William Russell.

Pulpit elocution: Comprising remarks on the effect of manner in public discourse; the elements of elocution, applied to the reading of the scriptures, hymns, and sermons; with observations on the prin online

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Online LibraryWilliam RussellPulpit elocution: Comprising remarks on the effect of manner in public discourse; the elements of elocution, applied to the reading of the scriptures, hymns, and sermons; with observations on the prin → online text (page 19 of 32)
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its consciousness forever. And shall not the Christian
blush to repine ? the Christian from before whom the veil
is removed ? to whose eyes are revealed the glories of
heaven ?

" Your indulgent Ruler doth not call you to run in vain,
or to labor in vain. — Every difficulty, and every trial,
that occurs in your path, is a fresh opportunity presented
by liis kindness, of improving the happiness after which
he hath taught you to aspire. By every hardship which
you sustain in the ^vilderness, you secure an additional
portion of the promised land. What though the combat
be severe ? A kingdom, an everlasting kingdom is the
prize of victory. Look forward to the triumph which
awaits you, and your courage will revive. — Fight the
good fight, finish your course, keep the faith : there is laid
up for you a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the
righteous Judge, shall give unto you at that day. What



io'i PULPIT ELOCUTION.

though, in the navigation of life, you have sometimes to
encounter the war of elements? What though the
winds rage, though the waters roar, and danger threatens
around? Behold, at a distance, the mountains appear. —
Your friends are impatient for your arrival; already the
feast is prepared ; and the rage of the storm shall serve
only to waft you sooner to the haven of rest. — No tem-
pests assail those blissful regions which approach to view,
— all is peaceful and serene; — there you shall enjoy
eternal comfort; and the recollection of the hardships
which 3^ou now encounter, shall heighten the felicity of
better days."

Joy.

The Happiness of those who have extended Human Knowledge. —
Brougham.

" The more widely knowledge is spread, the more \v\\\
they be prized whose happy lot it is to extend its bounds
by discovering new truths, or multiply its uses by invent-
ing new modes of applying it in practice. Their numbers
will, indeed, be increased. But the order of discoverers
and inventors will still be a select few ; and the only ma-
terial variation in their proportion to the bulk of mankind,
will be, that the mass of the ignorant multitude being
progressively diminished, the body of those will be incal-
culably increased, who are worthy to admire genius, and
able to bestow upon its possessors an immortal fame.

" And if the benefactors of mankind, when they rest
from their pious labors, shall be permitted to enjoy here-
after, as an appropriate reward of their virtue, the privi-
lege of looking down upon the blessings with which their
toils and sufferings have clothed the scene of their former
existence ; do not vainly imagine that, in a state of ex-
alted purity and wisdom, the founders of mighty dynas-
ties, the conquerors of new empires, or the more vulgar
crowd of evil-doers, who have sacrificed to their own ag-
grandizement the good of their fellow-creatures, will be



ELEMENTARY EXERCISES. "MOVEMENT." '^'43

gratified by contemplating the monuments of their inglo-
rious fame : theirs will be the delight, — theirs the tii-
umph, — who can trace the remote effects of their en-
lightened benevolence in the improved condition of their
species, and exult in the reflection, that the prodigious
changes they now survey, — with eyes that age and sor-
row can make dim no more, — of knowledge become
power, virtue sharing in the dominion, superstition tram-
pled under foot, tyranny driven from the world, — are the
fruits, — precious though costly, and though late reaped,
jret long enduring, — of all the hardships and all the haz-
ards they encountered here below!"



Vi\dd Personification.
Happiness. — Colton.

" She is deceitful as the calm that precedes the hurri-
cane, smooth as the water on the verge of the cataract,
and beautiful as the rainbow, that smiling daughter of the
storm ; but, hke the mirage in the desert, she tantalizes
us A\'ith a delusion that distance creates, and that contigu-
ity destroys. Yet, when unsought, she is often found,
and when unexpected, often obtained ; while those who
seek for her the most diligently, fail the most, because
they seek her where she is not. Anthony sought her in
love; Brutus, in gloiy; Caesar, in dominion; — the first
found disgrace, the second disgust, the last ingratitude,
and each destruction. To some she is more kind, but not
less cruel ; she hands the:Ti her cup ; and they drink even
to Stupefaction, until they doubt whether they are men,
wit!i Philip, or di*eam that they are gods, with Alexander.
On some she smiles, as on Napoleon, with an aspect
more bewitching than an Italian sun ; but it is only to
make her frown the more terrible, and by one short caress
to embitter the pangs of separation. Yet is she, by uni-
versal homage and consent, a queen ; and the passions
are the vassal lords that crowd her court, await her man-
20*



