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College

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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES








<2d j $s-

ill i




THE CHRONICLE OF

WILLIAM DE RISHANGER,

OF

THE BARONS' WARS.

THE

MIRACLES OF SIMON DE MONTFORT.



EDITED FROM MANUSCRIPTS IN THE COTTONIAN LIBRARY,

BY

JAMES ORCHARD HALLIWELL, ESQ. F.R.S., F.S.A.

F.R.A.S, M.R.S.L., SECRETARY OF THE CAMBRIDGE ANTIQUARIAN
SOCIETY, ETC. ETC. ETC.




LONDON:
PRINTED FOR THE CAMDEN SOCIETY,

BY JOHN BOWYER NICHOLS AND SON, PARLIAMENT STREET.



M.DCCC.XL.



College
Library



COUNCIL

OF

THE CAMDEN SOCIETY,

ELECTED MAY 2, 1840.



President,
THE RIGHT HON. LORD FRANCIS EGERTON, M.P.

THOMAS AMYOT, ESQ. F.R.S. Treas. S.A. Director.

CHARLES FRED. BARN WELL, ESQ. M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A.

THE RT. HON. RICHARD LORD BRAYBROOKE, F.S.A.

JOHN BRUCE, ESQ. F.S.A. Treasurer.

JOHN PAYNE COLLIER, ESQ. F.S.A.

C. PURTON COOPER, ESQ. Q.C., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A.

THE RT. HON. THOMAS PEREGRINE COURTENAY.

T. CROFTON CROKER, ESQ. F.S.A., M.R.I.A.

THE REV. ALEXANDER DYCE.

SIR HENRY ELLIS, K.H., F.R.S., Sec. S.A.

THE REV. JOSEPH HUNTER, F.S.A.

SIR FREDERICK MADDEN, K.H., F.R.S., F.S.A.

THOMAS STAPLETON, ESQ. F.S.A.

WILLIAM J. THOMS, ESQ. F.S.A. Secretary.

THOMAS WRIGHT, ESQ. M.A., F.S.A.



1384924



INTRODUCTION.



FOR centuries the monastery of St. Alban was cele-
brated for its historians. Wendover, Paris, and Rish-
anger * were the principal writers who sustained its
reputation in the thirteenth century, and pursued their
labours under the shelter of its walls. Of the last we
know little, save that, on the death of Matthew Paris in
1259, he was appointed Historiographer -f" to King Henry

* Wendover is the alleged author of the history which goes under
the name of Matthew Paris as far as the year 1234. One copy only
of the chronicle so attributed is preserved, viz. in the Douce collec-
tion at Oxford, and will shortly be published under the editorial care
of the Rev. H. O. Coxe. Another copy was formerly in the Cotto-
nian library (Otho, B. v.), but it unfortunately was destroyed in the
fire. We shall afterwards enter more particularly into the subject
of the claim of Wendover. The history of Matthew Paris extended
to 1259, when it was taken up by Rishanger and continued to 1322.
These are termed the great chronicles of St. Alban, by au anonymous
writer, in MS. Cotton. Vitell. A. xx. fol. 77, r<>. who gives a short
abridgment from them.

f It is not, I believe, known when the office of Historiographer
Royal was first instituted in this country. Bale (iv. 94) quotes Pon-

CAMD. soc. 15. b



VI INTRODUCTION.

III. and probably continued in that office to the time of
his death.* Certain, however, it is, that on the 3rd of May
1312, Rishanger was sixty-two years of age, and had then
been a Benedictine f- monk of St. Alban's for forty-one
years ; and we learn this fact from the following memo-
randum in MS. Bib. Reg. 14 C. I. which is in his own
handwriting : J " Memorandum quod ego frater Willel-
mus de Rishanger cronigraphus, die Inventionis Sanctse
Crucis, anno gratise M.ccc.xij., qui est annus regis Ed-
wardi filii regis Edwardi quintus, habui in ordine xlj.
annos et in setate Ixij. annos." Bale had evidently seen
this note when he wrote his brief notice of Rishanger ;
and his assertion that the historian flourished in 131 2,
has been converted by Pits to died about 1312, and by

ticus Virunnius in an inquiry which bears on the custom of sovereigns
having their histories written for the benefit of posterity, and in such
a manner as to preclude the possibility of the authors being swayed
by the opinions of the reigning monarch. Cf. praef. ad Mat. Par.

