William Russell.

The history of modern Europe; with an account of the decline and fall of the Roman empire; and a view of the progress of society, from the rise of the modern kingdoms to the Peace of Paris, in 1763; in a series of letters from a nobleman to his son (Volume 2) online

. (page 1 of 72)
Online LibraryWilliam RussellThe history of modern Europe; with an account of the decline and fall of the Roman empire; and a view of the progress of society, from the rise of the modern kingdoms to the Peace of Paris, in 1763; in a series of letters from a nobleman to his son (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 72)
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THE



HISTORY

OB

MODERN EUROPE:

WITH AN

ACCOUNT OF THE DECLINE AND FALL

OF THE

ROMAN EMPIRE;

AND A

VIEW OF THE PROGRESS OF SOCIETY,

FROM THE

RISE OF THE MODERN KINGDOMS TO THE PEACE
OF PARIS, IN 1763;

IN A
SERIES OF LETTERS FROM A NOBLEMAN TO HIS SON.



NEW EDITION,



WITH A CONTINUATION,

TERMINATING AT THE ELECTION OF THE FIRST REFORMED

PARLIAMENT OF GREAT BRITAIN, IN 1832.

IN FOUR VOLUMES.

VOL.11.



LONDON:

LONGMAN, REES, ORME, & CO.; BALDWIN & CRADOCK ; T. CADELL ; J. RICHARDSON;
J. BOOKER; J. G. & F. RIVINGTON ; J. M. RICHARDSON; HATCHARD & SON; J.
DUNCAN; R. SCHOLEY; HAMII/fON & CO.; HARDING & LEPARD ; WIIITTAKER,
TREACHER, & CO. ; PARBURY & CO. ; SIMPKIN & MARSHALL ; J. ARNOULD ; J. BOHN ;
COWIE & CO.; J. BIGG; .1. DOWDING ; 3. BAIN; E. HODGSON; GOSSLING & EGLEY ;
SMITH, ELDER, & CO. ; T. RUMPUS; R. MACKIE; J. TEMPLEMAN ; J. MAYNARD ; AND B.
FELLOWES; J. PARKER, OXFORD; J. & J. J. DEIGHTON, CAMBRIDGE ; O. & J.ROBINSON,
LIVERPOOL; AND A. & C. BLACK, EDINBURGH.

1833.



London:

GILBERT & RIVINGTON, PRINTERS,

ST. John's sauARE.



2 ?» * V*'



13 /05.

V, ci



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS



VOLUME II.



PART I. — (continued.)



FROM THE RISE OF THE MODERN KINGDOMS TO THE PEACE
OF WESTPHALIA, IN 1618.



LETTER LXVI.

of the Affairs of Poland, Russia, Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, from the latter Part 0/
the Fourteenth to the Middle of the Sixteenth Century.



A.D. PACK

1386 Reign of Jagellon 1

War between the Polanders and the Teutonic Knights .... ibid.
1444 Reign of Casimir IV. .......... 2



1380 Defeat of the Tartars ibid.

1477 Success of John Basilowitz I. over those Barbarians ibid.

War with Poland ... ........ ibid.

1533 Reign of John Basilowitz II. ibid.

1578 Discovery of Siberia . . ........ 3



THE SCANDINAVIAN STATES.



1397 Union of Calmar

Arrogance of queen Margaret ......

Her partiality to the Danes .......

1436 Revolt of the Swedes under Canutson .....

1520 They are finally subdued by Christian II. of Denmark

Horrid massacre of the Swedish nobles .....

Account of Gustavus Vasa .......

1523 He recovers the independence of Sweden, and is chosen king .

Christian II. is deposed .......

Frederic duke of Holstein becomes king of Denmark and Norway
1533 Reign of Christian III

Introduction of the Protestant religion into the northern realms
1560 Death and character of Gustavus .....

4^85x9

A 2



ibid,
ibid.

4
ibid.

5
ibid,
ibid.

6
ibid,
ibid,
ibid.

7
ibid.



CONTENTS.



LETTER LXVII.

History of England, Scotland, and France, from the Peace of Chdteau-Cam-
bresis, in 1559, to the Death of Francis II., and the Return of Mary Queen
of Scots to her native kingdom.

