William Rishanger.

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f Rotuli Selecti, &c. praef. p. xxxi.


motives thus, but rather, as Sir James Mackintosh ex-
presses it, to " the unmanly insolence of a feeble mind
intoxicated by undeserved success." Would any regard
to his own power, for it could not have been a care for
the safety of his people, have justified his treatment of
his own sister, even although she were the wife of his
unhappy adversary? For surely the banishment* from
the country of so near a relation, who had herself
been guiltless of any wrong towards him, was cruel and
unnecessary. Yet this was the sovereign whose out-
ward piety and devotion to the interests of religion-}-
were so remarkable! The murder of Prince Henry may
almost be considered a mark of retributive justice.^

* Cf. Chron. Petroburg. MS. Cotton. Claud. A. v. fol. 34, v, a.

J- " Hie fuit devotus Deo et ecclesiae, et novum opus Westmonas-
terii inter alia sua facta laudabilia construxit." MS. Arundel. 310,
fol. 218, v. Cf. Hentzner's Travels, p. 255; MS. Cart. Antiq. xv. 7,
memb. 7, fr. ; MS. Harl. 3860, fol. 13, r, /3; MS. Cotton. Otho, D.
vni. fol. 214, v, (3.

J Tbis prince was murdered in the church of St. Sylvester at
Viterbo in 1271, by Guy and Simon, two sons of Simon de Montfort,
in revenge for the indignant treatment of the body of their father.
Gregory X. issued bulls against the murderers on the application of
Edward I. The original bull against Simon de Montfort is preserved
in the archives of the cathedral of Orvieto. (Proceedings of the
Royal Society of Literature, p. 17.) The original bull against Guy
de Montfort is in the library of the Vatican, and is copied in the

CAMD. soc. 15. /


Nearly all our contemporary historians are partizans*
of the Earl of Leicester, and, when we consider that
among these are numbered the elite of English literature at
that period, this fact in his favour must not be passed
over without notice. Another more remarkable circum-
stance is not so generally known, viz. that Montfort dur-
ing a long period sustained a literary correspondence
with Adam de Marisco, one of the most distinguished
scholars of the time. The truth of this fact does not
depend upon the statements of our chroniclers, or upon
any individual allusions, but we actually possess a copyf-
of letters from Adam de Marisco addressed to Leicester,
although we donotappear to have any of Montfort' s answers
in a continued series. The letters that remain to us, how-
ever, are replete with curious and valuable notices of thehis-

MS. Bibliotheca Vaticana in the State Paper Office ; other copies
are in MS. Lansd. 397, and MS. Lambeth. 499. See also Excerpta
Historica, p. 267 ; Devon's Issues of the Exchequer, p. 83 ; Abbre-
viatio Placitorum, p. 264.

* Rishanger is so in all his writings, and it is difficult to reconcile
the knowledge of this fact with Bale's title of Historiographus

f MS. Cotton. Vitell. C. vm. See the New General Biographi-
cal Dictionary, vol. i. p. 89. There are also some letters to Grosteste,
the Queen, the Countess of Leicester, and others. Cf. MS. Digb.
103; MS. Collect. James, 4, p. 65 ; Lelandi Collectanea.


tory of the period to which the following chronicle relates ;
but I have purposely avoided any more distinct allusion
to them because they will ere long be printed entire.
Rishanger, in his continuation of Matthew Paris, and in
our chronicle, expressly bestows on Montfort the praise
of literature, in a passage the truth of which has
been doubted by one of our most eminent historians,*
and the above statement proves beyond a doubt that our
historiographer has advanced nothing more than the
truth. To me this confirmation of Rishanger greatly in-
creases the validity of his other remarkable relations,
while every one must allow the probabilities are strength-
ened for allowing Leicester a more extensive foresight
than has generally been ascribed to him in his agitations.
If it were true that he paid court to the lower orders to
gain allies against the nobility, as one ancient chronicler,^
and several modern historians, have surmised, it would only
more clearly prove that his ambition was guided by
sagacity; that he saw the part of society which was
growing in strength, and with which a provident
government ought to seek an alliance ; that, amidst the
noise and confusion of popular complaint, he had learned

* See p. 6 of our Chronicle, and notes.
f Thomas Wykes, p. 66.


the art of decyphering its often wayward language, and of
discriminating the clamour of a moment from demands
rooted in the nature and circumstances of society.* We
might not perhaps be far wrong in ascribing his enlarge-
ment of the basis of our legislature to a similar origin,
although those who were among the foremost to support
the innovation when its fitness to the state of society
became apparent, were not willing to attribute it to
such a cause. His was not a contest for the equalization
of property, made by one who had nothing to lose, in the
hope of being bettered by a revolution ; nor was it that
senseless spirit of opposition to authority, merely because
it is authority, which sometimes arises after a long con-
tinued peace ; -j~ but it was a contest for freedom, for
justice, and for natural and reasonable rights.

