William Russell.

The history of modern Europe: with an account of the decline & fall of the Roman Empire; and a view of the progress of society, from the rise of the modern kingdoms to the peace of Paris in 1763; in a series of letters from a nobleman to his son (Volume 3) online

. (page 1 of 50)
Online LibraryWilliam RussellThe history of modern Europe: with an account of the decline & fall of the Roman Empire; and a view of the progress of society, from the rise of the modern kingdoms to the peace of Paris in 1763; in a series of letters from a nobleman to his son (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 50)
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Columbia etniticrsfftp

THE LIBRARIES




GIVEN BY

nenry F«. Howell



THE



OF

MODERN EUROPE:

WITH AN ACCOUNT

OF THE

DECLINE fc' FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE;

AND A VIEW OF THE

PROGRESS OF SOCIETY,

FHOM THE

RISE OF THE MODERN KINGDOMS TO THE PEACE OF PARIS,

IN 1763.

IN A SEB7IS OF LETTERS FROM A NOBLEMAK TO HIS SOX.

A NEW EDITION,

WITH

A CONTINUATION,

EXTENDING TO THE PACIFICATION OF PARIS, IN 1815.



IN SIX VOLUMES.

VOL. IIL



PHILADELPHIA :

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY ABRAHAM SMALL,

No. 165, Chesnut Street. ^






\/ » 3



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS



TO



THE THIRD VOLUME.



PART II.



FROM THE PEACE OF WESTPHALIA, IN 1648, TO THE PEACE OF PARIS,

IN 1763.



LETTER I.



History of England and Ireland^ from the Accession of James I.
to the Murder of Sir Thomas Overburify and the Fall of the Earl
of Somerset^ 1615.

A. D. PAGE

1603 Introductory reflections - - 33
Genealogy of James I. - •■ - 34
His arrival in England - - ib.
He leaves the great offices of state chiefly in the hands

of Elizabeth's ministers - - - 35

His negotiations with foreign princes and states ib.

Conspiracy against his government defeated - 36

1604 Theological conference at Hampton Court - 37
Character of the Puritans - - ib.
James strongly prejudiced against them - 38
They are ordered to conform to the ceremonies of the

church - - - 39
The king's speech to his first parliament - ib.
He proposes an union between England and Scotland 4P
The commons assert their right of judging finally in re-
gard to their own elections and returns - ib.
They attempt the abolition of wardship and purveyance 41
Peace with Spain - - - 43



4 GO N TENTS.

A. D. PAGE

1605 Object and discovery of the gunpowder plot - 43

Account of Guy Favvkes - - 44

lie and other conspirators arc seized and executed ib.

James enjoys a temporary popularity - ib.

His laudable policy in regard to Ireland - 45

Account of the old customs of the Irish - ib>
English laws are substituted in their stead, and regular

administration, both civil and military, established ib.

Beneficial effects of those regulations - 46

Character of Henry, prince of Wales - ib.

1612 His death (Nov. 6.) - - ib.
The king renders himself contemptible by an infatuated

attachment to worthless favourites - 47

Account of the rise of Robert Carr, earl of Somerset ib.

His amour with the countess of Essex - 48

1613 She is divorced, and he marries her - ib.
His friend sir Thomas Overbury is secretly taken off by

poison - - - 49

1615 The murder is discovered - - ib.
Somerset and his countess are found guilty, but James

pardons them - - ib.

LETTER II.

Of the Affairs of Scotland^ from the Rise of the Duke of Bucking-
ham to the Death of fames I. in 1625.

1615 Account of the rapid rise of George Villiers, created

duke of Buckingham - - 50

His insolence and profusion - - 51

1616 Sale of the cautionary towns - ib.

1617 The king's journey to Scotland - - ib.
Civil and religious state of that kingdom - 52
The king attempts to introduce episcopacy into Scotland 54

1618 The Scots are greatly disgusted at the obtrusion of cer-

tain ceremonies upon them - -55

Account of sir Walter Raleigh - - 58
He pretends to have discovered a very rich gold-mine

in Guiana - - ib.
He is invested with authority to engage adventurers,

and go in search of that mine - - ib.
Plunders a Spanish town, and returns without making

any discovery - - 59

He is beheaded on a former sentence - 60

High dissatisfaction occasioned by that measure ib.
Projected marriage between Charles prince of Wales

and the infanta Maria - - ib.
1620 Affairs of the elector palatine, the king of England's

son-in-law - - - ib.
Zeal of the people of England for a war with both

branches of the house of Austria - 61



CONTENTS. 5

A. D. PAGE

1621 The commons frame a remonstrance to that purport, and

against the Spanish match - - - ib.

