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A New Variorum Edition of Shakespeare: Much adoe about nothing (2nd ed.) online

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score gallons, . . . and the least six score and six, the price of which was fifty shill-
ings; . . . but now of late the merchants have reduced the size, so that they now
scarcely hold five score and eight gallons, for which they demand eight marks. It is
enacted that hereafter no butt shall be admitted which does not contain the old
measure of six score and six gallons, i Ric. Ill, c. 13. — Churchill (p. 58): In de
Comines' account appears for the first time the famous butt of Malmsey in which
Clarence is said to have been drowned, [p. 54] *Le roy Edouard feit mourir son
frere le due de Clarence en une pippe de malvoysie, pour ce qu'il se vouloit faire
Roy comme on disoit' (i : 69). [p. 57] De Comines had a certain personal con-
nection with the English affairs of which he writes. He was the diplomatic agent
of Charles of Burgundy, when Warwick and Clarence took refuge in France, [p. 52]
The first six books of his memoirs were written between 1488 and 1504. [p. 74]
The statement that Clarence was put to death in a butt of wine occurs for the
second time [in Fabyan's Chronicle, 15x6]. De Comines' work, if seen by Fabyan,
must have been seen in MS. It is not mentioned by Fabyan as one of his



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136 THE LIFE AND DEATH OF [act i. sc. iv.

the next roome.

2 O excellent deuice ; and make a fop of him. 155

1 Soft, he wakes.

2 Strike.

1 No, weeU reafon with him.

Cla. Where art thou Keeper? Giue me a cup of wine.

2 You fhall haue Wine enough my Lord anon. 160

155. aKd'\ Om. Qq. 3 Vil. Wb, well,,, Pope, + .

fop\ fcoope Qj. 156. wakes.'\ wakes, [Cla. stirs. Cap.

156-158. 1 Soft^,,, 2 Strike, i No^ 158. ^iVw.]i»/w.Cla.awaketh.QjQ^Qj.

weei'\ I Harke, he ftirs^Jhall Iftriket 159. Keeper f\ keeper^ Qq.

2Atf^f/fi>/j...Qq,Sta.Cam. + .(y?fi*^. 160. 2] Ff,+. I Qq. Sec Murd.

Q,) I Vil. Soft,kewakes, Shall I strike f Cam.+. i Murd. Var. '78 ct cet

sources, and there is no indication elsewhere that he ever used it It is more prob-
able, therefore, that both authors derived their account from popular report. —
Wright: In Hall's Chronicle (Edward IV., p. 326) it is said that Clarence 'was
priuely drouned in a But of Maluesey.' In Holinshed, and in a later passage oi
Hall (p. 34a), this is changed to 'malmesie'; for the two are identical, the wines
deriving their name from Napoli di Malvasia in the Morea, where they were
originally made. Cotgrave has: *Malvoisie: f, Malmesie'; and Malvesie is the
form used in Chaucer. [In regard to the price oi Malmsey at this time the fol-
lowing, from Stow's Survey, 1598, may, possibly, be of interest: 'I read, in the
reign of Henry VII., that no sweet wines were brought into this realm but
Malmsies by the Longobards, paying to the king for his license six shillings and
eightpence of every butt, besides twelve pence for bottle large. I remember
within this fifty years Malmsey not to be sold more than one penny halfpenny
the pint* — p. 240, ed. Morley. — ^Ed.]

158. No. . . him] The First Murderer has apparently forgotten both Richard's
warning in regard to the plausible manner of Clarence, and his own reply that
they were going to use their 'hands and not their tongues.' The Qq give this
speech to the 2 Murderer; it is certainly more like the vacillating spirit he has
shown, than that of the decisive manner of the First murderer. 'Reason' is here,
as frequently in Shakespeare, talk with, converse, — ^Ed.