A.D. PAGE

1559 Ambitious views of the duke of Guise and his brothers .... 7
They usurp the whole administration under Francis II. .... 8
They persuade their niece Mary, queen of Scotland and of France, to set up

a claim to the crown of England ....... ibid.

Give orders to their sister, the regent of Scotland, to suppress the Protestant

opinions in that kingdom ........ 9

Measures of the Scottish reformers . ....... ibid.

They are embroiled with the government ...... ibid.

They prepare for their defence . . . . . . . .11

Account of John Knox .......... ibid.

He inflames the populace assembled at Perth, by a violent harangue

against popery .......... ibid.

They break all the images in the churches, and destroy the monasteries . 12

The regent concludes a treatj- with the reformers ..... ibid.

Violates the stipulations .......... ibid.

The Protestants aim at the redress of civil as well as of religious grievances 13

The regent refuses to comply with their demands ..... ibid.

They depose her from that dignity ........ ibid.

She shuts herself up in the fortified town of Leith ..... ibid.

The Protestants, being defeated before that place, implore the assistance

of Elizabeth 14

1560 The queen of England resolves to support them ..... ibid.

Death of the regent . . . . . . . . . .15

View of the progress of the Reformation in France .... 16

Conspiracy of Amboise .......... ibid.

The French Protestants become formidable to the court .... ibid.

Francis and Mary, by the advice of the duke of Guise, conclude with Eli-
zabeth a treaty favourable to the Protestants of Scotland . . .17

The latter proceed rapidly in the work of reformation .... ibid.
The Presbyterian worship is established in that kingdom ... 18
Francis and Mary refuse to ratify the proceedings of the Scottish parlia-
ment ibid.

The Protestants, however, put the statutes in execution .... ibid.

Death of Francis .......... 19

Catharine of Medicis is appointed guardian to her son Charles IX. . . ibid.

1561 Decline of the power of the duke of Guise, and joy of the Scottish Pro-

testants ...... ibid.

Mary is solicited to return to Scotland ....... 20

Her spirited reply to Throgmorton, the English ambassador . . . ibid.

Affecting circumstances that accompanied her voyage to North Britain . 21



LETTER LXVIII.

History of France, England, and Scotland, from the Return of Mary Stuart
to her Native Kingdom, in 1561, till her Imprisonment and the Elevation
of her Son to the Throne ; with a retrospective View of the Affairs of
Spain.

1561 Mary is received by her Scottish subjects with the loudest acclamations

ofjoy 22

She bestows her confidence on the Protestant leaders .... ibid.



CONTENTS.



she with difficulty obtains liberty to celebrate mass in her own chapel
Her enemy, John Knox, acquires great influence both in church and state
She courts the friendship of Elizabeth .....

Jealous prudence of the English queen .....

Cruel bigotry of Philip II. ...... .

Insidious policy of Catharine of Medicis ....

1562 Massacre of the French Protestants at Vassy ....

Deplorable state of France .......

The Huguenots and Catholics rage against each other

Philip sends succours to the Romanists .....

The queen of England supports the Huguenots

Battle of Dreux .........

1563 Assassination of the duke of Guise .....
An accommodation between the Protestants and Catholics
Elizabeth is dissatisfied with the conditions ....

1564 But makes peace with the French court ....
She is apparently on good terms with Mary ....

1565 Marriage of the latter to lord Daniley .....
She suppresses a rebellion excited by Elizabeth
Ungenerous conduct of Elizabeth to the Scottish exiles .
Conspiracy of Bayonne for the extinction of the reformed religion

1566 The queen of Scots accedes to that confederacy
Account of David Rizzio .......

Darnley becomes jealous of his intimacy with Mary

Murder of Rizzio .........

Implacable resentment of Mary against her husband

She is delivered of a son .......

Behaviour of Elizabeth on that intelligence ....

Her parliamentary subjects press her to marry, or settle the succession to

the crown .........

Account of James earl of Bothwell .....

He insinuates himself into the affections of the queen of Scots .

1567 Murder of Darnley ........

The earl of Bothwell is suspected to be the author of it .

Mary, instead of bringing him to justice, honours him with her confidence

and marries him ........

Bothwell attempts to get the young prince into his power

The Scottish nobles associate for the protection of the prince's perso

the punishment of the king's murderers ....

