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The Gospels in the Second Century An Examination of the Critical Part of a Work Entitled 'Supernatural Religion' online

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| | 25, 27. |


The same remarks that were made upon Clement will hold also for
Barnabas, except that he permits himself still greater licence. The
marginal notes will have called attention to his eccentricities. He is
carried away by slight resemblances of sound; e.g. he puts [Greek:
himatia] for [Greek: iamata] [Endnote 34:1], [Greek: Zina] for [Greek:
Zion], [Greek: Kurio] for [Greek: Kuro]. He not only omits clauses, but
also adds to the text freely; e.g. in Ps. li. 19 he makes the strange
insertion which is given in brackets, [Greek: Thusia to Theo kardia
suntetrimmenae, [osmae euodias to kurio kardia doxasousa ton peplakota
autaen]]. He has also added words and clauses in several other places.
There can be no question that he quotes largely from memory; several of
his quotations are repeated more than once (Deu. ix. 12; Is. l. 7; Ps.
xxii. 17; Gen. i. 28; Jer. iv. 4); and of these only one, Deut. ix. 12,
reappears in the same form. Often he gives only the sense of a passage;
sometimes he interprets, as in Is. i. 10, where he paraphrases [Greek:
archontes Sodomon] by the simpler [Greek: archontes tou laou toutou]. He
has curiously combined the sense of Gen. xvii. 26, 27 with Gen. xiv.
l4 - in the pursuit of the four kings, it is said that Abraham armed his
servants three hundred and eighteen men; Barnabas says that he
circumcised his household, in all three hundred and eighteen men. In
several cases a resemblance may be noticed between Barnabas and the text
of Cod. A, but this does not appear consistently throughout.

It may be well to give a few examples of the extent to which Barnabas
can carry his freedom of quotation. Instances from the Book of Daniel
should perhaps not be given, as the text of that book is known to have
been in a peculiarly corrupt and unsettled state; so much so that, when
translation of Theodotion was made towards the end of the second
century, it was adopted as the standard text. Barnabas also combines
passages, though not quite to such an extent or so elaborately as
Clement, and he too inserts no mark of division. We will give an example
of this, and at the same time of his paraphrastic method of quotation: -


_Barnabas_ c. ix.

[Greek: [kai ti legei;] Peritmaethaete to sklaeron taes kardias
humon, kai ton trachaelon humon ou mae sklaerunaete.]


_Jer._ iv. 3, 4 _and_ vii. 26.

[Greek: Peritmaethaete to theo humon, kai peritemesthe taen
sklaerokardian humon ... kai esklaerunan ton trachaelon auton...]


A similar case of paraphrase and combination, with nothing to
mark the transition from one passage to the other, would be in c.
xi, Jer. ii. 12, 13 and Is. xvi. 1, 2. For paraphrase we may take
this, from the same chapter: -


_Barnabas_ c. xi.

[Greek: [kai palin heteros prophaetaes legei] Kai aen hae gae
Iakob epainoumenae para pasan taen gaen.]

_Zeph_. iii. 19.

[Greek: kai thaesomai autous eis kauchaema kai onomastous en pasae
tae gae.]


_Barnabas_ c. xv.

[Greek: [autous de moi marturei legon] Idou saemeron haemera estai
hos chilia etae.]

_Ps_. xc. 4

[Greek: hoti chilia etae en ophthalmois sou hos hae haemera hae
echthes haetis diaelthe.]


A very curious instance of freedom is the long narrative of Jacob
blessing the two sons of Joseph in c. xiii (compare Gen. xlviii.
11-19). We note here (and elsewhere) a kind of dramatic tendency, a
fondness for throwing statements into the form of dialogue rather
than narrative. As a narrative this passage may be compared with
the history of Rahab and the spies in Clement.

And yet, in spite of all this licence in quotation, there are some
rather marked instances of exactness; e.g. Is. i. 11-14 in c. ii,
the combined passages from Ps. xxii. 17, cxvii. 12, xxii. 19 in c.
vi, and Ps. i. 3-6 in c. xi. It should also be remembered that in
one case, Deut. ix. 12 in cc. iv and xiv, the same variation is
repeated and is also found in Justin.