159-169. thou . . . 3rou] Chambers: The uses of 'thou' and 'you' may be seen
very dearly in this passage. ' Thou' is the customary address from superiors to in-
feriors, and is expressive, besides, of any excitement or sensibility, of familiar tender-
ness as well as of anger; of reverence as well as of contempt Thus the constant
address of Venus to Adonis in Shakespeare's poem is 'thou'; of Adonis to Venus,
'you.' The swaggering host in Merry Wives uses 'thou' to everybody as long as
he is in his pride, but 'you' when he is crestfallen. In a solemn style even
princes are addressed with 'thou' {Hen, V: IV, vii, 74), whereas Falstaff uses
'you' even to Jove {Merry Wives, V, v, 6). Here Clarence addresses the Mur-
derers with 'thou,' but in replying they address him with 'you.' Afterwards
when they reproach him with his faults, they address him with 'thou.' Lines
168, 169 seem discrepant, but here Clarence is addressing hoik Murderers. [See
Abbott, { 232.]



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ACTI. sc. iv.] RICHARD THE THIRD 137

Cla. In Gods name, what art thou ? 161

I A man, as you are.

Cla, But not as I am Royall.

I Nor you as we are, Loyall.

Cla. Thy voice is Thunder, but thy looks are humble. 165

1 My voice is now the Kings, my lookes mine owne.
Cla. How darkly, and how deadly doft thou fpeake ?

Your eyes do menace me : why looke you pale ?
Who fent you hither? Wherefore do you come ?

2 To, to, to— 1 70
Cla. To murther me ?

Both. I, I.

Cla. You fcarfely haue the hearts to tell me fo^
And therefore cannot haue the hearts to do it.
Wherein my Friends haue I offended you / 175

I Offended vs you haue not, but the King.

162. \ A'\ 2 A Qq. Sec. Murd. A 170. 2 To^hm, 7<7,Qq. BothMurd.
Ctin. + . To^ Mai. et seq. (subs.)

163. Iafn\ lam, Qq. To, to, to ] To, to, to, to

164. I Nor\ 2 Nor Qj.^. Sec. Murd. Cap. (errata).

NorQvm,-\-, 171. me?^ me, Qj^^,.

166. I Jify'i 2 ^ Qq. Sec. Murd. Afy 172. Both. /, /.] Am. /. Qq. Both.
Caiii. + . Ay, ay, Rowe et seq.

167. /j^aJke /] /pa^e r QjQ^. 173. You] Ye Johns. Var. '73.

168. Your,„pale /] Om. Qq. f^f^rfely'] fcarce Q^Q^

169. Who,„you comef] Tell me who hearts] heart Q^^
you are? wherefore come you hither t 174. hearts] heart QXl^.
Qq,Sta. (came CljO^,)

167. How darkly, and how deadly] The CowDEN-CLAitKES: These few im-
pressively descriptive words afford ample instruction to those performers who
would duly enact the parts of the two murderers.

168. Your eyes . . . looke you pale] Deuus {Jahrhuch,yu, 134): The omission
of this line in the Qtiarto cannot be due to Shakespeare; the anonymous cor-
rector's dull mind probably could not understand the apparent contradiction
herein contained. — Koppel (p. 18): An explanation of this omission more natural
than that by Delius would be, that the co-worker on this shortened copy, from
which the Quarto was printed, omitted the line on purely dramatic [and com-
passionate?] grounds, because, perhaps, the inadequate performance of it, was
in annoying contrast to its meaning. — ^Vauohan (iii, 37): These words seem
inconsistent with Clarence's very last speech: 'But thy looks are humble': for
Clarence hardly can have meant merely general demeanour by 'looks.' Possibly
these words should be addressed to the Second Murderer. [The word 'you'
shows, I think, that this line is addressed to both Murderers; see note by Cbax-
BKSS, U. 159-169, supra, — ^Ed.]



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138 THE LIFE AND DEATH OF [act i, sc. iv.