This Introduction has already exceeded the usual limits,
otherwise I should have been induced to have attempted
a biographical memoir of the Earl of Leicester. This task,
however, has been well executed by the Rev. Sambrook

* Mackintosh's History of England, vol. i. p. 246.

f " From hence the commons, to whom days present seem ever
worst, commend the foregone ages they never rememhered, and con-
demn the present, though they knew neither the disease thereof, nor
the remedie." Cotton's View of the Life and Reign of Henry the
Third, p. 3.


Nicholas Russell, in Nichols's History of Leicestershire.
More, however, yet remains to be done, and a critical
history of Montfort's eventful life is a desideratum in our

The historical illustrations to Rishanger's Chronicle
which appear with the notes at the end of this volume
are selected from inedited manuscripts and records pre-

* Rishanger (p. 7) relates a curious anecdote of Grosteste's pro-
phecy of the fate of Montfort's eldest son. All his children, as far
as history has left us any account, were unfortunate in after life.
He had five sons and one daughter; " Icist Symon qui iert en
Engleterre, fu conte de Lincestre, et ont espousee le suer Henri roy
d'Engleterre, de la quele il ont v. filz Henri, Symon, Richart,
Gui, et Amauri, et une fille." Croniques d'Angleterre, MS. Bib.
Reg. 16 G. vi. fol. 425, vo, ft. Duchesne (Hist. Norman. Script, p.
1092) has given a pedigree of the Montfort family, and Nichols has
given another in his History of Leicestershire, vol. i. p. 212. (See
also Langley's Desborough Hundred, Lysons's Buckinghamshire
under Hitchenden, and Stothard's Monumental Effigies, for the
family descended from Richard Wellysbourne de Montfort, said to
have been the Earl's youngest son.) It appears to be uncertain
when Montfort was made Earl of Leicester, but one chronicle gives
the precise day, viz. Feb. 2nd, 1240. Chron. Hagneb. MS. Cotton.
Vespas. B. xi. fol. 22, r. I am inclined to believe that the year
here given is incorrect, although perhaps the day may be right. The
Annals of Dunstaple assert that his creation took place in 1231, and
Mr. Russell (in Nichols's Leicestershire) shows that he was Earl in
18 Hen. III. Particulars relative to the family may be found in
MS. Lansd. 229, and MS. Bib. Publ. Cantab. Gg. 11. 20.


served in the libraries of Oxford, Cambridge,, the British
Museum, the College of Arms, the Tower of London,
Lambeth Palace, and Paris. I have not attempted to
illustrate the Miracles of Montfort in the same manner,
because the mere incidental allusion to names is scarcely
a sufficient reason for continuous commentary.


35, Alfred Place, London.
Oct. 20th, 1840.




Incipiunt Cronica fratris Wlllelmi de Rishanger.

Q.UAMPLURIMOBUM incommendabilis inolevit consuetude, qui p l. 97,
scripta cronicalia parvipendunt, libros historiales ac gesta prin- r > a -
cipum contempnunt, eisque vacantibus derisiones inferendo, frivola
et falsitates computant universa ; quibus expedit admonition! salu-
berrimae non impudenter aures inclinare, ut vituperation! suae
modum curent imponere, ne si forsitan nimis immoderate simpli-
citatem aliorum vituperent, propriae fragilitatis immemores in dero-
gationis culpa capiantur ; prsesertim cum ad multorum notitiam a
viris sanctis et catholicis hujusmodi diligenter edita conspicimus.
Cui quidem admonitioni si quis adquiescere recusat, quanta repre-
hensione dignus sit, audiat quod scriptum est ! Quicquid salubrius
est, quicquid te magis commendat Deo, et ad majorem devotionem
excitat ; id meditare, id excerce, id ewequi studeas semper et um-
plecti. Cum beata meditatio, quam sequitur fructuosa cordis con-
tritio, mentis oculum in supernee contemplationis lumine infigens ;
quod utique plerumque contingit, cum ad memoriam reducitur,
quam momentanea vanitate preeterit nobilitas et potentia omni-
moda mortalium : fit enim nonnunquam, ut, ex preecedentium re-