234 PULPIT ELOCUTION.

date, and move at her control. But, like other mighty
sovereigns, she is so surrounded by her envoys, her offi-
cers, and her ministers of state, that it is extremely dif-
ficult to be admitted to her presence chamber, or to have
any immediate communication with herself Ambition,
Avarice, Love, E-evenge, all these seek her, and her
alone ; alas I they are neither presented to her, nor will
she come to them. She despatches, however, her envoys
unto them, — mean and poor representatives of their
queen. To Ambition, she sends Power; to Avarice,
Wealth ; to Love, Jealousy ; to Revenge, Remorse : alas I
what are these, but so many other names for vexation or
disappointment ? Neither is she to be won by flatteries
or by bribes : she is to be gained by waging war against
her enemies, much sooner than by paying any particular
court to herself Those that conquer her adversaries,
will find that they need not go to her, for she will come
unto them. None bid so high for her as kings ; few are
more willing, none more able, to purchase her alliance at
the fullest price. But she has no more respect for kings
than for their subjects ; she mocks them, indeed, with the
empty show of a visit, by sending to their palaces all her
equipage, her pomp, and her train ; but she comes not
herself What detains her ? She is travelling incognita
to keep a private appointment with Contentment, and to
partake of a dinner of herbs in a cottage."

yf^V1/''C/lA'fc^t' Graphic Conversational Description.
Rebuke of Flippancy. — Cumberland.

" Hear the crude opinions that are let loose upon socie
in our table conversations ; mark the wild and wanderin
arguments that are launched at random, without ever
hitting the mark they should be levelled at : what docs
all this noise and nonsense prove, but that the talker has
indeed acquired the fluency of words, but never known
the exercise of thought, or attended to the development



icn



t:le?,iextary exercises. — "moveme:>,'t.'' 235

of a single proposition ? Tell him that he ought to hear
what may be said on the other side of the question — he
agrees to it, and either begs leave to wind up with a few
words more, Avhich he winds and wire-draws without
end ; or, having paused to hear, hears with impatience a
very little, foreknows everything you had farther to say.
cuts short your argument, and bolts in upon you with —
an answer to that argument — ? No ; with a continua-
tion of his own babble ; and, having stilled you with the
torrent of his talk, places your contempt to the credit of
his own capacity, and foolishly conceives he speaks with
reason, because he has not patience to attend to any rea-
soning but his own.

" There are also others, whose vivacity of imagination
has never felt the trammels of a syllogism.

" To attempt at hedging in these sciolists, is but lost
labor. These talkers are very entertaining, as long as
novelties with no meaning can entertain you ; they have
a great variety of opinions, which, if you oppose, they do
not defend, and if you agree with, they desert. Their
talk is like the wild notes of birds, amongst which you
shall distingaish some of pleasant tone, but out of which
you compose no tune or harmony of song. These men
would have set down Archimedes for a fool, when he

; danced for joy at the solution of a proposition, and mis-
taken Newton for a madman, when, in the surplice which
he put on for chapel over night, he was found the next

I morning, in the same place and posture, fixed in profound

i meditation on his theory of the prismatic colors. So
great is their distaste for demonstration, they think no
truth is worth the waiting for : the mountain must come
to them : they are not by half so complaisant as Moham-
med. They are not easily reconciled to truisms, but have
no particular objection to impossibilities. For argument
they have no ear ; it does not touch them ; it fetters fancy,
and dulls the edge of repartee. If by chance they find
themselves in an untenable position, and wit is not at



236



PULPIT ELOCUTION.



hand to help them out of it, they will take np with a pun,
and ride home upon a horse laugh : if they cannot keep
their ground, they will not wait to be a', tacked and driven
out of it. Whilst a reasoning man will be picking his
way out of a dilemma, they, who never reason at all,
jump over it, and land themselves at once upon new
ground, where they take an imposing attitude, and escape
pursuit. Whatever these men do, whether they talk, or
write, or act, it is without deliberation, without consis-
tency, without plan. Having no expanse of mind, they
can comprehend only in part ; they will promise an epic
poem, and produce an epigram. In short they ghtter, pass
away, and ctre forgotten ; their outset makes a show of
mighty things ; they stray out of their course into byways
and obliquities ; and, when out of sight of their contem-
poraries, are forever lost to posterity."