Cla. I (hall be reconcilM to him againe. 177

2 Neuer my Lord, therefore prepare to dye.

Cla. Are you drawne forth among a world of men
To flay the innocent? What is my offence ? 180

Where is the Euidence that doth accufe me ?
What lawfuU Queft haue giuen their Verdift vp
Vnto the frowning ludge? Or who pronounced
The bitter fentence of poore Clarence death,
Before I be conui6l by courfe of Law ? 185

To threaten me with death, is moft vnlawfuIL
I charge you, as you hope for any goodneffe, 187

179. drawne forth among'] cald forth 184. Clarence] Clarence's F^, Rowe.
from out Qq, Theob. Warb. Johns. Varr. 1 84, 185. deaths ,„Law /] death /...
Mai. Slecv. Varr. Sta. Cam. + . adl'd law, ¥i ti seq.

„from out Johns, conj. 186. threaten] thteaten Qj. thereaten

180. Whaiis] PVhat* s¥^¥^, Rowe, ■^, Q^

offencel] offence, Q,. vnJawfuIl.'] vnlawfull: Qq.

181. «] tf r^ Qq, Cam. + . 1S7. for any goodneffe] Ff, Rowe,
that doth] thatdoQ^Q^OLaL-^. Sleev. Var. '03, '13, Knt to haue re-

to Qy^. demption Qq et cet.

183. Judge f] iudge, Qq.

179. drawne forth] Steevens: I adhere to the Quarto reading. [See Ttxi,
Nates.] Compare Nobody and Somebody, 1598: 'Thou art cald foorth amongst
a thousand men. To minister this soueraigne Anddote.' [ — Sig. D. Privately
Printed by Alexander Smith, of Glasgow.]

181. is the Baidence] Wrigbt: In the Qq, 'evidence' is plural, and is used
in the collective sense of the body of witnesses. Compare Lear, III, vi, 37.

182. Quest] That is, inquest; compare Hamiet, V, i, 24: 'crowner's quest law.'

184. frowning Judge] Vaughan: Compare 'The sad-eyed justice with his
surly hum Delivering o'er to executor pale The lazy, yawning drone.' — Hen. V:
I, ii, ao2.

185. conuidt . . . Law] See I, i, 47, Note.

185. conui<5t] For other examples of past tenses and participles, from verbs
ending in /, where the present remains unaltered, see Walker, Crit., ii, 324, or
Abbott, § 342.

187. for any goodnesse] Steevens: I have adopted these words from the
Folio, for the sake of introducing variety; the idea of redemption being comprised
in the next line as it stands in the Qq. — ^Malone: This arbitrary alteration was
made, and the subsequent line was omitted [See Teoet. Notes] by the editors of
the Folio, to avoid the penalty of the statute, 3 Jac. 21. For the sake of variety,
however, Steevens follows neither copy. To obtain variety at the expense of
the author's text, is surely a very dear purchase. Nor is the variety here obtained
worth having; for the words as you hope to have redemption, do not supersede,
but naturally introduce, the following line. I adhere, therefore, to Shakespeare's
words, in preference to the arbitrary alteration made by a licenser of the press. . . .
Steevens, by inserting the substituted words, and also retaining the latter part of



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ACT I. sc. iv.] RICHARD THE THIRD



139



That you depart, and lay no hands on me : . 188

The deed you vndertake is damnable.

1 What we will do, we do vpon command. 190

2 And he that hath commanded, is our King.
Cla. Erroneous Vaflals,the great King of Kings

Hath in the Table of his Law commanded

That thou flialt do no murther. Will you then

Spurne at his £di£l,and fulfill a Mans? 195

Take heed : for he holds Vengeance in his hand,

To hurle vpon their heads that breake his Law.

2 And that fame Vengeance doth he hurle on thee, 198

X88. That^ rf, + , Cap. Var. '78, '85, 193. h%s\ this Rowc L

Ran. By Chrifts deare blond Jhed for 194 JhaWl Jhall F,.

ourgreeuousfinnes That Qq et cct. murther. WiU you\ murther^

hands on] hand one Q^. and wilt thou Qq. {murder Q,Q,.) Cam.