CAMD. SOC. 15. B


cordatione, ad amorem coelestis patriae legentis animus accenditur.
Quia igitur nostri quidam contemporanei, circa rerum praeteritarum
indagationem plerumque incumbentes, et fortiores in angustiis
efficiuntur, qui considerant antiques patres, tanquam aurura igne
examinatum, variis persecutionibus probates, ad supernam jocun-
Foi. 97, ditatem feliciter migrasse ; credentes successores nostros pari occu-
r b< patione medio tempore detineri, quod mirabiles et amaros eventus,
quos ad flagellum gentis Anglicanse, peccatis populi promerentibus,
permisitDeusexcitarinostris temporibus,litterisduximus commen-
dare ; quatinus considerantes nos una cum adversis simul et pros-
peris velud umbram decessisse, mala, quae ante seculi consumma-
tionem euvangelico promisso supervenient universe orbi, non solum
minus formidant, verum etiam gaudenter toleranda, Dei patien-
tia protecti, alacriter exurgant ; quia Multce tribulationes justorum,
et de omnibus hits liberabit eos Dominus ; et auctoritas, Absit ne
fidelis quisque, qui Deum videre desiderat, de mundi percussioni-
bus lugeat ; qui eisdem suis percussionibus finire non iynorat. Ut
igitur materiam cronizandi sagaciori linguae relinquam, hujusmodi
opus arripere volenti, inceptis finem citius imponens, qualicumque
stilo pauca de multis intimare curabo.

De bello de Lewes.

Anno siquidem gratiee M.cc.lxiij , regnante rege Angliae H.
Tertio, regni ejusdem anno xlviijo, perurgente cruentissima dissen-
sione inter eundem regem et barones suos, retroactis temporibus
exortis, occasione provisionum Oxon. quondam statutarum, inter
csetera quee in scriptis inseruntur adversa, formidolosas tribulationis
incommodo prascipue laborabat terra Anglicana. Convenientibus
autem aliquando Oxon. comitibus, baronibus^ et totius regni
magnatibus universis, praesente rege, providentur statuta ad exal-
tationem ecclesiae et utilitatem regni, secundum assertionem mul-


torum, dummodo firmiter et inviolabiliter ab universis et singulis
observarentur. Sed prsevalente postmodum omnis iniquitatis auc- Foi. 97,
tore, secuta est subversio terree, concussio et angustia, nostris tern- y a *
poribus inaudita. Constitutions siquidem ibidem provisse scriptis
inseruntur; etsi nonnullis invitis, signis singulorum signantur :
prsestito corporali sacramento, tarn a domino rege et Edwardo
filio ejus primogenito, quam a magnatibus omnibus et proceribus,
lit perpetuse firmitatis robur optinerent ; decretum est, ut, si quis
contra hsec attemptare praesumeret, publicus hostis et inimicus
mortalis haberetur, et in ipsum hostiliter insurgeretur. Quarum
quidem constitution um unica haec est, de qua turbatio assumpsisse
dicitur exordium. Regno quoque in multis multipliciter defor-
mato et pro defectu veri regiminis vacillante, de communi consilio
eliguntur xij. viri sapientes ex parte regis, et totidem ex parte com-
munitatis, ut decernerent, statuerent, et ordinarent super meliora-
tione et reformatione regni Angliee, prout eis melius expediendum
videretur; promittentes ipse dominus rex et Edwardus, et proceres
universi propriis juramentis, sicut dictum est, firmantes, et omni-
modam securitatem promittentes, ut quicquid per preedictos xxiiij.
ordinatum existeret, inviolabiliter observaretur.

De Pictavensium dominatione in Anglia, et eorundem excessibus.