The queen is deserted by her troops at Carberry-hill

Bothwell makes his escape, and dies in a foreign prison

Mary is confined ........

Her disconsolate situation .......

She is constrained to sign a resignation of the crown

The earl of Murray is appointed regent, under the infant king, who is pro

claimed by the name of James VI. ......



and



PAGE

23

ibid.
23

ibid.
24
25
26

27
ibid,
ibid.

28
ibid.



29

ibid,
ibid.

30
ibid,
ibid.

32
ibid.

33
ibid,
ibid.



35

ibid.

36
ibid.

37

ibid.
38

ibid,
ibid,
ibid.

39

40

ibid,
ibid.

41
ibid.

42
ibid.

ibid.



LETTER LXIX.



History of Great Britain, from the Flight of the Queen of Scots into England,
with an Account of the Civil Wars on the Continent, till the Death of
Charles IX. of France, in 1 574.



1567 The Scottish parliament declares the queen's resignation valid, and her

imprisonment lawful .......

1568 A body of the nobles concert measures for supporting her cause
She escapes from confinement, and joins them
They are totally defeated in the battle of Langside
Mary seeks refuge in England ......

Insidious policy of Elizabeth ......



42
43

ibid.

ibid.

44

ibid.



CONTENTS.



1569
1570



1571
1572



1573
1574



She considers herself as umpire between the queen of Scots and her sub-
jects, and proposes to appoint commissioners to hear the pleadings on
both sides ..........

Magnanimous reply of Mary ........

She is induced to consent to the proposed trial ....

She is accused by the regent of having consented to the murder of he
husband ..........

He produces proofs in support of his charge .....

Mary's deputies break off the conferences .....

She refuses either to resign her crown or to associate her son in the go
vernment with her ........

Elizabeth resolves to detain her a prisoner in England

A marriage projected between the queen of Scots and the duke of Norfolk

The scheme is discovered and defeated .

An unsuccessful attempt is made, by the earls of Northumberland and
Westmoreland, to procure liberty for Mary, by force of arms

Violent death of the regent Murray ....

Excommunication of Elizabeth by the Pope

Retrospective view of the religious wars in France .

The battle of St. Denis [1567]

The battle of Jarnac [1569]

Death of the prince of Conde .....

Coligny, the Huguenot leader, invests Poictiers

The young duke of Guise obliges him to raise the siege .

Coligny is defeated in the battle of Moncontour

He again appears formidable .....

The Huguenots, by a new treaty, obtain liberty of conscience,
places of refuge .......

Sanguinary despotism of Philip II. in the Low Countries

Insolence and cruelty of the duke of Alva

Conspiracy for the relief of the queen of Scots

It is discovered, and the duke of Norfolk is put to death for his

Violent proceedings in Scotland .....

The French king insidiously caresses the Huguenots

Massacre of Paris [Aug. 24.] .....

Cautious conduct of Elizabeth .....

The Huguenots are roused by the cruelty of the court to more vigorous
efforts .........

They obtain advantageous terms of peace

Death of Charles IX

His atrocious character ......



and several



share in it



45

ibid.
46

46

47
ibid.

48
ibid.

49
ibid.

50
51
52

ibid,
ibid.

53
ibid,
ibid,
ibid.

54
ibid.

ibid.
55
56
57

ibid.
58
59

ibid.
61

ibid.

62

ibid.

ibid.



LETTER LXX.



History uf Germany, from the Resignation of Charles V. in 1 556, to the
Death of Maximilian II., in 1576, with some Account of the Affairs of
Spain, Italy, and Turkey, during that Period.



1557

1560
1.562
1,563
1.564
1565



I. 566



Ferdinand convokes a diet at Ratisbon, which confirms the Peace of Re-
ligion 63

The pope issues a bull for the re-assembling of the Council of Trent . ibid.

The Protestant princes persist in denying the authority of that council . ibid.

It is finally dissolved .......... 64

Death of Ferdinand ibid.

His son and successor, Maximilian II., is unavoidably engaged in a war

with the Turks ibid.

Solyman II. sends a fleet and army to reduce the island of Malta . . 65

P>ut his general, Mustapha, is obliged to relinquish the enterprize . . ibid.