191. tf] vs is QyQ,. + . murder ; mit thou Cap. Varr. Mai.
our] the Qq. Sta. Cam. +. Steer. Varr. Sta. murther. Will you Ff

192. Vajfals] vajfaile Qq. vassal et cet. (subs.)

Var. '78, *85» Mai. Steer. Varr. Knt, Sto. 195. Edi^l] edi/is F,F^, Rowe i.

Cam. + . 196. hand ] hands Qq, Cam. + .

193. the Table] the tables Q,Q„ Cam. 198. hurle] throw Qq.
+ . his tables Q^

what had been struck out, has formed a sentence, not only without authority, but
scarcely intelligible, at least if the preposition 'by' is to be connected with the
word 'goodness.' If, on the other hand, he meant that the words — ^'as you hope
for any goodness,' should be considered as parenthetical (as he seems to have
intended, by placing a point after 'goodness'), and that the construction should
be — ^'I charge you by Christ's dear blood, that you depart,' then his deviation
from the author's text is still greater. — BmcH (p. 199) : There are other instances
of this particular appeal [as given in the Quarto], by other characters of Shakes-
peare; if it be here properly altered under the statute of James, in all it must be
equally condemned. The use of it by Isabel, in Meas. for Meas., II, ii, 73-79,
has been allowed, and is admired; though she pleaded for another's life, and
Clarence for his own. But religion in this play was more suspicious than in any
other, by the irony put upon it. If introduced unnecessarily here, how much
more unnecessarily where the same subjects are treated with levity, by serious
and comic characters, as fitting jokes!

19a. Erroneous] Rolfe: Not elsewhere applied to a person by Shakespeare.
He uses the word only here and in j Hen. VI: II, v, 90.

198. And . . . Vengeance] Marshall: These two speeches would seem to
indicate that these Murderers were not taken from the low or peasant class. They
seem to have been acquainted with the history of the time; and were probably
soldiers of fortune, or mercenaries, who must have been common enough during
the civil wars; as they were also in Elizabeth's time, through the war in the Nether-
lands.



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I40 THE LIFE AND DEATH OF [act i, sc. iv.

For falfe Forfwearing, and for murther too :

Thou did'ft receiue the Sacrament, to fight 200

In quarrell of the Houfe of Lancafter.

1 And like a Traitor to the name of God,

Did'ft breake that Vow, and with thy treacherous blade,
Vnrip'ft the Bowels of thy Sou'raignes Sonne.

2 Whom thou was't fwome to cherifli and defend. 205
I How canft thou vrge Gods dreadfuU Law to vs,

When thou haft broke it in fuch deere degree ?

Cla. Alas! for whofe fake did I that ill deede ?
For Edwardy for my Brother, for his fake.
He fends you not to murther me for this : 210

For in that fmne, he is as deepe as I.
If God will be auenged for the deed, 212

199. murther\ tnuder Q^. 207. broke\ brooke (X.

200. S€Lcrament'\ holy sacrament Qq, fuch deerc] fo deare Qq, Cam. + .
Sta. Cam. + . fuch high F^F^, Rowe, + ( - Var. * 73).

200, 201. to fight.,.Lancafler\ One 208. deede f^ deed^ Q,Q,.

line, Qq, Sta. Cam. + . 210. He fends you"] Why firs^ he fends

204. VnHfff\ Vnnpffl F^, Rowe i. ^^ Qq, Sta. Cam. + . ff%^>7rj, as sepa-
Vnript QyOg. Unrifdst Rowe ii et rate line, Cam. + .

seq. 211. that ] this Qq, Sta. Cam. + .

205. ttw*/] wert Qq, Pope, + , Sta. 212. auenged for the] reuenged for
Cam. + . />5MQq, Cam.+.

198-200. thee . . . Thou] See Note on U. 159-169, supra.