James orders the speaker to admonish the members not
to presume to meddle with any thing that regards his
government - - - 62

They assert their ancient and undoubted right to inter-
pose with their counsel in all matters of government ib.

The king's prompt reply - - - ib.

The memorable protest of the commons vindicating
their right to a full freedom of debate - )63

The grand dispute concerning privilege and prerogative
examined - - - - - ib.

The commons form an essential branch of the English
constitution, and the privileges now claimed by them
are just - - _ _ _ 64

1622 The Spanish match is seemingly in great forwardness ib,

1623 The duke of Buckingham persuades the prince of Wales

to go to Spain - ' - - 65

Charles is treated with great respect by Philip IV. ib.

The Spanish courtiers are disgusted at the levity and
licentiousness of Buckingham - - 66

He quarrels with 01ivarez,the prime minister, and pre-
vails upon Charles to break off the marriage-treaty ib.

He thus ingratiates himself with the popular party ib.

Generous behaviour of the King of Spain to the earl of
Bristol, the English ambassador - - 67

1624 The earl is committed to the Tower on his return to

England - - - - - 68

The prince of Wales is contracted to Henrietta of France ib.

1625 Death and character of James I. - - 69
His reign favourable to commerce and industry. - ib.

LETTER HI.

Continuation of the History of Eiigland^from the Accession of
Charles I. to the Assassination of the Duke of Buckingham
in 1628.

Excessive parsimony of the commons - -70
The causes of that parsimony - - ib.
The popular leaders determine to retrench the royal pre-
rogative - - - - - 71
Charles dissolves the parliament in disgust - 72
Failure of an expedition against Cadiz - ib.

1626 The king's necessities oblige him to convoke a new par-

liament - - _ - . 73
The commons vote a scanty supply, and proceed to the

subject of grievances _ _ _ ib.

They impeach the duke of Buckingham - ib.



6 CONTENTS.

A. D. PAGE

They in vain desire his removal from his majesty's per-
son and councils. _ _ _ _ 74

Merits of the dispute between the king and parliament

discussvid - - - ib.

The parliament is dissolved - - - 76

Charles raises money by unconstitutional means 77

Many persons arc thrown into prison for refusing to pay

their assessments - - - - ib.

I62r The judges refuse to admit the prisoners to bail - ib.

Otht r grievances and oppressions - - ib.

The king engages in a war with France - 78

His motives for it - - - ib.

He treats with the Huguenots - - ib.

Misconduct of the duke - - 79

1628 iNew parliament - - - ib.
The commons inquire into the national grievances 80
Speech of sir Francis Seymour - - ib.

of sir Robert Philips - - ib.

of sir Thomas Wentworth - - 81

The Petition of Right - - ib.

Clicirles reluctantly gives his assent to it - 82
Dispute with the commons concerning tonnage and

poundage - - - - ib.
The king hopes to conciliate the affections of his subjects,

bv succouring the distressed Protestants of France 83
Buckingham is assassinated by Felton, while preparing

to embark for the relief of Rochelle - ib.

Surrender of that town - - - 85

LETTER IV.

History of England and Scotland^ from the Assassination of
the Dike of Buckingham to the Execution of the Earl of
Strajfcrd, in 1641.

1629 The disputes between the king and parliament are re-

ncv.ed - - - - 85

The enraged king dissolves the parliament - 87

The con-imons voi-^ a bold remonstrance - ib.
The iDost active leaders of opposition are taken into cus-

todv . . . > 88

1630 Peace with France an'l Spain - - ib.
The cnusf-s arid consequences of the jealousy between

the king and parliament traced - - 89

Charles imprudently indulges the Catholics - ib.

Bigotry and suptrstition of archbishop Laud - ib.