EXERCISES IN "RHYTIBI.''*

" Rhythm " Is, in elocution, the result of that regular and sym-
metrical movement of the voice, which is caused by the compara-
tively measured style of rhetorical composition. It implies, also, a
just observance of those pauses, whether marked in the punctuation
or not, which the sense of a passage demands ; and these pauses
thus become, like rests in music, portions of the measure and rhythm
It is this last mentioned effect which renders rhythm so important
to an easy, flucr.% and natural use of the voice, in reading and
speaking ; suggesting the practice of frequent, slight, but well-timed
breathing, instead of the common faulty mode c f drawing breath at
distant and irregular intervals, and with painful effort. The former
of these habits renders public reading and speaking easy, even to
persons of feeble health ; the latter wears away the organic strength
of the most vigorous. The former mode preserves the smooth, even

* The word "rhythm" is used, in elocut'on, to desiirnate that regu-
lated movement of voice, which exists, in its fully marked form, in the
combined effect of the metre and pauses of verse, but which belongs, in
degree, to all "well- written and well-spoken language, in prose, — in the
forms, particularly, of declamation and discourse.



ELEMENTARY EXERCISES. "RHYTHM." 2-37

flow of voice ; the latter breaks the continuity both of sound and
sense.

Khythm is, in detail, the regular recurrence of accent, at definite
•and measured intervals, and may be beat and marked as strictly as
in music, if attention is paid to the suspensions of sound by pauses,
so as to include them, as well as the actual sounds of the voice, be-
tween the beats, as in the bars of music. Every accented syllable
is, in elocution, equivalent to the beginning of a bar in music, and
may be so marked ; thus, | Aluse | music | musical \ un- \ musical \ •
or, if read with pauses | Muse ] , | or | "^^ i music [ , | or j ^|^ |
musical ] , | or | ^*^ [ ^ un- \ musical \ .*

The subjoined exercises should be practised with the aid, at first,
of beating time at the commencement of every bar, as in music.
The rhythm should be, for some time, marked quite strongly with
the voice ; the beat and the decided marking may be gradually laid
aside, as the ear becomes competent to direct itself But the actual
time should never cease to be carefully observed in reading, speak-
ing, and reciting, any more than in music itself The fact, however,
should never be forgotten, that an habitual strong marking of rhythm,
is the same fault in elocution as in music. It protrudes what should
be a barely perceptible property, and turns an excellence into a
I defect. A delicate marking of rhythm, is a genuine grace of culti-
1 vated elocution, in the reading of verse, and in the language of ora-
j tory or of sentiment. The great object of practice, as regards
"time," is truth, not force.

The student of elocution would do well to score numerous pas-
sages, for himself, in the manner exemplified as follows.

* Every accented monosyllable, in elocutionary rhythm, constitutes a
bar ; all the unaccented syllables, in a polysyllable, are grouped in tb
same bar, with the accented syllable, or pause preceding. The rule
marking is simply, Place a bar before every accented syllable, where
found, and before every pause. — One or more unaccented syllables ar.
sometimes grouped into the same bar with a pause. For the conven-
ience of marking, a bar is assumed as composed of one quarter or two
eighth notes.

Half or secondary accents, wherever they occur, commence a new
bar 5 thus, the syllable man-, in the word | manifes- \ tation, or the sylla-
ble con-, in the word iti- \ contro- | vertible.



:-3S PULPIT ELOCUTION.

Verse, or Metrical Accent.

Iambic Metre.

Blank Verse.

* n "Be I wise H to- I ^^^y | ; 1 11 | 1 tis | madness ] ^ to

de- ! fer I ; I 11 \
I Next I day | 1 the | fatal | precedent | 1 will | plead | ; ] H |
I Thus I on 1 , 1 1 till I wisdom 1 1 is ] pushed \ out of | life i • | H 1 11 1
I 1 Pro- 1 crasti- 1 nation j 1 is the | thief 1 1 of | time | • | 11 | 11 i

I Year | 1 | after | year | 1 it | steals | , | 1 till | all | 1 are | fled | , |

I I And to the | mercies of a | moment | H | leaves |

1 1 The 1 vast con- 1 cerns j 1 of an e- 1 ternal | scene | ." | H HI |11|

Heroic Couplets.