Solyman enters Hungary at the head of a powerful armv, and invests

Sigeth ' . , . ibid.



CONTENTS. vii



Gallant defence and death of Zerini, the governor .

The place is taken ........

Death of Solyman ........

Selim II. concludes a truce with Maximilian ....

1570 He turns his arms against the island of Cyprus
Obstinate defence of Famagosta .;.....

1571 The whole island submits to the Turks .....
Great naval armament fitted out by the Christian powers under Don

of Austria .........

Battle of Lepanto [Oct. 7-]

Signal defeat of the Turks .......

The Christians derive little advantage from their victory

1573 The Venetians conclude a peace with Selim ....
Don John makes himself master of Tunis ....

1574 It is re-taken, and the garrison put to the sword

Germany enjoys profound peace under the mild sway of Maximilian
1676 His death



Jolm



PAGE

65

ibid,
ibid,
ibid.
CG
ibid,
ibid.

GG

67
ibid,
ibid.

68
ibid,
ibid,
ibid.

69



LETTER LXXI.

A general View of the Transactionsof Europe, from the Death of Charles IX.
in 1574, to the Accession of Henry IF., the first King of France of the
Branch of Bourbon, in 1 589 ; including the Rise of the Republic of Holland,
the Catastrophe of Sebastian King of Portugal, the Execution of Mary
Queen of Scots, and the Defeat of the Spanish Armada.

1574 Accession of Henry III. of France ........ 69

He attempts to restore the royal authority by acting as umpire between the

Protestants and Catholics ......... 70

1575 The king of Navarre places himself at the head of the Protestants . . ibid.

1576 They obtain advantageous conditions ....... ibid.

1577 Are threatened by the famous Catholic League, which is headed by the duke

of Guise ibid,

Philipof Spain declares himself protector of that league .... 71

His motives for this conduct ......... ibid.

Retrospective view of the civil wars in the Low-Countries ... 72
The provinces of Holland and Zealand throw off the Spanish yoke ; and

William prince of Orange lays the foundation of the republic of the

United Provinces .......... ibid.

The duke of Alva, repulsed before Alcmaer, petitions to be recalled

[A.D. 1573] 73

He is succeeded by Requesens in the government of the Low-Countries . ibid.

Middleburgh is taken by the Zealanders [A.D. 1574] .... ibid.
The siege of Leyden ; which the Spaniards are compelled to raise, after the

most vigorous exertions ......... ibid.

The conferences at Breda [A.D. 1575] 74

The revolted provinces, reduced to great distress, offer their sovereignty to

queen Elizabeth .......... ibid.

She rejects it for political reasons ........ ibid.

The Spanish troops in the Netherlands mutiny on the death of Requesens

[A.D. 1576] 75

The pacification of Ghent ......... ibid.

Don John of Austria, the new governor of the Low-Countries, agrees to

confirm it ........... ibid.

He violates his engagements ......... ibid.

1578 Queen Elizabeth engages to support the revolted provinces . , . ibid.
Don John is deposed by a decree of the States ..... 76

They arc distracted by jealousies and dissensions ..... ibid.

Death of Don John .......... ibid.

He is succeeded in the command of the Spanish army in the Netherlands

by the famous Alexander Farnese, prince of Parma .... ibid.



CONTEXTS.



A.D.

15/9
1580



1581
1582



1584



1585



1586



1587



1588



1589



The UNION of the .S'evm P;-oviwce« signed at Utrecht

The nature of that union ........

The United Provinces finally withdraw their allegiance from Philip II.
The expedition of Don Sebastian, king of Portugal, to the coast of Africa

His death

Philip makes himself master of the kingdom of Portugal

Attempt against the life of the prince of Orange

He is opposed to the prince of Parma

Distracted state of affairs in Scotland

James, the young king, is made prisoner at Ruthven

The Spaniards invade Ireland [A.D. 1580]

Account of the voyage of sir Francis Drake

Discontents of the Catholics in England

Plot against the life of Elizabeth ....

Assassination of the prince of Orange
His son Maurice is elected stadtholder
Siege of Antwerp .......

The citizens agree to acknowledge the authority of Philip
Rapid decay of that city ......