201. In . . . Lancaster] Wright: Compare j Hen. VI: III, ii, 6: 'in quarrel
of the house of York.'

204. Vnrip'st] Wright: This word is thus printed in the older copies, probably
on account of the difficulty in pronunciation caused by so many consonants. Sim-
ilarly in Temp.f I, ii, 333: *Thou strokedst me and madest much of me,* F^ has:
'Thou stroakst me & made much of me.' [See Temp., I, ii, 393 of this ed., or
Walker, Crit.y ii, 128; where revisits Hamlet, I, iv, 53, is discussed; or afi
Ant. &* Cleo., I, iii, 87 of this edition. Compare also II, i, 108, post. — ^Ed.]

207. deere] Murray (AT. K D. s. v. dear, a,*): 2. Hard, severe, heavy, grievous;
fell, dire. Common in Old English poetry, but found in no prose writing. . . .
It appears in Spenser (by whom it was perhaps revived), occurs frequently in
Shakespeare, in seventeenth century poets, and archaically in Shelley. By these
later writers it was probably conceived of only as a peculiar poetical sense of dear,
esteemed, valued, and there are uses in Shakespeare evidently associated with both
sense-groups. Rich. II: I, iii, 151: 'The datelesse limit of thy deere exile.'

210. He sends you] Spedding (Sh. Sac. Trans., 1875- '76; p. 40): It may be
doubtful whether, Why Sirs [see Text. Notes] was meant for part of the line, or
for an extra-metrical exclamation.

210. you] For examples of use of ye and 'you,' see Abbott, { 236.



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ACT I. sc. iv.] RICHARD THE THIRD 141

O know you yet, he doth it publiquely, 213

Take not the quarrell from his powrefuU arme :

He needs no indirect, or lawleffe courfe, 215

To cut off thofe that haue offended him.
I Who made thee then a bloudy minifter,

When gallant fpringing braue Plantagenety

That Princely Nouice was ftrucke dead by thee ?

Cla. My Brothers loue, the Diuell, and my Rage. 220

I Thy Brothers Loue, our Duty, and thy Faults,

Prouoke vs hither now, to flaughter thee. 222

213. O kncw..,pu6liqu€iy] Om. Qq. ing Pope et cet

In margin, Pope, Han. 219. Tkaf^ The Q^^

yef^ that Fanner, Steev. Varr. ftrucke\ ftroke Q,. ftrooke Qa-s-

215. orlawUJfe\ Ff, Rowe, Pope, Knt, 221. our Duty] the diuell Qq.

Coll. Wh. i. nor lawful Q»<. nor law- Faults] fault Qq, Pope, + , Cap.

lefe Q, et cet Varr. Mai. Steer. Varr. Cam. + , Dycc ii,

218. gallant fpringing] Q^¥{, Rowe, iii, Huds. Coll. iii.

Sing.Ktly. gallantypringQ^. gallant, 222. Prouoke .,, flaughter] Haue

fprif^ing, Johns. Var. '73. gallant- brought. ^murder Qq.
spirited Anon. ap. Cam. gallant-springe

213. yet] Steevens: We should read that instead of *yet.* In the MS copy
thai would naturally have been written y. Hence the mistake, which I have
corrected, by the advice of Dr Farmer.

3 18. gallant springing] Johnson: That is, blooming Plantaganet; a prince
in the spring of life. — ^Malone: Compare Spenser, Shepherd^ s Calendar y 1579:
'That wouldest me my springing youngth to spil' — February ^ 1. 51. — ^Wright:
The figure is the same as that employed in s ^^' VI: II, vi, 46-51.

219. Princely Nouice] Johnson: That is, youthj one yet new to the world. —
Wright: Cotgrave gives: * Nouice: com. A nouice, a young Monke, or Nunne;
one thats but newly entred into th' Order; also, a yongling, or beginner, in any
profession.'