* Vossius de Hist. Lat. p. 790. Cf. Bale, iv. 94, et Pits, 403.

f St. Alban's was a Benedictine monastery.

I A fac-simile of this curious note, together with a specimen from
the chronicle itself, will be found at the commencement of the volume.
See also Casley's Catalogue of the Royal Library, p. 230.

His words are, " Claruit anno a Christi Jesu natalitio 1312, annos
,-etatis habens 62, in monachatu vero 41, sub praedicto rege Edwardo
sccundo, in suo tandem coenobio sepultus." Edit. Basil. 1557, p. 377.



INTRODUCTION. Vll

Tanner that he died in 1312.* But as Walsingham, who
is not likely to have made an undue confession of his
plagiarism, expressly states, under the year 1322, that
the preceding portion of his chronicle is abridged from.
Rishanger, it is but fair to conclude that Rishanger' s con-
tinuation of Paris ended in that year ; -j~ and as there ap-
pears to be no alleged reason for an abrupt conclusion,
the probability is, taking his advanced age into considera-
tion, that he died in that year, or very shortly afterwards.
The following is a complete list of his writings, as far as
the MSS. which remain have enabled us to discover.^

1. OPUS CHRONICORUM. Cf. Bale, iv. 94 ; Pits, 403,
(458). This chronicle extends from 1261 to 1293, and

* This statement is followed by Newcome, in his History of St.
Alban's, p. 173, probably on the authority of Tanner, though not any
is cited.

f Walsingham seems to say that the chronicles of Rishanger were
at St. Alban's in his time : " Caetera qui voluerit videre plenius, in
chronicis Wilhelmi Risanger apud Sanctum Albanum latius poterit
reperire, ubi recordatum regis habetur de omnibus memoratis."
Edit. 1603, p. 116. It may be as well to observe that the MS.
Arund. Coll. Arm. N. 7, p. 121, reads plenius instead of latius,
which is the only variation from the printed edition that the MSS.
afford. Cf. MS. Bib. Reg. 13 E. IX. fol. 214, ro, a.

t I may observe that all these are mentioned by Bale, though with
several errors. His list is, as usual, copied by Pits ; and the mis-
takes of both are left uncorrected by Tanner.



INTRODUCTION.

was undertaken at the request of abbat John de Hertford.
A copy of it is preserved in MS. Cotton. Claud. D. vi. :
" Incipit liber cronicorum editus ad instantiam venerabi-
lis patris nostri domini Johannis, Dei gratia abbatis hujus
ecclesiae;" fol. 115, r, /3. He vouches for his veracity
in the following terms : " Quicquid vero de recentioribus
setatibus apposui, vel ipse vidi, vel a fidedignis viris audivi."
Pits* says, that he thought this work was in the library of
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge; but he has confounded
it with a copy of King Edward's letter to Pope Boniface.

2. ANNALES REGNI EDWARDI I. In MS. Bib. Reg.
14 C. I. fol. 4, v, a. 19, v, ; where it is entitled " Quse-
dam recapitulatio brevis de gestis domini Edwardi regis,
cum quibusdam aliis accidentibus in tempore suo." This
work was written after Edward's death " post obitum
domini Edwardi, illustris regis Anglise, recapitulando in
genere et compendiose concludendo, frater Willelmus de
Rissanger cronicator, de multis pauca tangendo, ad Dei
honorem et anima3 regiae recommendationem redigit in
scripturam ; " fol. 4, v, a. A particular mention of the
death of Prince Alfonso occurs, and a few verses on that
event. A brief life ,of the sanctified Louis is also intro-

* De Seriptoribus, 403 (458).



INTRODUCTION. IX

duced. Bale gives the title of this work with a different
incipit, " Anno domini M. ccc. vij. nonas Julii;" most
probably confounding it with the chronicle of John de
Trokelowe in MS. Claud. D. vi., which commences with
those words.* This MS. has been used by Stowe (MS.
Harl. 545, fol. 117), and is partly written by the same
scribe who has preserved the History of the Barons' Wars.