It tallies with what we should expect, supposing the writings
attributed to Ignatius (the seven Epistles) to be genuine, that
the quotations from the Old as well as from the New Testament in
them are few and brief. A prisoner, travelling in custody to the
place of execution, would naturally not fill his letters with long
and elaborate references. The quotations from the Old Testament
are as follows: -

_Exact._ | _Slightly | _Variant._ | _Remarks._
| variant._ | |
| | |
_Ad Eph._ |5. Prov. 3.34 | |James. 4.6, 1 Pet. 5.5,
| | | as Ignatius.
| | |
_Ad Magn._ |12. Prov. 18.17. | |
| | |
_Ad Trall._ | |8. Is. 52.5. |


The Epistle to the Ephesians is found also in the Syriac version.
The last quotation from Isaiah, which is however not introduced
with any express marks of reference, is very freely given. The
original is, [Greek: tade legei kurios, di' humas dia pantos to
onoma mou blasphaemeitai en tois ethnesi], for which Ignatius has,
[Greek: ouai gar di' ou epi mataiotaeti to onoma mou epi tinon
blasphaemeitai].

The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians and the Martyrium S.
Ignatii contain the following quotations: -

_Exact._ | _Slightly | _Variant._ | _Remarks._
| variant._ | |
| | |
Polycarp, | 2. Ps. 2.11. | |
_Ad. Phil._ | | |
| | |
10. Tob. 4.11. | | |}
12. Ps. 4.4; | | |}in Latin
but through | | |} version only.
Eph. 4.26. | | |}
| | |
_Mart. S. Ign._ | | |
| |2. Lev. 26.12. |
6. Prov. 10.24. | | |


The quotation from Leviticus differs widely from the original,
[Greek: Kai emperipataeso en humin kai esomai humon theos kai
humeis esesthe moi laos], for which we read, [Greek: [gegraptai
gar] Enoikaeso en autois kai emperipataeso].

The quotations from the Clementine Homilies may be thus
presented: -

_Exact._ | _Slightly | _Variant._ | _Remarks._
| | |
Hom. 3. | |18. Deut. 32.7. |
|39. +Gen. 18.21. | |
| Gen. 3.22. | |
39. Gen 6.6. | | |
| Gen. 8.21. | |omission.
| Gen. 22.1. | |
| |42. Gen. 3.3. |
43. Gen. 6.6. | | |
|43. Gen. 22.1. | |not quite as above.
| +Gen. 18.21. | |as above.
Gen. 15.13-16. | | |v.l. comp. text
| | | of A; note for
| | | exactness.
44. Gen. 18.21. | | |as LXX.
| |45. Num. 11.34 |[Greek: bounoun
| | (al.) | epithumion] for
| | | [Greek: mnaemata
| | | taes epithumas].
|47. Deut. 34.4,5.| |
|49. Gen. 49.10. | |cf. Credner,
| | | _Beit._ 2.53.
Hom. 11. | | |
22. Gen. 1.1. | | |
Hom. 16. | | |
6. Gen. 3.22. | | |twice with slightly
| | | different order.
Gen. 3.5. | | |
|6. Ex. 22.28. | |
| |6. Deut. 4.34. |?mem. [Greek:
| | | allothi tou
| | | gegraptai].
Jer. 10.11. | | |
| | Deut. 13.6. |?mem. [Greek:
| | | allae pou].
| | Josh. 23.7. |
| Deut. 10.17. | |
Ps. 35.10. | | |
Ps. 50.1. | | |
Ps. 82.1. | | |
| Deut. 10.14. | |
| Deut. 4.39. | |
| Deut. 10.17. | |repeated as above.
| | Deut. 10.17. |very paraphrastic.
| | |
Hom. 16. | |6. Deut. 4.39. |
7. Deut. 6.13. | | |
Deut. 6.4. | | |
| |8. Josh. 23.7. |as above.
8. Exod. 22.18 + | | |
Jer. 10.11. | | |
Gen. 1.1. | | |
Ps. 19.2. | | |
|8. Ps. 102.26. | |
Gen. 1.26. | | |
| |13. Deut. 13.1-3, |very free.
| | 9, 5, 3. |
Hom. 17. | |18. Num. 12.6. |}paraphrastic
| | Ex. 33.11. |} combination.
Hom. 18. | |17. Is. 40.26,27. |free quotation.
| | Deut. 30.13. |ditto.
18. Is. 1.3. | | |
Is. 1.4. | | |