320. My Brothers loue] 'Brothers' is here used as the subjective genitive.
That is, my love of my brother.

221. our Duty] Deuus {Jakrhuch, vii, 159) objects to the Quarto reading,
devil, on the ground that, it was not likely that the murderers would refer to the
devil in justification of an action which they undertook in obedience to the commands
of the King.— Vauohan (iii, 43): I would retain the reading of the Qq. The
subsequent conversation of the Murderers discloses that they did not pretend to
be actuated by the love, or to be employed in the execution, of justice; and it is
consistent with the ideas of our poet to make the devil betray into punishment
those whom he has instigated to the crime which is punished. So in Rich. II.
Sir Piers of Exton says: 'The devil that told me I did well, Now says the deed is
chronicled in hell,* V, v, 105. [Compare also Macbeth, I, iii, 123-126. *And
oftentimes, to win us to our harm. The instruments of darkness tell us truths. Win
us with honest trifles, to betray's in deepest consequence.' — ^Ed.]



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142 THE LIFE AND DEATH OF [act i, sc. iv.

Cla. If you do loue my Brother, hate not me : 223

I am his Brother, and I loue him well.

If you are hyr'd for meed, go backe againe, 225

And I will fend you to my Brother Gloufter :
Who fhall reward you better for my life.
Then Edward will for tydings of my death.

2 You are deceiuM,
Your Brother Gloufter hates you. 230

Cla. Oh no, he loues me, and he holds me deere :
Go you to him from me.

I I fo we will.

Cla. Tell him, when that our Princely Father Yorke,
Bleft his three Sonnes with his viftorious Arme, 235

He little thought of this diuided Friendfliip :

223. If,„l(me\ Oh if you loue Qq, 229, 230. You are.,, hates you"] Ff,

Cam. + . Rowe. One line, Qq et cet.

my'\ Om. Q^QjQj. 232, 233. As one line, Steev. et seq.

225. arehyf'd'\behirdeQ<{. be hired 233, 238. l] Am. Qq.

Cam. + . are hir'd F^F^ et cet. /] Ay Rowe et seq.

meed'\ neede Q»^. need Pope. 235. Arme^ Yi^ Rowe. arme : And

27,1, Jhall'\ wi/i Qqt Pope, + . chargd vs from his foule to loue each

other ^ Qq et cet

330. Qlouster hates you] Malone: Walpole some years ago suggested from
the Chronicle of Croyland, that the true cause of Gloucester's hatred to Clarence
was, that Clarence was unwilling to share with his hrother that moiety of the
estate of the great Earl of Warwick, to which Gloucester became entitled on his
marriage with the younger sister of the Duchess of Clarence, Lady Anne Neville.
[See Walpole, p. 12, foot-note.] This account of the matter is fully confirmed
by a letter from Sir John Paston to his brother, dated 17 February, 1471-a.
*Yisterday the Kynge, the Qween, my Lordes of Claraunce and Glowcester,
went to Scheen to pardon; men sey, nott alle in cheryte; what wyll falle, men
can nott seye. The Kynge entretyth my Lorde off Clarance ffor my Lorde of
Glowcester; and, as itt is seyde, he answerythe, that he may weell have my Ladye
hys suster in lawe, butt they schall parte no lyvelod, as he seythe; so what wyll
falle can I nott seye. * [PasUm Letters, iii, 38].

233. I so we wiU] This line is, perhaps, worth noting as an example of irony
in its Greek sense, ». «., dissimulation. Compare the reply of Banqug: *My lord,
I will not,' when Macbeth says to him, *Fail not our feast,' III, i, 28.— Ed.

234. that] For examples of 'that' used as a conjunctional afl^, see Abbott,

S 287.

23S» 236. Blest . . . Friendship] Spedding {Sk. Soc, Trans,, i875-'76; p. 11):
[The omission of the line 'And charged us from his soul to love each other' in the
Folio], if done on purpose, would certainly look like the work of a very injudicious
corrector. But it is not like the way in which editorial mis-judgement commonly
acts; whereas the dropping out of a whole line is one of the ordinary accidents of



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ACT I, sc. iv.] RICHARD THE THIRD



143



Bid Gloufter thinke on this, and he will weepe. 237

I I Milflones, as he lelToned vs to weepe.