3. DE CONTROVERSIA HABITA SUPER ELECTIONEM

SCOTORUM REGIS. In MS. Cotton. Claud. D. vi. fol.
135, r, a. v, 0. This is a brief relation of Edward's
proceedings at Norham.

4. CONTINUATIO CHRONICORUM MATTKLEI PARISH.

This work, which has already been mentioned, contains
a chronicle of English affairs from A.D. 1259 to A.D.
1322.-f~ Unfortunately no perfect copy of it is known to
exist; but the following MSS. contain some portions :
(1.) MS. Bib. Bodl. 462, Bern. 2454 ; from 1259 to 1272,

* Trokelowe's chronicle is thus entitled in the MS. " Incipiunt
annales regis Edwardi filii Edwardi filii Henrici Tercii," fol. 192.
r, a ; and this may have misled Bale to consider the chronicle as
belonging to the time of Edward 1. To reconcile the dates, he has
printed the incipit a s follows : " Anno Domini M. ccc., vij. nonas
Julii." Cf. Tanner, p. 634.

f " Ad sua tempora." Vossius de Hist. p. 790. Brian Twyne,
with no reason, appears to doubt the authenticity of this work ; see
De antiquitate Acad. Oxon. apologia, p. 166.



X INTRODUCTION.

with Walsingham's continuation. (2.) MS. Bib. Reg. 14
C. vii ; from 1259 to 1272. (3 ) MS. Cotton. Faust. B.
IX.; from 1259 to 1306, are*. (4.) MS. Cotton. Claud.
E.m.fol. 306 331; from 1259 to 1297- (5.) MS.C.C.C.C.
N. 56; from 1259 to 1272. The earlier part to A.D.
1272. has been printed by Wats at the end of his edition
of Matthew Paris ; * and the remainder has partly found
its way into the pages of Walsingham's chronicle.

5. DE JURE REGIS ANGLORUM AD SCOTIAM. Rish-
anger, as historiographer royal, was employed to prepare
the historical authorities on this subject ; and his re-
searches were embodied in Edward's letter to Pope
Boniface, printed in the Fcedera, ii. 883.-}- The fabulous

* Tyrrell (Hist. ii. 1017) blames Rishanger for his incorrect dates,
but the blame attaches itself properly to his editor ; for in most MSS.
of this work the dates are correctly given.

f Numerous copies are in MS. It may be sufficient to refer to
MS. Bib. Reg. 14 C. I.; MS. C. C. C. C. 292 ; and MS. Cotton.
Nero, E. v; which last is thus entitled, " Origo et processus gentis
Scotorum, ac de dominio et superioritate quae ex antiquissimis tempo-
ribus et a primasvo habuerunt incliti reges Angliae super regnum illud ;
,ita quod ex eorum prerogativa illud sa3pius ipsorum fidelibus, prout
placuit, libere contulerunt." fol. 191, r<>, a. The place whence this
letter is dated is given " Kemeseye " in both editions of the Fcedera;
and Tyrrell is puzzled about this name (iii. 148) ; but perhaps it
should be " Rameseye," as in MS. Addit. 10,099, fol. 233, v<.
Toward the close of the year 1300, Edward sent writs to the abbats



INTRODUCTION. Xi

pages of Geoffry of Momnouth are here treated as matters
of real history, and quoted as authority. From a copy
of this letter, preserved in Corpus Christi College, Cam-
bridge, it would seem that Rishanger was assisted in his
task : " Willelmus Rishanger et alii colligunt quam plu-
rima regnum Scotise concernentia, et ejus subjectionem
regno Angliae," MS. C.C. C.C. 110, p. 131. It is, indeed,
known that materials were collected from various libra-
ries.* The following verses are added to the original
copy of this letter in MS. Bib. Reg. 14 C. I. fol. 4, r, 0.

" De ista materia cronigraphus metrice scribens breviter
sic ait.

" Edwardus, rex Anglire, Scotos expugnavit;
Eorum hostiliter vires enervavit ;.-
"Walliam et Scotiam sibi subjugavit ;
Willelmus Wales, dux Scotorum, latitavit.