A specirrin of iiis ceremonies - - 90
He aiKl his followers endeavour to exalt the authority

of the crown - - - 92
Charles dr?ws off some of the leaders of opposition by

giving them a share in the administration - ib.



CONTENTS. 7

A. D. PAGE

The indignation of the people at that manoeuvre 92

A series of arbitrary impositions upon the subject 93
Rigorous sentences of the court of star-chamber and

high-commission - - - ib,

1637 John Hampden refuses to pay the revived tax of ship-

money - - - - ib.

The cause is brought before the twelve judges ib.

Substance of the pleadings - - 94*

Sentence is pronounced in favour of the crown ib.

Discontents both in England and Scotland - 95

Innovations in the religion of the northern kingdom ib.

A popular tumult at Edinburgh - - 97

People of all ranks join in petitions against the liturgy ib.

1638 Their request being refused, they enter into a Solemn

Covenant - - - - 98
The nature of that convention - - ib.
The king makes various concessions, but refuses to abo-
lish episcopacy - - - ib.
The Scots persist in maintaining the covenant ib.

1639 Episcopacy is abolished by an act of the general assembly 99
The Scottish malcontents resolve to maintain their re-
ligious opinions by arms - - ib.

The king prepares to enforce their obedience 1(X)

They prudently crave leave to negociate - 101

Charles concludes a conditional pacification with them ib.

The covenanters again take the field - 102

1640 The king re-assembles the English parliament ib.
The commons refuse to vote supplies unless grievances

be redressed . _ _ > ib,

Charles dissolves the parliament - - ib.
His forces are routed by the covenanters at Newbourne

upon Tyne - _ _ 103

The Scots take possession of Newcastle - ib.

The king again negotiates with them - ib.

Meeting of the Long' Parliament (Nov. 3.) - 104

Impeachment of the earl of Strafford - ib.

The commons pass many extraordinary votes 10.^

They make furious attacks upon the established religion 106
Bring in a bill prohibiting clergymen from the exercise

of all civil offices . . _ I07

It is rejected by the peers - - 108

1641 Enactment of a law for preventing the discontinuance

of parliaments beyond three years - - ib.

Trial of Strafford - ' - - 109

His able and eloquent defence - - 110
Intimidated by the threats of the populace, the peers

pass a bill of attainder against him - - 112

The king, after a violent mental struggle, assents to it 113

Execution of the earl . - - 114

His character - - r - ib.



8 CONTENTS.

A. D. PAGE

Abolition of the courts of high-commission and star-
chamber - - - - 114

Charlts repairs to Scotland, to settle the government of
that kingdom - - - - 115

LETTER V.

History of Great Britain and Ireland^ f^om the Execution of
the Earl of Strajford to the Beginning of the Great Rebel-
lion in 1642.

Encroachments of the Scottish parliament on the royal
prerogative - - - 116

1641 Settlement of Scotland - - - ib.
Retrospective view of the affairs of Ireland - ib.
Rise of the rebellion in that kingdom - 117
Cruel massacre of the protestants - - 119
The English Catholics join the Irish - - 120
The remains of the Protestants take refuge in Dublin ib.
The king imprudently commits to the English parlia-
ment the suppression of the Irish rebellion 121

The commons, under pretence of so doing, provide them-
selves with arms to be employed against their sovereign 122

They frame an acrimonious remonstrance - ib.

The king publishes an answer to it - - ib.

The commons manifest, by new usurpations, their pur-
pose of subverting both the church and monarchy 123

Form a party among the lords - - 124

Rise of the party-names of Roundheads and Cava-
liers, with the character of the parties they were de-
signed to mark - - - ib.

Twelve bishops are confined - - 125

1642 The king orders his attorney-general to enter an accu-

sation of high treason against lord Kimbolton and five

commoners - - - - 126

Imprudence of that measure - - ib.

He sends a serjeant at arms to the house of commons to

demand the five accused members - ib.

He goes to the house of commons in hopes of surprising

them ; but they had withdrawn - - 127

They take refuge in the city - - - ib.

Affected fears of the commons and citizens - ib.

Charles seeks tt appease the commons by the most hum-
ble submission - - - 128

The popular members inflame the public discontents 129

Petitions for redress of grievances are presented to the

parliament by all orders of men in the state - ib.