The United Provinces offer their sovereignty to Henry III. of France

He rejects it on account of the distracted state of his kingdom

Queen Elizabeth sends an army under the earl of Leicester to assist the

new republic .......

And despatches sir Francis Drake with a fleet to distress the Spaniards in

the West Indies ......

Success of Drake .......

Misconduct of Leicester ......

He is recalled .......

Babington's conspiracy against the life of Elizabeth .
Trial of Mary queen of Scots .....

Her spirited defence ......

She is condemned to death .....

Examination of the evidence against her .
Affecting circumstances attending her execution
Her character .......

Hypocrisy of Elizabeth ......

The king of Scotland seems determined to revenge the death of
He is induced to live on good terms with the court of England
Naval exploits of Drake and Cavendish ....

Philip II. makes extraordinary preparations for invading England

Naval and military force of Elizabeth

Undaunted courage of the queen ....

The Spanish Armada sails .....

It is defeated by the English fleet, under the earl of Effingham and sir

Francis Drake .........

Wrecked en the Western Isles of Scotland and on the coast of Ireland
The French Protestants are reduced to great distress by the power of the

Catholic League ......

Ambition of the duke of Guise ....

His violent death .......

The duke of Mayenne superintends the League
Henry enters into a confederacy with the Huguenots
He is assassinated by James Clement, a Dominican friar
Reflections on such fanatical acts of violence



his mother



P.\GE

77
ibid,
ibid.



LETTER LXXII.

The general View of Europe continued from the Accession of Henry I F. to the
Peace of Vervins, in 1598.

1589 Henry IV. the new king of France, is obliged to abandon the siege of Paris 9fi
He applies to the queen of England for aid 97



CONTENTS.



IX



A.D. PAGE

She sends him a supply of men and money ...... 97

1590 He gains the battle of Ivri ibid.

Invests Paris ibid.

That city is relieved by the duke of Parma ...... 98

The king is surrounded with enemies ....... ibid.

1591 Queen Elizabeth sends him fresh succours ...... 99

He forms the siege of Rouen ........ ibid.

The duke of Parma compels him to raise the siege ..... ibid.

1592 Rupture among the Catholics ........ ibid.

Death of the duke of Parma ........ 100

1593 Intrigues of the Spanish faction in France ...... ibid.

Henry, to please the majority of his subjects, embraces the Catholic religion 101

1594 Paris and other places submit to the royal authority .... 102
Progress of prince Maurice and sir Francis Vere in the Low Countries . 103

1595 Henry obliges the duke of Mayenne to sue for an accommodation . . 104
159G The Spaniards take Calais and Amiens ...... ibid.

1597 Henry retakes Amiens .......... 105

1598 He passes the Edict of Nantes in favour of the Huguenots . . . 106
Cadiz is reduced by an English armament ...... ibid.

Great loss is sustained by the Spaniards ....... ibid.

Peace is concluded between Henry IV. and Philip II. at Vervins . . 107



LETTER LXXIII.



History of Spain and the Low Countries, from the Peace of Vervins to the
Truce in 1609, when the Freedom of the United Provinces was acknow-
ledged.



1598



1599



1600

1601
1602
1604

1605

1606
1607
1609



Treaty between England and Holland . . . . . . .107

Death and character of Philip II. ........ 108

His concern in the murder of his son Carlos ...... ibid.

Decline of the Spanish monarchy ........ 109

Transfer of the sovereignty of the Low Countries to the Infanta Isabella,

married to Albert, archduke of Austria ...... ibid.

The states refuse to acknowledge the authority of the new sovereigns . 110

The United Provinces are precluded from all intercourse with Spain, Portu-
gal, or the Spanish Netherlands ....... ibid.

The Dutch turn their views towards the East Indies .... ibid.

War is carried on with vigour in the Low Countries ..... ibid.

The Spaniards are defeated in the battle of Nieuport . . . .111

Bravery of the English troops under sir Francis Vere .... ibid.

Siege of Ostend ibid.

It is changed into a blockade . . . . . . . . .112

Resumed, and the place taken by the famous Spinola .... ibid.

Progress of prince Maurice ......... ibid.

He is opposed by a great army under Spinola ...... 113

Rapid success of that commander ........ ibid.