Floruerunt autem illis diebus Eymerus Wyntoniensis electus,
Willelmus de Valencia, fratres domini regis, Petrus de Sabaudia
dominae reginse avunculus, et alienigenae quamplures, dicti regis
consiliarii, pree omnibus indigenis et naturalibus regni, secre-
tiores ac specialiores ; quorum tanta crevit dominatio, quod tarn
religiosos quam seculares multipliciter opprimentes, et ultra modum v ' b 9/ '
indigenas terree vilipendentes, non inveniretur qui contra eos quic-
quam juris remedii, exigente necessitate, preesumeret exercere.
Nam cum, mellitis et mollitis adulationibus, animum regis pro sue
libito voluntatis a rationis tramite declinassent, tanta elati sunt


jactantia, quodjiec superiorem sibi intelligerent, nee parem sibi
fore reputarent, pro judicio rationis motum animi sequentes impe-
tuosum. Verum quia plerumque delictum inferioris vertitur in
contumeliam et opprobrium superioris, eorum austeritas senes-
callis et ballivis eorumdem, qui potius prsedones dicebantur, non
immerito multociens imputabatur. Quorum excessus intolera-
biles quia longum esset dinumerare, unum tamen incomparabilem,
ut per unum alii intelligantur, huic paginse duximus annotandum.
Contigit quodam tempore, quod juvenis quidam transitum faciens
per quendam viculum qui Trumpetori dicitur, cum eum oblatraret
quidam canis, ut ipsum compesceret lapidem ad ipsum incaute
jactavit ; qui lapis, ex obliquo resiliens, gallinam unam cujusdam
mulierculae casu interfecit: quod ipsa exiliens vidit, et, clamore
querulo elevato, multos vicinorum congregavit. Juvenis autem
hsec humiliter casu contigisse cum juramento obtestans, pro gal-
lina valorem optulit, et in duplo amplius, atque pro injuria et
offensa quod rationabiliter vellet postulare : mulier hsec omnia re-
cusavit, incumbens ultioni. Quidam autem serviens W. de Valen-
cia, fratris domini Regis uterini, procax, et ex tan to domino cornua
sibi assumens, insontem arripuit servientem qui gallinam occi-
Fol. 98, derat, et artissimis vinculis constrictum misit in carcerem intole-
r a> rabilem; et ibi infra paucos dies, artatus supra modum, expiravit,
et projectus super sterquilinium, in cimiterio postmodum factis
exequiis tumulatur. Contigit ut post triduum iliac transiret W. de
Busseya, preefati W. de Valencia senescallus; et audiens quee
facta fuerant, jussit extrahi corpus a tumulo fcetens et quatridua-
num, et jussit illud suspendi patibulo ; et hsec omnia sine judicio
facta suiit, quas, etsi judicialiter processissent, inaudita crudelitas
denotari potuissent. Si quisinsuper, querulus etinjuriam passus,
ad ipsius W. prsesentiam accessisset, justitiam petiturus super
injuriis sibi illatis, tale fertur accepisse responsum : " Si ego
tibi injuriam facio, quis tibi rectum faciet? dominus rex vult


quicquid domirms meus vult ; sed dominus meus nonvult
quicquid dominus rex vult, vel imperat." Et sic nee regi nee
alicui magnatum, immo nee alicui de populo, reverentiam vel justi-
tiam dignabatur exhibere. Quid plura? tarn graves erant eorum
excessus et cornuta superbia, quod nee sub ipsis minores vivere
poterant, nee cum ipsis pares conversari : dumque sic concul-
catur populus, et opprimitur, facta est in pace amaritudo amaris-

De Romanorum elationibus.

Dominabantur etiam sub diebus eisdem in Anglia Romani, et
eorum legati; multimoda gravamina, tarn laicis et magnatibus, super
advocationibus ecclesiarum, et elemosinis ab eis et eorum succes-
soribus in usus pauperum regni et sustentationem religiosorum
pie datis, quam clericis et viris religiosis, super beneficiis suis, infe-
rendo; in quosdam etiam episcopos et alios ecclesiarum prselatos, ad
quos beneficiorum praesentationes spectabant, sententias excom- r , b.
municationis fulminando, ne ssepe alicui de regno benencium con-
ferrent, donee, quibusdam Romanis in Anglia venientibus, in com-
petent! beneficio singulis provisum esset; a clericis etiam regni
beneficia, pacifica possessione optenta, auferre volentes, ut ea, non
sicut decuit, sed sicut eis placuit, Romanis conferrent, et auctori-
tate Romana sibi vendicarent, in prsejudicium Anglicorum et grava-
men intolerable, indigenas spoliando, et alienigenas ditando. Unde
dolorem dolori accumulando, melius videbatur omnibus mori, quam
vivere tantis angustiis oppressi.