The leaders of opposition acquire a majority in both

houses _ . _ _ 130

They aim at the command of the militia - 131

The king evades their demand - - ib.



CONTENTS. 9

A. D. PAGE

Hi^ firm reply to their farther importunities - 131

He removes with his two sons to York - 132

The commons frame an ordinance, usurping the com-
mand of the whole military force - - 133
A variety of memorials, declarations, and remonstrances,

are published by both parties - - ib.

The parliamentarians openly enlist troops, and confer

the chief command on the earl of Essex - 133

Charles rouses his adherents to arms - - 134

The commons propose conditions of peace - ib.

1642 Their demands amount to an abolition of royal authority 135
The king's animated speech on rejecting such terms ib.
He erects the royal standard at Nottingham - ib.
State of parties at the beginning of the Great Rebellion ib.

LETTER VI.

Account of the Progress of the War between the Royalists and
Parliamentarians ^ to the Battle of Naseby^ in 1645.

Advantages on the side of the parliament - 136

The foundation of the king's hopes of success - ib.

His declaration to his army - . - 133

Battle of Edgehill (Oct. 23.) - - - ib.

Victory left doubtful, after various turns of fortune 139
Essex retreats to London, and the king advances to Brent-
ford - - - - - - ib.

Ineffectual negotiations during the winter - ib.

1643 Various events of the war _ _ _ 140
Skirmish on Chalgrave-field, where the famous Hampden

is mortally wounded _ . _ 14^

Defeat of the earl of Stamford, by the Cornish royalists,

near Stratton - - - ib.

Bloody but indecisive battle of Lansdown-hill - ib.

The parliamentary forces, under Waller, are totally rout-
ed on Round way-down _ _ _ 142
Prince Rupert undertakes the siege of Bristol - 143
He makes himself msster of that city - - ib.
The royalists form the siege of Glocester - ib.
The king publishes a manifesto, expressive of his earnest

desire of peace - - - - ib.

Plan, for the same purpose, privately concerted by Wal-
ler, Tomkins, and Chaloner - - 144
It is discovered - - - ib.
Measures taken for the relief of Glocester - 145
Gallant defence of Massey, the gf)vernor - ib;
Esst X obliges the king to raise the siege - ib.
Batde of Newbury (Sept. 20.) - - - ib.
Death and chaiacter of Lord Falkland - 146
Operations in the northern counties - - ib.
Vol. III. B



10 CONTENTS.

A. D. PAGE

1643 SoLKMK League and Covenant between the English

and Scottish parliaments - . - 147

The Scots enter England with a great army - 148

Kctrospective vit- w of the affairs of Ireland - ib.

The king gives orders for concluding a truce with the

Catholics, and transporting to England part of the

Protestant army - - - - 149

1644 Defeat of the army at Nantwich - - ib.
Progress of the Scots in the North of England - 150
Battle of Marston-moor (July 2.) - - ib.
I'he royalists are routed - - - ib.
York surrenders to the army of the parliament, and New-
castle is taken by the Scots > _ _ I5i

The king gains an advantage at Cropredy-bridge 152

He meets with success in Cornwall - ~ ib.

Second battle of Newbury . - _ 153

Disputes between the Presbyterians and Independents ib.

The distinction between those sects traced - ib.

The heads of the two parties - - 154

The Independents aim at the command of the sword 155

Hypocritical artifices are employed for that purpose ib.

The Self-denying Ordinance . . . 155

Characters of sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell,

who change the formation of the army - ib.

1645 Trial and execution of Archbishop Laud - 157
Negotiations at Uxbridge - - - ib.
Account of the marquis of Montrose - - 158
His success against the covenanters in Scotland - ib.
Decline of the king's affairs in England, and its causes 159
The king relieves Chester, and takes Leicester - 160
Battle of Naseby (June 14.) - - - ib.
Gallant behaviour of the king - _ . 161
He is totally defeated - - - - ib.

LETTER Vn.

Of the Affairs of England^ from the Battle of Nasehy to the Ex-
ecution of Charles I. and the Subversion of the Monarchi/f in
1649.