I " Hope 1 11 I springs e- 1 ternal 1 1 in the | human | breast | ; | H |
i Man 1 11 I never | is 1 1 but | ahvays 1 1 to j be | blest | ; 1 11 1 H |

I I The ! soul I , 1 1 un- | easy | 1 and con- j fined from | home | , |

I Rests I "^ and ex- | patiates | 1 in a | life | 1 to | come."

Octosyllabic Couplets.

1 1 " Th-re's I nothing | bright I , 1 1 a- 1 bove | , 1 1 be- 1 low | , | H }

I I From I flowers 1 1 that] bloom 1 1 to ] stars 1 1 that ] glow j , 1 11 1

I But in its | light | 1 my | soul | 1 can | see |

I I Some 1 feature | 1 of j thy | Deity ] !" HI | 11 | 11 1

Octosyllabic Quatrain Stanza (Long Metre).

j " Dear | 1 is the | hallowed | morn | 1 to j me ] ; |

I 1 When I village | bells | 1 a- | wake the | day | ; | 11 |

I 1 And I 1 by their | sacred | minstrelsy | , |

I Call me | 1 from | earthly | cares | ^ a- | way."

* The rests are usually " rhetorical " pauses, or prolongations added
to the grammatical pauses indicated by the punctuation. The initial
rest represents the slight interval between the first bar and the preced-
ing utterance, whatever that may be.



ELEMENTARY EXERCISES. '' RHYTHM.'' 239



Common Metre Stanza.

I ^ " Like t children [ ^ for some | bauble | fair
I ^ That I weep them- | selves to j rest | ; H^ |

n We I part with | life | — H^ H a- j wake | ! H^ H and |
there
n The I jewel | — | ^H H in our | breast !"

Short Metre Stanza.

I « Sweet I ^ at the | dawning | light [ , |

I ^ Thy I boundless | love H to | tell | ; H'l

j And when ap- | proach | "^ the | shades of ] night | , (
I Still I ^ on the ] theme to | dwell !"

Trochaic Measure.

I " Now be- j gin the | heavenly | theme | , |

I Sing of I mercy's | healing | stream | : | "^ \ ^^

I Ye I , I "^ who I Jesus' | kindness | prove | , |

I Sing of I his re- | deeming love | !" HI HI HI I

I " Teach me | some me- | lodious | measure j , |
I Sung I *^ by I raptured | saints ^ \ ^'j a- | bove ;

I Fill my | soul | "^ with | sacred j pleasure | , |
i "^ While I I sing re- | deeming | love ! "

Anapoestic Measure.

I "^ " Re- 1 ligion | ! j ^ what ] treasure | "^ un- ] told
1 ^ Re- 1 sides j ^ in that | heavenly ] word | ! H^ |

I "^ More I precious 1 ^ than | silver | ^ and | gold | , |
I ^ Or 1 all I ^ that this | earth | ^ can af- | ford!"*

* From the analysis which has been given of rhythm, in conjunction
with metrical accent in its principal forms, it may be perceived that, in
reading, the prosodial grouping of syllables is subordinate — not pre-
dominant — in the audible effect. The common fault in reading verse
is caused by inverting this rule ; and, when to this defect is added that
of omitting the rhythmical pauses, nothing is left to the ear but the
mere jingle of the scanning.



240 PULPIT ELOCUTION.

Prose Rhythm.
Extract from Psalm XXXIII.