His troops mutiny for want of pay ........ ibid.

A suspension of arms . . . . . . . . . .114

A truce is concluded for twelve years between Philip III. and the United

Provinces ............ ibid.

Expulsion of the Morescoes ......... ibid.

Impolicy of that measure ibid.



CONTENTS.



LETTER LXXIV.



The domestic History of England, from the Defeat of the Spanish Armada,
in 1588, to the Death of Elizabeth, with some Particulars of Scotland and
Ireland.



A.u.
1588



1593



1594

1599
1600

1601



1603



Economy and vigour, the leading characteristics of Elizabeth's adminis-
tration . . . . . . . . . . . .115

Her bold speech to the parliament ........ ibid.

She supports the decrees of the star chamber and court of high commission . 116

Grievous monopolies under her reign ....... ibid.

Her jealousy of her prerogative ........ ibid.

She obstinately refuses to name a successor ...... 117

Is supposed to have encouraged Gowrie's conspiracy .... ibid.

Distracted and barbarous state of Ireland ....... ibid.

Elizabeth endeavours to civilize it ........ 118

Account of Hugh O'Neale, earl of Tyrone ...... ibid.

He rises in open rebellion, and gains several advantages over the English

commanders ........... ibid.

The earl of Essex is sent against him 119

Essex fails in his enterprise, and returns contrary to the queen's orders . ibid.

He is divested of his employments, and sentenced to remain a prisoner

during her majesty's pleasure ........ ibid.

He cabals against her authority ........ 120

On finding that his intrigues are discovered, he attempts, but in vain, to

raise the city ........... 121

Surrenders at discretion, and is convicted of high treason .... ibid.

Agitation of Elizabeth on signing the warrant for his execution . ,. ibid.

He is privately beheaded in the tower ....... ibid.

His character and conduct considered ....... 122

The king of Scotland sends two ambassadors to congratulate the queen on

her escape from the late conspiracy ....... ibid.

They find the people of England favourable to the succession of their

master ............ ibid.

Lord Mountjoy subdues the Irish rebels 123

Elizabeth sinks into deep melancholy ....... ibid.

Its causes ............ ibid.

Death of the queen [March 24] 125

Her character ........... 126



LETTER LXXV.



Sketch of the French History, from the Peace of Vervins, in 1598, to the
Death of Henry IV., in 1610, with some Account of the Affairs of Ger-
many under Rodolph II.



1598 Wretched state of France at the peace of Vervins
Popular character and liberal policy of Henry IV.
Character of the duke de Sully, his prime minister
Sully's attention to the finances
He augments the revenue, yet diminishes the taxes
His maxims of policy too rigid for a great kingdom
'J'lie king's ideas more just and extensive .

1602 He introduces the culture of silk

1607 Establishes manufactures, and promotes commerce
His licentious amours .....

1608 Intrigues of the court of Spain



126

ibid.

127
ibid,
ibid.

128
ibid,
ibid,
ibid.

129

130



CONTENTS. xi

A.D. PAGE

Disputed succession to the duchies of C'leves and Juliers .... l.SO

Mild and pacific character of the emperor Rodolph 11. ... . ibid.

Ambitionof his brother Matthias ibid.

1609 Evangelical Union and Catholic League in. Germdiny . . . .131

Competitors for the Duchies of Cleves and Juliers ..... ibid.

The emperor sequestrates the disputed fiefs ...... ibid.

The Protestant claimants apply to the king of France for aid . . ibid.
Henry's Grand Scheme of humbling the house of Austria, and of erecting a

balance of power in Europe ........ 132

He agrees to assist the Protestant body in Germany ..... ibid.

His negociations and military preparations ...... ibid.

1610 He assists at the coronation of his queen, Mary of Medicis . . . 133
Is assassinated by Ravaillac, a blood-thirsty bigot ..... ibid.
Character of Henry, and of his reign ....... ibid.



LETTER LXXVL



A general View of the Continent of Europe, from the Assassinatio7i of Henry



Online LibraryWilliam RussellThe history of modern Europe; with an account of the decline and fall of the Roman empire; and a view of the progress of society, from the rise of the modern kingdoms to the Peace of Paris, in 1763; in a series of letters from a nobleman to his son (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 72)