The parliamentary generals reduce almost every place of

importance in England _ . . 162

Montrose is routed at Philiphaugh - - 163

Rip;our of the covenanters - - - ib.

Deplorable situation of the king during the winter 164

1646 Defeat of Astley, and ruin of the royal cause - ib.
The king seeks refuge in the Scottish camp at Newark 165

1647 1 he Scots dcli\er him up to the English parliament ib.
Quarrel between the army and the parliament - ib.
That quarrel is inflamed by Cromwell, Ireton, and Fleet-
wood . _ - - 166



CONTENTS. 1 1

A. D. PAGE

1647" The king is seized by Joyce, and conducted to the ren-
dezvous of the army _ - _ _ 167

Cromwell the author of that bold measure - ib.

The parliament becomes obnoxious to the body of the
people - - - ib.

It is obliged to submit to the demands of the army 168

Proposals are sent to the king by the council of officers 169

Complete triumph of the military over the civil power ib.

The king derives a temporary advantage from this revo-
lution - - - - - 170

Cromwell artfully alarms him for his personal safety 171

He privately retires to the Isle of Wight - - ib.

He finds himself there a prisoner - - 172

Cromwell proceeds to remedy the disorders of the army ib.

He effectually accomplishes his purpose, and resolves on
the destruction of the king, as necessary to the secu-
rity of his usurped power _ _ _ 173

He secretly convokes a council of officers - ib.

In that council is started the project of bringing Charles
to the block for his pretended tyranny - ib.

Measures are concerted for making the parliament adopt
that scheme - - - - - 174

1648 It is voted that no more addresses be made to the king ib.
The Scots enter into engagements with Charles 175
Distracted state of the nation - - - ib.
The Scots, invading England, are routed by Cromwell,

and all the English insurgents subdued - ib.

The Presbyterians in parliament attempt to conclude a

treaty with the king - - - - ib.

They are excluded from that assembly by a party of sol-
diers under colonel Pride (Dec. 6.) - - 176

The commons appoint a committee to bring in a charge

of high treason against the king - - ib.

The vote to this purport is rejected by the lords ib.

1649 The trial is nevertheless ordered (Jan. 4.) - ib.
Cromwell's speech on the occasion - - 177
Colonel Harrison brings the king to London - ib.
The form of his trial - - - ib.
His magnanimous behaviour, and masterly defence ib.
He is sentenced to be decapitated - - 178
His unhappy fate - - - ib.
Grief and astonishment of the nation - - 181
Character of Charles - - - - ib.
Exchange of the monarchy for a republic - 183

LETTER VIIL

A general View of the European Continent^ from the Peace of
Westphalia^ in 1648, to the Pyreniaii Treaty^ in 1659, and the
Peace of Oliva^ in 1 660.

1648 The civil dissensions in France are fomented by cardi-
nal de Retz - - - 183



12 CONTENTS.

A. D. PACK

1648 He draws the parliament ot Paris into his views 184
Anne of Austria, the queen-regent, is governed by car-
dinal Mazarine - - - ib.

1649 Distress of the royal family - . - 185
Mazarine is declared by the parliament an enemy to the

kingdom - - - - ib.

Absurd levity of the French nation - - ib.

1650 Conde and other princes of the blood are arrested 186

1651 The duke of Bouillon, and his brother Turenne, are de-

tached from the malcontent party - - ib.

1652 Battle of St. Antoine - - - 187

1653 A popular tumult - - - ib.
Louis XIV. dismisses Mazarine - - ib.

1655 The cardinal is reinstated in the administration ib.
Progress of the Spanish arms during the civil wars in

France - - - ib.

1656 Turenne forces the Spanish lines at Arras - 188
The French are routed before Valenciennes - ib.
Masterly retreat of Turenne - - ib.
Character of that accomplished general - 189

1658 The Spaniards are defeated by the English and French

near Dunkirk - - - - ib.

Dunkirk surrenders, and is assigned to England ib.

1659 Peace of the Pyrenees - - - 190
1661 Death and character of Cardinal Mazarine - ib.

Affairs of Germany, Poland, and the northern kingdoms 191

Tranquillity of the empire - - ib.

Death of Ferdinand III. and accession of his son, Leo-
pold [A. D. 1657.] - - - - ib.