Proponunt magnates terrce alienigenarum audaciam humiliare, et

propositum suum viriliter exequuntur.

Temporibus illis, ad relevationem gentium, surrexerunt in An-
glia duo viri nobiles et periti atque potentes, Syinon de Monte-


forti, comes Leycestrias, et Nicholaus filius Johannis, prae cunctis
alienigenis discretionis dono praeeminentes, et Ricardus comes
Gloucestriee, vir potens et opulentus. Multi etiam magnates
alii, eximiae probitatis et consilii, omnes cum consilio praefati
comitis Leicestriee tanquam capitanei sui constantissimi prae-
bentes assensum, et votis uberrimis inclinantes ; donee inimico
superseminante zizania, patefacta est via corruptionis, sicut pate-
bit in sequentibus. Sed, quia de ipso comite nostrae narra-
tionis materia sumit initium, quibus extiterit virtutibus redimitus
declaramus. Erat siquidem vir magnificus, prudens, et circum-
spectus ; armorum usu et rei militaris experientia, omnibus in suo
Fol. 98, tempore anteponendus; litteraturae scientia commendabiliter prse-
v ' a ' ditus; officiorum ecclesiasticorum die noctuque avidus auditor; in
cibo et potu parcus, ut oculata fide noverant eidem assistentes ; in
temporibus nocturnis plus vigiliis indulgens quam sopori, secre-
tioribus suis frequenter hoc referentibus ; in summis necessitatibus,
quas pro regni negociis pertulit, securus, et praecipue in Wasconia,
cum illuc de consilio regis extitisset, indomitos et rebelles regiae
celsitudini subjugates, in Angliam ad regem dominum suum desti-
navit. Erat siquidem jocundi facetique sermonis, atque mirandae
fidelitatis assecutus beneficium ; propter quod mortem subire non
abhorruit, sicut infra dicetur. Constantiam ipsius omnes, etiam
adversarii ejus, mirabantur: caeteris juramenta praestantibus,plures,
ut provisiones Oxon. servarent, et spreto juramento recalcitrarunt;
set semel juratus, sicut columpna immobilis, perseveranter stetit,
nee minis, promissionibus, donis, aut adulationibus flecti potuit,
ut a juramento cum caeteris magnatibus, ad reformation em status
regni praestito, quoquo modo resiliret. Virorum religiosorum se
commendavit orationibus ; humiliter, ut fraternali specialitate eis-
dem associari supplicavit, etiam ut pro statu regni et pace ecclesiae
preces ad Deum effunderent ; eratque deprecatio ipsius assidua, ut


ab avaritia et cupiditate terrenarum rerum divina gratia ipsum ser-
varet immaculatum, pro certo sciens multos hujusmodi vitio diebus
illis illaqueari, sicut postea rei eventus probavit. Viris religiosis et
aliis ecclesiarum prselatis, quos honestas vitse commendabat, omni-
modam exhibebat reverentiam ; merito perfect! magistri perfectus
discipulus ; informatus disciplina, quia preecordialiter adheerens Fol. 98,
beato Roberto quondam Line, episcopo, eique suos parvulos v '
tradens nutriendos, multa per ipsius consilia salubria tractabat.
Qui quidem episcopus dicitur injunxisse comiti eidem, in remis-
sionem peccatorum suorum, ut causam illam, pro qua usque ad
mortem dimicavit, assumeret ; asserens pacem ecclesiee Anglicanee
sine gladio material! nunquam firmaii, et constanter affirmans
omnes in ea et pro ea morientes martirio coronari. Dicitur a
fidedignis, quod antistes, aliquando manum ponens super capud
primogeniti comitis ejusdem, dixit ei : " O fili carissime ! et tu et
pater tuus ambo moriemini uno die, unoque die et morbo, pro
justitia." Tamen qualis ipsius antistitis vita extiterit, satis decla-
rant ad tumbam ejus miracula divinitus ostensa. Comes iste, sicut
alter Josias, coluit justitiam, tanquam animae suae medicinam.
Comites, barones, et multi nobiles regni, ad ipsum corda conver-
tentes, intolerabilibus miseriis compatientes, et considerantes rem
publicam undique parere discrimini, licet durum foret contra sti-
mulum calcitrare, (turn quia, Romanorum extollentiam humiliando,
curiam Romanam offenderent, turn quia regni statum et consuetu-
dinesmeliorando,et fratrum regis elatacornua constringendo,regiam
indignationem in se ipsos provocarent ;) tamen in arta necessitate
positi, manifestis indiciis attendentes, statum suum in pejorem
devenire conditionem, nisi malignantium insidiis efficaciter obvia-
retur, de communi consilio sanxerunt elatorum oppressionibus
resistendo remedia convenientia procurare, et colla sua de sub jugo
tantse servitutis excutere.