Cla. O do not (lander him, for he is Idnde.

I Right, as Snow in Harueft : 240

Come, you deceiue your felfe,
^Tis he that fends vs to deftroy you heere.

Cla. It cannot be, for he bewept my Fortune,
And hugged me in his armes, and fwore with fobs,
That he would labour my deliuery. 245

I Why fo he doth, when he deliuers you

237. on\ of Qq, Sta. Cain. + . Cam. + .

238. MtiJiorus\ Millstones Voi^ttstx\. 241. Gww] Om. Pope, + .

(sabs. ) 242. fends. . .heere'\ fent vs hither now

leffoned'\ Uffond Cix^, to flaughter thae Q„ Cam. + . (murder

24a Right'\ Om. Pope,+ (-Var. Q»^.)

'73). Sep. line, Cam.+, Dyce ii, iii, 243, 244. he, ..Fortune, And] when

Huds. I parted with him. He Qq, Cam. + .

Right, as] ^1^-4/ Vaughan. 244. hug^d] hudg Q .

240, 241. Right...felfe] Ff, Rowe. 246-248. i lVhy...2 Make] 2 PVhy
One line, Qq ct cct. ... i Make Qq. Sec. Murd. Why...

as. ..felfe] One line, Cam. + , First Murd. J/«>&^ Cam. + .
Dyce ii, iii, Huds. 24,6. when ...you] now... thee Qq,

241. Come, you deceiue your]¥i,'R.Gvrt. Cam. + .
thou deceiuft thy Qq. Thou deceivest thy

the press, where there is no editor to look after it. [Spedding, therefore, includes
this among the alterations in the Folio not intended by Shakespeare.]

237i 238. he . . . Milstones] Steevens: So, in Massinger's City Madam:
* — ^He good gentleman Will weep when he hears how we are used, — ^yes, mill-stones.'
pV, iii, 5, 6. See I, iii, 371, supra,]

239. O . . . kinde] Oechelhauser (Essay, p. 70): It is manifest from this,
how great is Gloucester's power of dissimulation afterward revealed to others,
who could not have known him nearly so well as his own brother. In the drama
his other brother Edward has no suspicion of Gloucester's intrigues.

240. Snow in Haruest] Wright: Referring to Proverbs, xxvi, i: * As snow in
summer, and as rain in harvest, so honour is not seemly for a fool.' The First
Murderer understands 'kind' in the sense of natural.

243-245. he bewept . . . deliuery] Marshall: Referring back to the first
scene of this act we do not find anything in the text to warrant this description by
Clarence of the farewell between him and his treacherous brother; but it is possible
that these lines are intended to give a hint to the actor of Richard in his parting
scene with Clarence, and that the final farewell, though no words are spoken,
should be as emotional in action as it is here described. [This exaggeration by
Clarence is the natural consequence, I think, of his intense desire to convince the
murderers of their mistake. His life may depend upon a single word; in such
a crisis is he to be held strictly accountable ? — Ed.]

245. labour] Murray (N. E. D. s. v. I. 6, 7, and 8) gives many examples of
this transitive use of 'labour,' marking it, however, as obsolete. — ^Ed.



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144 ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ DEATH OF [act i. sc. iv.

From this earths thraldome, to the ioyes of heauen. 247

2 Make peace with God, for you muft die my Lord.

Cla. Haue you that holy feeling in your foules,
To counfaile me to make my peace with God, 250

And are you yet to your owne foules fo blinde,
That you will warre with God, by murdering me.
O firs confider, they that fet you on
To do this deede, will hate you for the deede.

2 What (hall we do ? 255



Online LibraryWilliam ShakespeareA New Variorum Edition of Shakespeare: Much adoe about nothing (2nd ed.) → online text (page 19 of 82)