Sweden under the government of Christina, daughter of
Gustavus Adolphus - - - ib.

Her passion for literature hurtful to her administration ib.

1654 She resigns the crown . . - . 192
Accession of her cousin, Charles X. - ib.

1656 After residing some time in Italy, she visits France 193

1657 She orders Monaldeschi,her favourite, to be assassinated ib.
Returns to Rome, and there passes the remainder of her

life - - - - 194

Retrospective view of the affairs of Poland - ib.

Of Russia - - - 195

Success of Charles X. in Poland [A. D. 1655.] ib.

Combination against that ambitious monarch - ib.

1658 Treaty of Roschild - - - - ib.
Renewal of hostilities - - - - ib.

1660 Drath of Charles - - - - ib.
Treaty of Oliva . . - - 196



CONTENTS. 13

LETTER IX.

History of the Commonwealth of England to the Death of
Oliver Crovixveil; with an account of the Affairs of Scot-
land^ Ireland^ and Holland,

A. D. PAGE

1649 Progress of Cromweirs ambition - - 196

State of England - - - ib.

Commonwealth parliament - - ib.

Council of state - - - ib.

The prince of Wales assumes the title of Charles II. 197

The covenanters declare him king of Scotland ib.

Retrospective view of the affairs of Ireland - ib.

The marquis of Ormond concludes a treaty with the

council of Kilkenny [A. D. 1646.] - - 198

Deliver up Dublin, and other fortified towns, to colonel
Jones, who takes possession of them in the name of

the English parliament [A. D. 1647.] - ib.

A combination is formed for the support of the royal

authority in Ireland [A. D. 1648] - 199

Ormond again takes possession of the government ib.

Cromwell is named lord lieutenant of Ireland by the

English parliament - - ib.

The royalists are routed in attempting to form the siege

of Dublin - - . 200

Cromwell takes Drogheda by storm, and puts the garri-
son to the sword - - - ib.

The whole island submits to him - - 2Q1
•1650 Charles II. agrees to the rigorous terms of the Scottish

Covenanters - - - - ib.

New enterprise of the Marquis of Montrose - £02

He is defeated and made prisoner - - ib.

His magnanimous speech to the Scottish parliament 203

He is condemned to be hanged at the Cross of Edinburgh ib.

His death and character - - 204

Arrival of Charles in Scotland - - ib.

His submission to various indignities - 205

His English enemies make vigorous preparations for the

invasion of Scotland _ - _ 206

Cromwell is appointed commander in chief - ib.

He triumphs over the Scots at Dunbar - 207

He makes himself master of Leith and Edinburgh ib.

1651 Charles is crowned at Scone - - 208

He boldly marches into England with a Scottish army 209

Battle of Worcester - - - ib.

The royalists are routed, and the king is obliged to at-
tempt his escape in disguise - - ib.

He conceals himself in the character of a peasant 210



U CONTENTS.

A. D. PAGE

1651 For greater security ascends a spreading oak ib.
Entrusis himself to colonel Windham, of Dorsetshire ib.
Loyalty and generosity of that gentleman and his family ib.
Charlts embarks in a small vessel at Shoreham, and ar-
rives safily in N(jrmandy - - 211

Every place, in the dominions of Great Britain or Ire-
land submits to the Commonwealth of England ib.

Retrospective view of the affairs of Holland - ib.

The Dutch abolish the dignity of stadtholder - 212

St. John, the English envoy, fails in an attempt to torm

a coalition between the two republics - ib.

The Act of Navigation . _ - ib.

Its purport and political operation - - ib.

Naval war between England and Holland - ib.

1652 Blake, the English admiral, is defeated by the Dutch

fleet, under Van Tromp and De Ruyter - 213

But he obtains a signal victory over them off Portland ib.

1653 The English parliament is dissolved by Cromwell 214
His behaviour on that occasion - - ib.
He remains possessed of the whole civil and military

power ot England, Scotland, and Ireland - 215



Online LibraryWilliam RussellThe history of modern Europe: with an account of the decline & fall of the Roman Empire; and a view of the progress of society, from the rise of the modern kingdoms to the peace of Paris in 1763; in a series of letters from a nobleman to his son (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 50)