" Tandem captus, vinculis strictis mancipatur,
Et ductus Londoniae, ibi judicatur ;

of several monasteries, " ut diligenter scrutarentur cronica sua, et
omnia gesta reges Anglorum et Scotorum tangentia." MS. Claud.
D. vi. fol. 179, ro, /3; cf. Nicolas's Synopsis, p. 783. In MS.
Claud. D. vi., are given the excerpta " de cronicis sancti Albani,"
which form a constituent part of the King's letter. The writ which
was sent to the abbat of St. Alban's is copied in the same MS. fol.
179, ro, a. Cf. MS. Cotton. Claud. A. xn. fol. 148, r<>.
* MS. Claud. D. vi. Cf. Tyrrell, iii. 142.



Xll INTRODUCTION.

Tractusque suspensus est, tandem decollator ; *
Qui primo risit, post haec merito lacrimatur !

" Tails in memoria rex sit sempiterna,
Qui rebelles subditos compulit aeterna
Sua mala plangere novaque moderna ;
In coelis anima requiescat pace superna ! "

6. DE BELLIS LEWES ET EVESHAM. In MS. Cotton.
Claudius, D. vi. This is the chronicle printed in the fol-
lowing pages, and treats of several other matters beside
these two conflicts. No other copy of it is known to
exist ; but the incipit given by Bale slightly varies from
the present, in having prava instead of incommendabilis,
and perhaps he may have seen another manuscript now
lost.

7. ANNALES REGNI SCOTIA. In MS. Cotton. Claud.
D. vi. -f- This is a curious work, treating principally of
the disputes relative to the Scottish crown in the reign
of Edward I., and of that monarch's invasion of Scot-

* It is stated by some that he was drawn, hanged, embowelled
while still alive, and quartered. This was the common punishment
of traitors at that time, although from the above it would seem that
in Wallace's case it was not so severe. See, however, Keightley's
History of England, vol. i. p. 488, where will be found some useful
and sensible observations on the execution of Wallace.

t Cf. MS. Bib. Reg. 14 C. I.



INTRODUCTION. Xlll

land. Incip. " Convenientibus apud Norham." Cf. Bale,
iv. 94.

The manuscripts to which I have so often alluded,
under the references Bibl. Reg. 14 C. I., and Bibl. Cotton.
Claud. D. vi., were formerly in the coenobium of St.
Alban's, and most probably contain the whole of Rish-
anger's minor writings ; at least no allusion appears to
be made to any work not contained in these volumes,
with the exception of his continuation of Matthew Paris.
In speaking of the MS. Bibl. Reg. 14 C. I., I would be
understood to refer only to the first nineteen leaves of the
volume, for the remaining portion has belonged to a
MS. of another date. It may be observed, then, of
these two manuscripts, that they are partly written
by the same scribe, that each has precisely the same
sized leaf,* and that traces of the same kind of vellunrf-
occur in both of them. I am inclined to believe,
taking the small extent of the former manuscript into

* Measuring 12^ inches by 8|.

f In MS. Bibl. Reg. 14 C. I., the first eleven leaves are ornamented
with three perpendicular bands of triple colours on each page. In
the other manuscript, we find ff. 196 and ff. 115 191, distinguished
in the same manner. Moreover, the remarkable biographical notice
of Rishanger, already copied in p. vi. has been evidently cut off from
the first page of the manuscript in Claud. D. vi. from which the
present work has been printed.

CAMD. SOC, 15. C



XIV INTRODUCTION.

consideration, that they were both originally in one
volume ; and, if so, how curious a fact is it that the frag-
ments should have again been accidentally brought under
the same roof! When or how these MSS. disappeared
from St. Alban's is not known, but it is probable that they
were not there in Leland's time, or they would perhaps
have been mentioned by him, and he notices the theft of
the autograph MS. of Matthew Paris's chronicle.*

The independent authorities which have been adduced
for the attributing the continuation of Matthew Paris to
Rishanger are few ; nor have I succeeded in adding many
to the number. The MS. Arund. Coll. Arm. N. 3. fol.
1 94, r, contains extracts, of the beginning of the fifteenth
century, from Rishanger's continuation, of the date of 2 1
Edw. I., 1293.-f But the large volume of St. Alban's
monastery in MS. Cotton. Claud. E. iv., contains the most
direct and important testimony ; after mentioning Wen-
dover and Paris, the writer says, " post Matheum, Will-
elmus Risangre, Henricus Blankfrount, Symon Bynham,
et Ricardus Savage cronica successive scripserunt." fol.
332, v, a, 0. The two last are now unknown as authors,

* Collectanea, vol. iii. p. 163.

f Joscelin (Catal. Hist. p. 289) mentions an imperfect copy of
Rishanger's work in the possession of the archbishop of Canterbury.
This MS. is probably in Corpus Christi College, N. 348.