Eiciuntur Pictavenses ab Anglia, sine aliquo congressu ftostili.
Per istorum igitur industriam, videlicet comitis Leycestrise, R.
Fol. 99, comitis Gloucestriae, Johannis filii Gaufridi, qui principales
*"' a ' auctores constitutionum extiterunt, ut asseritur, vocatis caeteris
magnatibus, ut praedictum est, convenit tanta militia cum equis et
armis apud Oxoniam, qualis antea nulla visa est, a tempore quo non
extat memoria ; ubi, communicate consilio, inter caeteras provi-
siones statuerunt, ut dictos fratres vocarent, et per regem vocari
facerent, ut sisterent judicio suis querelantibus responsuri, et
secundum regni jura facturi ; atque ut juramentum, quod natu-
rales barones terras fecerant, corporaliter praestarent, vel, si magis
expediens crederent, de regno omnes exirent. Quod utique om-
nium baronum fixum erat propositum, ut eos tanquam pacis per-
turbatores, cum suis fautoribus et complicibus alienigenis, ab
Anglia expellerent, et sic compendiosius de negociis regni tractarent
et disponerent. Nee mora ; cum dicti fratres, qui similiter in manu
valida ibidem convenerant, admodum mente consternati prae
timore tantae multitudinis cui resistere erat impossibile, culpis
suis exigentibus, subire judicium formidantes, per aliquos forte de
secretioribus regis de totali proposito baronum praemuniti, iter ver-
sus Winton. sub ipso noctis silentio festinanter arripuerunt, et
mortis discrimma pertimescentes, in castrum de Wlvesheia sese
receperunt. Quo comperto, barones sine morae dispendio viriliter
eos persequentes, castrum incontinenti reddere et resingnare, et
cum omni celeritate terram evacuare, compulerunt. Quibus de
castro egressis, Eymerus Wintoniensis electus, vir utique prae-
clarae sanctitatis, licet ab Anglicis tanquam alienigena contemptus,
lacrimando conversus ad fratres suos, similiter prae confusione
lacrimarum inundatione perfusos, ait : " O fratres dilectissimi, et
praecordiales amici ! merito hsec patimur, quia peccavimus in popu-


him regni, videntes angustias eorum ; dum deprecarentur nos, et
non audivimus, variis obpressionibus eos aflligendo, pietatis vis- Fol. 99,
cera eis aperire recusavimus ; juste venit super nos tribulatio ! r ' b -
Verumtamen, quae in nostrara redundant contumeliam et obpro-
brium, senescallis et balivis nostris merito possumus imputare.
Nunc ergo delictis nostris exigentibus, inmunes exilium subire quid
trepidamus? quid deferimus?" Quo dicto, deposuerit " Eamus ! "
Hsec et hiis similia qui prsesentes aderant audientes, etiam eorum
adversarii, a lacrimarum effusione non poterant se continere. Illis
igitur abeuntibus, ducem prsestabat comes de Aubemara, ut illaesi
ab hostibus redderentur; pervenientesque ad portum obtato
navigio transfretaverunt.

Mittuntur legati a parte communitatis ad curiam Romanam, contra

electum Winton.

Magnates igitur, formidantes ne eleetus Winton. Romam pro-
peraret, et infinita promissa papse et cardinalibus pecuniam sua,
procuraret consecrationem, ut sic efficacior esset ad nocendum,
elegerunt iiij.milites peritos et facundos et fidedingnos, qui episto-

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Online LibraryWilliam RishangerThe chronicle of William de Rishanger, of the barons' war, the miracles of Simon de Montfort → online text (page 3 of 15)