Archeology ; J. S.
sMats Humphreys has been promoted to be Associate Professor of

Architectural Design ; R. B. Dixon, '97, Professor of Anthropology ; C.
H. Mcllwain, g '03, Professor of History and Groyernment ; Grinnell
Jones, g '05, Assistant Professor of Chemistry ; K. 6. T. Webster '93, As-
sistant Professor of English ; 6. £• Johnson, Assistant Professor of Educa*
tion ; E. G. Brackett, m '86, Assistant Professor of Orthopedic Surgery ; F.
H. Verhoeflf, g '02, Assistant Professor of Opthalmological Research. Har-
old J. Laski has been appointed Instructor in History ; J. M. Brewer, g '15,
Instructor in Education ; and Cliester A. McLain, '13, Lecturer on Con-
stitutional Law. Prof. Ernesto Qoesada, J.D., of Buenos Aires, has been
appointed Professor of Latin- American History and Economies for the
year 1916-17. F. J. Swayze, '79, W. G. Thompson, '88, and A. R.
Campbell, '99, are to serve as Lecturers in the Law School during the
coming year. Mr. Henry H. Edes, h *06, has been appointed editor-in*
chief of the Quinquennial Catalogue. Dr. Abner Post, m '70, Professor of
Syphilis, has resigned from active service in the Medical School and has
been appointed professor emeritus. Dr. Post's connection with the Medi-
cal School instruction has been continuous since 1870. Leave of absence
during the whole or pai-t of the next academic year has been granted to
the following instractors : Prof. Ephraim Emerton, '71, Prof. Barrett
Wendell, '77, Prof. Kuno Francke, h '12, Prof. F. J. Turner, Prof.
P. H. Hanus, Prof. W. F. Dearborn, and Prof. H. W. Holmes, '03.

Notable progress in the restoration of the Yard to something like its
condition of ten years ago has been made during the present spring. A
Rtstoilaf tht 7®^^ ^fi»^ some experiments were made with tiie placing
OoltofsTsid Qf ji f g^ large trees. In practically every case these trees
took hold promptly and grew well throughout the summer. This year,
accordingly, the transplanting has been on a far larger scale. Through
tlie generosity of Arthur H. Lea, '80, it was possible to obtain thirteen
large elms, all of them over a foot in diameter at breast height, and these
have now been located in the old Yard, chiefly in the northeastern part
of it. Great care had to be taken in the selection of the trees, as it was
necessary to obtain not only thoroughly sound and uninfested specimens,
but those which would be of reasonably good appearance after a severe
pruning^back. The work of preparing places for Uie trees, and improving
the surrounding soil, was also considerable. And finally, it is no light or
superficial job to move a forty-foot elm over a distance of a dozen or more
miles without serious loss of roots, and without injury to its branches.

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1916.] The End of the Year. 661

The skill for all this is at band — all that is needed is enongh money.
The Class of 1908 has given what is needed for one more large tree, and
twenty-two graduates have contribated $2200 to carry oUier work ahead.
This will do a good deaL But the Yard is a pretty large lot of ground
when you measure it, and a good many trees will still find places waiting
for them even if much is dune each spring during the next few years.

Not all the University's interest in arboriculture, however, is being
given to the Yard. The Library quadrangle has now become an impor*
tant unit of the College grounds. For this area a complete
planting scheme, including provision for the location of pltatlaff
shrubbery, has been devised by Prof. H. V. Hubbard, '97, ^^^^^^
of the Department of Landscape Architecture. Part of this plan has been
already carried out. A double row of elms has been placed along Divinity
Avenue and about twenty-five more have been planted in the grounds
around Memorial Hall. Down at the Freshman Halls a dozen or more
fair-sized elms are also being set in ])lace. All this work, which makes
up a considerable tree-planting contract, is being done under the super-
vision of Prof. R. T. Fisher, '98, of the University's School of Forestry.

The establishment of programs of studies leading to the degree of

Ph.D. in Business Economics calls attention to two things : first, to the

considerable demand for men who can teach such subjects __ _

. Tb9 Doctor of

as banking, accounting, railroad economics, and public utili'* BuIhom

ties operation, in the various business schools of the coun-
try ; and, secondly, to the emphasis which the authorities of these schools
place upon the possession of the Ph.D. degree by their teachers. In the
eight years of its existence, the Harvard School of Business Administra-
tion has turned out about four hundred men, less than a quarter of them
graduates, of course, but all of them men who have been for a longer or
shorter time enrolled as students. Of the graduates only five have taken
up the profession of teaching ; the rest are actively at work in the busi-
ness world. But the demand for trained teachers of business subjects is
growing and it ought to be one of the functions of the Harvard School
to meet this demand. Being itself on a graduate basis and maintaining
a standard of work which is almost unique among institutions of its type,
it has a special obligation in that regard. As for the Ph.D. degree, that
of itself would matter little; But nearly all the institutions of higher edu-
cation in this country seem to regard the holding of that degree as one
of the passports to a teaching position. Some college presidents virtually
insist that tliey will appoint no one as instructor who has not been tagged
with this title. Others will appoint undoctored instructors, but will not
promote them. The thing has almost become a fetish. Yet even a f etish.

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662 The End of the Year. [June,

when it actually exists, most be tolerated if we want to pat Harvard men
on the teaching staffs of colleges and professional schools. Oar facilities
enable us to train teachers of business subjects and our standards are
high enough to warrant giving this degree if there is a desire for it.

It is estimated that the Library of the University contains 1,183^317
volumes and 705,225 pamphleto — a total of 1,888^42 items. This not
only places the Harvard Library at the top of the list of
university libraries in the United States, but gives it a lead
of about 800,000 volumes over its nearest competitor, the library of Yale
University. Several new collections have recently been added to the Wid*
ener Jjibrary, notably that of the Cambridge Historical Society, and a
collection of editions of Horace, the ^St of the late William Cross Wil-
liamson, '52. — Dean £. F. Gay, of the Graduate School of Business
Administration, has been appointed by tlie United States Commissioner
of Education as one of a commission of fifteen to investigate and report
on the means for establishing in schools and colleges courses of study
which will fit men to enter the foreign service of the country. — A new
organ has been given to the Phillips Brooks House Association by Wil-
liam Endicott, '87, and was dedicated at a special service on April 9. —
Prof. F. W. Taussig, 79, will give a series of lectures on economics at
the University of California during several weeks of the summer. — The

Online LibraryWilliam Richards Castle William Roscoe ThayerThe Harvard graduates' magazine → online text (page 89 of 103)