The example of the Clementine Homilies shows conspicuously the
extremely deceptive character of the argument from silence. All
the quotations from the Old Testament found in them are taken from
five Homilies (iii, xi, xvi, xvii, xviii) out of nineteen, although
the Homilies are lengthy compositions, filling, with the translation
and various readings, four hundred and fourteen large octavo pages
of Dressel's edition [Endnote 38:1]. Of the whole number of quotations
all but seven are taken from two Homilies, iii and xvi. If Hom. xvi
and Hom. xviii had been lost, there would have been no evidence that
the author was acquainted with any book of the Old Testament besides
the Pentateuch; and, if the five Homilies had been lost, there would
have been nothing to show that he was acquainted with the Old Testament
at all. Yet the loss of the two Homilies would have left a volume
of three hundred and seventy-seven pages, and that of the five a
volume of three hundred and fifteen pages. In other words, it is
possible to read three hundred and fifteen pages of the Homilies
with five breaks and come to no quotation from the Old Testament
at all, or three hundred and fifteen pages with only two breaks
and come to none outside the Pentateuch. But the reduced volume
that we have supposed, containing the fourteen Homilies, would
probably exceed in bulk the whole of the extant Christian literature
of the second century up to the time of Irenaeus, with the single
exception of the works of Justin; it will therefore be seen how
precarious must needs be any inference from the silence, not of
all these writings, but merely of a portion of them.

For the rest, the quotations in the Homilies may be said to
observe a fair standard of exactness, one apparently higher than
that in the genuine Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians; at the
same time it should be remembered that the quotations in the
Homilies are much shorter, only two reaching a length of three
verses, while the longest quotations in the Epistle are precisely
those that are most exact. The most striking instance of accuracy
of quotation is perhaps Gen. xv. 13-16 in Hom. iii. 43. On the
other hand, there is marked freedom in the quotations from Deut.
iv. 34, x. 17, xiii. 1-3, xiii. 6. xxx. 15, Is. xl. 26, 27, and
the combined passage, Num. xii. 6 and Ex. xxiii. 11. There are
several repetitions, but these occur too near to each other to
permit of any inference.

Our examination of the Old Testament quotations in Justin is
greatly facilitated by the collection and discussion of them in
Credner's Beiträge [Endnote 39:1], a noble example of that true
patient work which is indeed the reverse of showy, but forms the
solid and well-laid foundation on which alone genuine knowledge
can be built. Credner has collected and compared in the most
elaborate manner the whole of Justin's quotations with the various
readings in the MSS. of the LXX; so that we may state our results
with a much greater confidence than in any other case (except
perhaps Clement of Rome, where we have the equally accurate and
scholarly guidance of Dr. Lightfoot [Endnote 40:1]) that we are
not led astray by imperfect materials. I have availed myself
freely of Credner's collection of variants, indicating the cases
where the existence of documentary (or, in some places,
inferential) evidence for Justin's readings has led to the
quotation being placed in a different class from that to which it
would at first sight seem to belong. I have also, as hitherto, not
assumed an absolutely strict standard for admission to the first
class of 'exact' quotations. Many of Justin's quotations are very
long, and it seemed only right that in these the standard should
be somewhat, though very slightly, relaxed. The chief point that
we have to determine is the extent to which the writers of the
first century were in the habit of freely paraphrasing or quoting
from memory, and it may as a rule be assumed that all the
instances in the first class and most (not quite all) of those in
the second do not admit of such an explanation. I have been glad
in every case where a truly scientific and most impartial writer
like Credner gives his opinion, to make use of it instead of my
own. I have the satisfaction to think that whatever may be the
value of the other sections of this enquiry, this at least is
thoroughly sound, and based upon a really exhaustive sifting of
the data.

The quotations given below are from the undoubted works of Justin,
the Dialogue against Tryphon and the First Apology; the Second
Apology does not appear to contain any quotations either from the
Old or New Testament.