INTRODUCTION. XV

but their names are important as filling the chasm in the
list of the Verulamian historians : most probably their
labours have been transferred to the pages of Walsing-
ham.* A short piece by Henry Blancford, or Blank-
frount, on the truce between Edward II. and Robert
Bruce in 1323, is preserved in MS. Claud. D. vi., and
has been printed by Hearne : and its date is an ad-
ditional argument that Rishanger did not continue his
chronicle beyond the year 1322, especially as Blanc-
ford is expressly mentioned as the immediate successor
to Rishanger in the line of the chroniclers. The en-
tire absence of Trokelowe's name in this list affords
ground for another doubt, whether he really were the
author of the chronicle in MS. Claud. D. vi. from A.D.
1307 to A.D. 1323, and whether Bale may not after all
be correct in assigning it to Rishanger. -f- It appears to
me that the probabilities are, on the whole, in favour of

* It is well known that there is very little original matter in the
large chronicle of Walsingham ; and as he has taken plentifully
from Rishanger, and as much as he could from Blancford, I think
that it is a fair conjecture that a share of the writings of the other two
may be preserved in the same compilation.

f It must be remarked too that Walsingham, Chron. p. 118, men-
tions the MS. chronicle of Blancford, while he does not notice
Trokelowe's chronicle at all.



XVI INTRODUCTION.

Rishanger being the author, at least of the earlier portion;
and the insertion of another name may be accounted for by
supposing that Rishanger was prevented by death from
completing his history of the year 1322 or 1323, and that
the remainder was then added by another monk. It is
very difficult, however, to decide positively in matters of
this nature ; for, even in the more important case of
authorship between Wendover and Paris, the share which
the former possesses in the composition of the ff magna
chronica " is by no means clearly decided. As this ques-
tion is vitally important in the formation of a correct
list of the St. Alban's chroniclers, in which our author
shines conspicuously, it cannot be considered irrelevant
for me to introduce a few observations on the subject in
this place.*

The most authentic account of Wendover' s work is
preserved in the St. Alban's MS. above quoted : " In

* The author of a MS. note in the copy of Paris's history, MS.
Cotton. Nero, D. v. fol. 1, r, was probably the earliest writer who
started the conjecture of that chronicler's plagiarism. Hanbury, who
compiled a catalogue of the Cottonian library in 1706, adds the fol-
lowing note to the account of the MS. of Wendover, " Transcripsit
fere totum Mattheus Paris, nonnulla tamen addens, a morte Eduardi
Confessoris incipiens." MS. Sloan. 4996, p. 73, a. Hanbury says
that the MS. contained ff. 465.



INTRODUCTION. XV11

nostro monasterio floruit Rogerus de Wendovere, nos-
ter monachus, cui pene debent totius regni cronographi
quicquid habent: nam plane et perlucide ab initio
mundi per annorum distinctiones digessit cronica sua
usque ad tempora regis Henrici a conquestu secundi.
Ex post Matheus Parisiensis claruit, qui Roger! prsedicti
cronicas necessarie ampliavit." MS. Claud. E. iv. fol. 332,
v, a. This is sufficiently explicit; and in the only manu-
script of Wendover now extant, MS. Douce, 207,* there
is a marginal note stating that at the year 1 1 90 a new
chronicler continued the work. The probability then is
that, after the account of the reign of Henry II., little or
nothing of the work of Matthew Paris can be ascribed to

* In MS. Sloan. 1301, fol. 177184, are some excerpta " ex
cronico Rogeri Wendover quern doctor Matheus Carew tenuit, mense
Martii 1585." That Carew's MS. was the same which is now in the
Douce collection, there can scarcely be any reasonable doubt, for the
transcriber, at fol, 181, v<>, in copying the two lines of poetry which
occur at the end of the chronicle, not understanding the word
" tenuit" as written in the manuscript, has made a kind of fac-simile
of the MS. contraction ; and this corresponds with that in the Douce
manuscript. The Cottonian MS. was purchased of" Mr. Vincent,"
as we learn from the original catalogue of the library made in 1621,
MS. Harl. 6018, where it is placed under the number 165. Tanner
mentions a copy of Wendover formerly belonging to Sir Christopher
Heydon. Wendover died on 6th May 1236. See also MS. Bib.
Bodl. Collect. James, 28, fol. 121 ; and MS. Laud, 572.