V. 1. " Re- I joice in the | Lord | , | O ye | righteous | : M^ |
^^ n for I praise H is | comely j ^ for the up- 1 right | . H^ |
"^^ I 2. j Praise the j Lord | ^ with [ harp | : H^l H^ j sing
un- I to him } ^ with the | psaltery ) "^ and an | instrument of } ten
I strings i . i ^n ! ^n I ^n I ^- '^"^S I ^^"fo him a | new | song ] ; j
^^ n and I play | skilfully | ^| with a | loud | noise | . I '^H | '^H
i ^^ I 4. n i'or the | word of the | Lord ^ is | right | ; |' "^|^ j
and I all his | works H are | done \ ^| in truth j . | ^j^, | ^^ | ^^ I
5. ^ He I loveh | righteousness | ^ and j judgment | : | ^"1 | 1^
i ^ the I earth j "^ is j full | ^ of the | goodness | ^ of the ] Lord | . \
wjJ^ I wj^ I ^,w| j ,3^ wj Y\y the 1 word of the | Lord | ^ were the |
neavens | made | ; | ^"^ | "^i and | all the | host of them | ^\ by the
I breath of his | mouth i • H'l H'l H^'l | 7. ^ He | gathereth
the ] waters of the | sea | ^1 to- | gether | ^ as a | heap | : j "^ \
^^ I ^1 he I layeth up the | depth H in | store-houses | . H'l |
^1^ n^ 1 8. n Let I all the earth | foar the [ Lord j : H^ i ^H
I '^ let I all the in- | habitants of the | world | ^ stand in | awe of
him I . I "1^ n"1 ni I 9. n For he | spake, | ^ and it was |
done I ; | '^^ \ "^ he com- | manded, | ^ and it ( stood | fast | ." |



Didactic Style.

Reflections in Westminster Abbey. — Addison.

I '^ "Though I am | always | serious | , | ^ I do not | know what
it I is I ^ to be I melancholy | ; | ^^ | ^ and can | therefore | take
a I view of } Nature | ^ in her | deep | ^ and | solemn | scenes | , |
"^ with the I same | pleasure | "^ as in her | most | gay | "^ and de- |
lightful ones 1 . I ^n n'l M'l n By I this | means | ^ I can
im- i prove myself | ^ with | those | objects | ^ which | others | ^
con- I sider with | terror | • n^ 1 ^"1 M'l M ^^'^^^^ I I ^o^
upon the | tombs of the | great | , | every e- | motion of | envy | ^
dies in me | ; | "^^ | ^ when I | read the | epitaphs | "^ of the /
beautiful | , | every in- | ordinate de- | sire | "*] goes | out | ; | *^|"^
I ^ v>hen I I meet with the | grief of | parents | '^ upon a | tomb-
stone I , I *^ nay | heart | ^i*^ | melts | '^ with com- | passion | ; j *^
'^1 I ^ when I I see the | tomb of the | parents 1 "*! them- j selves I , |



ELEMENTARY EXERCISES. "RHYTHM." 241

^ I con- 1 sider the | vanity of | grieving | ^ for | those ] ^^ \
whom we must | quickly | follow | : M'l H'l H^l M ^vhen I |
see I kings | ^^ | lying by | those who de- | posed them 1,1"^ when
I con- I sider | rival | wits | , | placed | "^^^ | side by j side | , [ ""^
or the I holy | men ] ^ that di- | vided the [ world | ^ with their |
contests | ^ dis- j putes | , | ^ I re- | fleet | , | ^ with | sorrow | ^
and as- | tonishment | , | ^ on the j little | ^ compe- | titions | , \
factions I , n and debates | ^ of man- 1 kind | • H^l HI H^i I
**] When I I read the | several | dates of the | tombs | , j ^ of | some
j ^ that I died | yesterday [ , | "^ and ] some I ^^^ \ six | hundred |
years" a- | go | , ] ^ I con- | sider | that | great | day | ^ when we
shall I ^"^ 1 all of us n"^ n be con- | temporaries | , | ^ and |
make our ap- | pearance to- | gether."



Oratorical Apostrophe.

Anticipation. — Webster.

I " They [ ^ are in the [ distant | regions | ^ of fu- | turity | , |
— I they I "^ ex- I ist | ^\^ | only in the | all-cre- | ating | power |
'^ of I God I , I — I ^ ^vho shall | stand | here | , H a | hundred |
years | hence | , | ^ to | trace | , | "^ through | us | , | "^ their de- 1
scent from the | Pilgrims | , | "^ and to sur- ] vey | , | ^ as | we
have I now sur- j veyed | , | '^ the | progress of their j country | , |
during the | lapse of a ] century | ." | ^^| | "^H M^l H " On the
I morning of | that | day | , | "^ al- | though it | will not dis- | turb
I us I "^ in our re- | pose | , | *^ the | voice | ^ of | accla- | mation
I "^ and I gratitude | , | "^ com- | mencing | ^ on the | Rock | "^ of
j Plymouth | , | ^ shall be trans- | mitted | "^ through | millions |
^ of the I sons | of the | Pilgrims | , | *^ till it | lose itself | ^ in
the I murmur | ^ of the Pa- | cific | seas | ." | "^|1 H^ H"^ | ^