_Exact._ | _Slightly | _Variant._ | _Remarks._
| variant._ | |
| | |
|Apol. 1.59, Gen. | |
| 1.1-3. | |
Dial. 62, Gen. 1. | | |
26-28. | | |
|Dial. 102, Gen. | |free quotation
| 3.15. | | (Credner).
D.62, Gen. 3.22. | | |
|D.127, Gen. | |
| 7.16. | |
|D.139, Gen. 9. | |
| 24-27. | |
|D.127, Gen. 11.5. | |free quotation
| | | (Cr.)
D.102, Gen. 11.6. | | |
|D.92, Gen. 15.6. | |free quotation
| | | (Cr.)
| |Dial.10, +Gen. |
| | 17.14. |
D.127, Gen. 17.22.| | |
|D.56, +Gen. 18. | |ver. 2 repeated
| 1, 2. | | similarly.
| +Gen. 18. 13, 14. | |repeated,
| | | slightly more
| +Gen. 18. 16-23, | | divergent.
| 33. | |
| +Gen. 19. 1, 10, | |
| 16-28 (om. 26). | |marked exactness
| | | in the whole
| | | passage.
D.56, Gen. 21. | | |
9-12. | | |
D.120, Gen. 26.4. | | |
D.58, Gen. 28. | | |
10-12. | | |
|D.58, +(v.l.) Gen. | |
| 28. 13-19. | |
| +(v.l.) Gen. 31. | |
| 10-13. | |
| |D.59, Gen. 35.1. |free quotation
| | | (Cr.)
D.58, Gen. 35. | | |
6-10 (v.l.) | | |
D. 52, Gen. 49. | | |repeated
8-12. | | | similarly.
D. 59, Ex. 2. 23. | | |
D. 60, Ex. 3.2-4+.| |A.1. 62, Ex. 3. 5. |from memory
| | | (Cr.)
|D. 59, Ex. 3. 16. | |
| |A. 1.63, Ex. 3.16 |ver.16 freely
| | (ter), 17. | quoted (Cr.)
| | | [Greek: eirae-
| | | tai pou.]
|D. 126, Ex.6.2-4. | |
| |D. 49, Ex. 17.16. |free quotation
| | | (Cr.)
| |D. 94, Ex. 20.4. |ditto (Cr.)
|D. 75, Ex. 23.20, | |from Lectionary
| 21. | | (Cr.)
D.16, Lev. 26.40, | |D. 20, Ex. 32. 6. |free (Cr.)
41 (v.l.) | | |
|D. 126, Num. 11. | |
| 23. | |
| |A.1.60 (or. obl.), |free (Cr.)
| | D. 94, Num. 21. |
| | 8,9. |
|D. 106, Num. 24. | |through Targum
| 17. | | (Cr.)
| |D. 16, Deut. 10. |from memory
| | 16, 17. | (Cr.)
| |D.96, Deut. 21.23. |both precisely
| | Deut. 27.26. | as St. Paul in
| | | Galatians, and
| | | quoted thence
| | | (Cr.)
D. 126, Deut. 31. | | |
2, 3 (v.l.) | | |
D. 74, Deut. 31. | | |
16-18 (v.l.) | | |
D. 131, Deut. 32. | | |
7-9 (tr.) | | |
|D.20, Deut. 32.15. | |
D. 119, Deut. 32. | | |Targum (Cr.)
16-23. | | |
D. 130, Deut. 32. | | |
43 (v.l.) | | |
|D. 91, +Deut. 33. | |
| 13-17. | |
A.1. 40, Ps. 1 and| | |parts repeated.
2 entire. | | |
|D.97, Ps. 3. 5, 6. | |repeated, more
| | | freely.
D.114, Ps. 8.4. | | |
D.27, Ps. 14.3. | | |
D.28, Ps.18.44,45.| | |
D. 64, Ps.19.6 | | |perhaps from
(A.1.40, vv.1-5). | | | different
| | | MSS., see
| | | Credner.
D.97 ff., Ps. 22. | | |quoted as
1-23. | | | _whole_ Psalm
| | | (bis).
D.133 ff., Ps. 24 | | |
entire. | | |
|D.141, Ps. 32. 2. | |
D.38, Ps. 45.1-17.| | |parts repeated.
D.37, Ps. 47.6-9. | | |
D.22, Ps. 49 | | |
entire. | | |
| |D.34} |{from Eph. 4.8,
| |D.37} Ps. 68.8. |{ Targum.
D.34, Ps. 72 | | |
entire. | | |
D. 124, Ps. 82 | | |
entire. | | |
D.73, Ps. 96 | | |note Christian
entire. | | | interpolation
| | | in ver. 10.
D.37, Ps. 99 | | |
entire. | |D. 83, Ps. 110. |from memory
D.32, Ps. 110 | | 1-4. | (Cr.)
entire. | | |
| |D.110, Ps. 128.3. |from memory
D.85, Ps. 148. | | | (Cr.)
1, 2. | | |
A.1. 37, Is. 1. | | |
3, 4. | | |
| |A.1. 47, Is. 1.7 |sense only
| | (Jer. 2.15). | (Cr.)
| |D.140 (A.1. 53), |
| | Is. 1.9. |
| |A.1. 37, Is. 1. |from memory
| | 11-14. | (Cr.)
|A.1. 44 (61), Is. | |omissions.
| 1.16-30. | |
| |D.82, Is. 1. 23. |from memory
A.1. 39, Is. 2. | | | (Cr.)
3,4. | | |
|D.135, Is. 2. 5,6. | |Targum (Cr.)
D. 133, Is. 3. | | |
9-15 (v.l.) | | |
| |D.27, Is. 3.16. |free quotation
| | | (Cr.)
|D.133, Is. 5. 18- | |repeated.



Online LibraryWilliam SandayThe Gospels in the Second Century An Examination of the Critical Part of a Work Entitled 'Supernatural Religion' → online text (page 4 of 30)