XV111 INTRODUCTION.

Wendover. An assertion of Paris himself, whose veracity is
unquestionable, inserted in the relation of the events of
the year 1213, appears conclusive, " audiente Matthaeo,
qui et haec scripsit et enarravit." Edit. Wats, p. 245.
The single colophon at the end of the Douce MS. is not,
I think, to be placed in competition, as an authority, with
the express assertion of the writer of the MS. above
quoted ; who, as a monk of St. Alban's, must have had
great facilities for obtaining correct information, and
appears to have taken pains to render his work accu-
rate. It seems to me that the difficulty consists in
ascertaining how little Paris was really indebted to
Wendover. That he was indebted for some of his materials
is certain : but the concurrent testimony of all the writers
of the monastery which owned them both, tends to exhibit
the latter writer in the light of a very inferior auxiliary.*

* We should naturally look to Joscelin for some notice of Wen-
dover, " Rogeri Windori chronicon mentionem facit catalogus qui-
dam vetustissimus." Catal. Hist. p. 286. Whatever his chronicle
was, it had no doubt been considered quite superseded by Paris, and
the utmost stretch of probability will not permit us to conjecture that,
if the latter had been a plagiarist to any great extent, it would have
been left unnoticed by his contemporaries. Paris is called " incom-
parabilis cronographus, et pictor peroptimus," MS. Cotton. Nero,
D. vn. fol. 50, v, and all the writers of the monastery speak of him
as the first historian of that age.



INTRODUCTION. XIX

Let us now enter upon the more immediate subject
of this Introduction, the wars between Henry the Third
and the turbulent Barons. It is unnecessary to treat at
length of the history of this period, because works are
very easily accessible which will give all the leading facts
to any reader who may require them. In the words,
then, of my excellent old author, " qualicunque stilo
pauca de multis intimare curabo ;* " and I hope that no
one will expect a philosophizing spirit to pervade a work,
intended merely to furnish the details of the events of so
short a space of time.

With a single exception, the chronicle now presented
to the reader is the only one which, treats exclusively of
the above-mentioned period. The exception to which I
allude is preserved in MS. Cotton. Otho, D. vm. if. 214-
228,-f- which contains a succinct but very curious and
valuable contemporary history of the Barons' wars, in
prose and verse. This MS. formerly belonged to the
monastery of Ramsey, and is one of those which suffered

* Chronicon, p. 2.

f This MS. is for the most part written in double columns. I may
here remark that, in distinguishing the different sides of the same
leaf of a foliated manuscript, I use the continental notation, r, and
v ; but in distinguishing the different columns of the same page, I
have ventured to introduce the Greek letters, a, ft, y, &c. The ad-
vantage and neatness of this plan will be at once perceived, for it will
prevent the possibility of mistaking the attributes of a column with
the sides of a leaf as denoted by the old method.



XX INTRODUCTION.

in the lamentable fire to which the Cottonian library was
exposed in 1731. The accident, however, has not much
affected the writing of the manuscript ; and, in the part
to which we are now referring, there are scarcely a
dozen lines wanting, nor has it suffered so much as
to be difficult to decypher.* Yet the MS. is described
in Planta's Catalogue -f- as " the remains of a MS. on
vellum, in small folio, which once consisted of 267
leaves, now burnt to a crust, and preserved in a case :
it contains the lives of many saints, several histori-
cal tracts, chronicles, Sec." This was not a very inviting
description, and had I not been induced by Dr. Smith's
description of the manuscript, when in its perfect state,^
to have examined the " crust," I should have overlooked
the most valuable and singular materials for illustrating
Rishanger's chronicle, that are any where known to exist.
The author of this curious fragment was a monk of

* Casley's Appendix to the Cottonian Catalogue, p. 315. He
calls this MS. a " burnt lump." The leaves were separated and
made available to readers about sixteen years ago, but no notice of


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