i ^ " Ad- I vance 1 , | '^ ye | future | *gener- | ations | ! j ^i^ j
'-q^ I "^ We would I hail you | , j ^ as you | rise [ "^ in your | long
sue- I cession [ , | "^ to | fill the | places | *^ which | we | now (
fill I , I ^ and to 1 taste the | blessings | ^ of ex- | istence 1,1"^
where | we | "^ are | passing | , | '^ and | soon | *1 shall have '
passed*! , H our | human du- | ration | . H^l i "H | ""H H We

* The initial half accent, in words analogous to the above, is assumed
as the equivalent of a full accent; — the time of half accent being equal
to that of accent, althoupfh the force is not.
21



142 PULPIT ELOCUTION.



I bid you j welcome | "^ to | this | pleasant | land | ^ of the | Far
thers I . I ^^ I ^n 1 ^ We j bid you j welcome j ^ to the | health-
ful I akies I , I ^ and the | verdant | fields H of | New England 1 . [
•^wj I wjwj I wj -iy^ j gj,g(.t yoiir ac- | cession | ^ to the | great in- |
heritance 1 ^ which ] we H ^ave en- | joyed | • H'l M^l M
We I welcome you | ^ to the | blessings | *1 of | good | government
I ^ and re- | ligious | liberty j . | "^^j | "^j^ I ^ We | welcome you
j "^ to the I treasures of | science | , | and the de- | lights of | learn-
^°? I • I ^"^ I '^'*1 I ^ ^^® i "^velcome you | ^ to the tran- | scen-
dant j sweets j ^ of do- j mestic j hfe | , | *^ to the | happiness j '*^
of I kindred j , H and | parents | , H and | children | • H^ H
*^ I ^ We I welcome you | ^ to the im- | measurable | blessings |
"^ of rational ex- | istence | , | ^ the im- | mortal j hope | ^ of j
Christi- I anity 1,1"^ and the | light | ^ of | ever- | lasting j
Truth 1 !" l^^ll-W^^l^^m-W-^^l^^l*



EXERCISES IN EMPHASIS.

Emphasis, as properly defined by Dr. Rush, in his Phi-
losophy of the Voice, and, indeed, as is implied in the
vc y etymology of the term, is not a mere comparative
force of accent only, but a concentration of several or of
many expressive elements of vocal sound, upon one ele-
ment or syllable. The comparative force does, no doubt,
exist ; but its use is to embody and impress the effect of
the rest. Thus, if we select, as an example, the reply of
Death to Satan, " Back to thy 2n(nish?ne7it! false fugitive,"
we shall find that the first of the emphatic words, while

* True rhythm extends itself not only from clause to clause, but from
sentence to sentence, and from paragraph to paragraph, and even to the
long quadruple pause which follows the close of a piece or discourse.
One of ihc faults in elocution by which the pulp'^ is sometimes degraded,
is the business-like dispatch with wliich the minister passes from the
hi t word of liis sermon to the formula that follows. — as if his purpose
were to obliterate, as quickly as possible, the eli'ect of his discotjrse. —
I'iivagraph pauses are usually double the length of those of periods.
Double paragraph pauses aic the jjroper distinctions of the heads of
di u oursc ; and these ought to be doubled, if referred to as a definite
measure for the pause wDich should follow an entire discourse.



ELEMENTARY EXERCISES. EMPHASIS. 243

it is intensely forcible, derives much of its effect from
" explosive " utterance and " radical stress," from " aspi-
rated pectoral and guttural quality," from " low pitch,"
" falling inflection," or " downward shde," aijd " rapid
movement," or " brief time ; " and that if we subtract some
or even any one of these properties, the exclamation



Online LibraryWilliam RussellPulpit elocution: Comprising remarks on the effect of manner in public discourse; the elements of elocution, applied to the reading of the scriptures, hymns, and sermons; with observations on the prin → online text (page 19 of 32)