William Shakespeare.

Shakespeare's Twelfth night; or, what you will, with introduction, notes, and plan of preparation. (Selected.) online

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English Classics, Etc.,


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Classes in English Literature, Reading, Grammar, etc.


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Parts L


fenaKespeare's as it ou JL>LKe It, ete.1 (Selections.)
Shakespeare's King John and Kl,>^ Richard II. (Selecttone.)
Shakespeare's King Henry IV., l^Mg Henry V., Bang Henry
TT. C^elections.) \

** 84 Shakespeare's Henry Vm., and Julius Caesar. (Selections.)




No. 25 Wordsworth's Excursion. (Book L)

S6 Pope's Essay on Criticism.

37 Spenser's Faerie Queene. (Cantos L and EL)

28 Cowper's Task. (Book I.)

29 Milton's Comus.

80 Tennyson's Enoch Arden, The Lotus Eaters, UlysBes* and

81 Irving's Sketch Book. (Selections.)

82 Dickens' Christmas CaroL (Condensed.)
88 Carlyle's Hero as a Prophet.

84 Maeaulay's Warren Hastings. (Condensed.)

85 Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield. (Condensed.)

86 Tennyson's The Two Toices, and A Dream of Fair Women.
8? Memory Quotations.

88 CavaUer Poets.

89 Dryden's Alexander's Feast, and MacFlecknoe.

40 Keats' The Eve of St. Agnes.

41 Irving's Legend of Sleepy Hollow.

42 Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare.
48 Le Kow's How to Teach Reading.

44 Webster's Bunker Hill Orations.

45 The Academy Orthoeplst. A Manual of Pronunciation.

46 Milton's Lycidas, and Hymn on the ^Nativity.

47 Bryant's Thauatopsis, and Other Poems.

48 Kuskin's Modern Painters. (Selections.)

49 The Shakespeare Speaker.

50 Thackeray's Boundabout Papers.

51 Webster's Oration on Adams and Jefferson.

52 Brown's Bab and His Friends.
58 Morris's Life and Heath of Jason.

54 Burke's Speech on American Taxation.

55 Pope's Bape of the Lock.

56 Tennyson's Elaine.

57 Tennyson's In Memorlam.

58 Church's Story of the JSneld.

59 Church's Story of the Iliad.

60 Swift's GuUiver's Toyage to Lillipnt.

61 Maeaulay's Essay on Lord Bacon. (Condensed.)

62 The Alccstis of Euripides. English Version by R^.R. Potter, M. A.
68 The AntlgoBje of Sophocles. English Version by Thomas Franck'

Im, D.D.

64 Elizabeth Barrett Browning. (Selected Poems.)]

65 Bobert Browning, (Selected Poems.)

66 Addison's The Spectator. (Selections.)

67 Scenes from George Eliot's Adam Bede.

68 Matthew Arnold's Culture and Anarchy,

Continued on last page.


Twelfth Night;

Or, what you WILL

Introduction, Notes, and Plan of Preparation,


Pi'ofessor of the Ene^lish Languag^e and Literature in tke ■iJ^WA.'/y/i

J'olytechnic Institute, and author of a " Text-Book on Rhetoric,''^

a " Text-Book on English Literature," and one of the authors

of Reed &■ Kellogg' s " Graded Lessons in English "

and "Higher Lessons in English"

etc., etc.

New York :

Effingham Maynard & Co., Publishers,

771 Bkoadwav and 67 & 69 Ninth St.

"^ "^ ^ \

— ■ — "^^^Va

kellogg's editions, -h^ •
Shakespeare's Plays, ^"^

Uni/ornt in style and price "with this volume,




Copyright, 1891, by


The text here presented, adapted for use in mixed
classes, has been carefully collated with that of six or
seven of the latest and best editions. Where there was
any disagreement those readings have been adopted
which seemed most reasonable and were supported by
the best authority.

The notes of English editors have been freely used.
Those taken as the basis of our work have been rigor-
ously pruned wherever they were thought too learned
or too minute, or contained matter that for any other
reason seemed unsuited to our purpose. We have
generously added to them, also, wherever they seemed
to be lacking. B. K.


** An attempt has been made in these new editions ta
interpret Shakespeare by the aid of Shakespeare himself.
The Method of Comparison has been constantly employ-
ed ; and the language used by him in one place has been,
compared with the language used in other places in simi-
lar circumstances, as well as with older English and with
newer English. The text has been as carefully and as
thoroughly annotated as the text of any Greek or Latia

*' The first purpose in this elaborate annotation is, of
course the full working out of Shakespeare's meaning.
The Editor has in all circumstances taken as much pains
with this as if he had been making out the difficult and
obscure terms of a will in which he himself was personally-
interested ; and he submits that this thorough excavation
of the meaning of a really profound thinker is one of the
very best kinds of training that a boy or girl can receive at
school. This is to read the very mind of Shakespeare, and.
to weave his thoughts into the fibre of one's own mental
conctitution. And always new rewards come to the care-
ful reader — in the shape of new meanings, recognition q£



thoughts he had before missed, of relations between the
characters that had hitherto escaped him. For readings
Shakespeare is just hlce examining Nature ; there are no
hollownesses, there is no scamped work, for Shakespeare
is as patiently exact and as first-hand as Nature herself.

" Besides this thorough working-out of Shakespeare's
meaning, advantage has been taken of the opportunity to
teach his English — to make each play an introduction to
the English of Shakespeare. For this purpose copi-
ous collections of similar phrases have been gathered from
other plays ; his idioms have been dwelt upon j his pecu-
liar use of words ; his style and his rhythm. Some
Teachers may consider that too many instances are given ;
but, in teaching, as in everything else, the old French say-
ing is true : Asscz ji^y a, s'il trap ii'y a. The Teacher
need not require each pupil to give him all the instances
collected. If each gives one or two, it will probably be
■enough ; and, among them all, it is certain that one or two
■will stick in the memory. It is probable that, for those pu-
pils who do not study either Greek or Latin, this close ex-
amination of every word and phrase in the text of Shake-
speare wiU be the best substitute that can be found for the
.study of the ancient classics.

*' It were much to be hoped that Shakespeare should
become more and more of a study, and that every boy
and girl should have a thorough knowledge of at least one
play of Shakespeare before leaving school, ."It would be
one of the best lessons in human life, without the chance
of a polluting or degrading experience. It would also
liave the effect of bringing back into the too pale and for-
mal English of modem times a large number of pithy and


vigorous phrases which would help to develop as well as
to reflect vigor in the characters of the readers. Shake-
speare used the English language with more power than
any other writer that ever lived — ^he made it do more and
say more than it had ever done ; he made it speak in a
more original way ; and his combinations of words are per-
petual provocations and invitations to originality and to
newness of insight." — ^J. M. D. Meiklejohn, M.A.,
Professor of the Theory, History, and Practice of Educa"
iio7i in the University of St. Andrews^

Shakespeare's Grammap.

Shakespeare lived at a time when the grammar and vocabnlary of
the Enghsh language were in a state of transition. Various points
were not yet settled ; and so Shakespeare's grammar is not only
Bomewhat different from our own but is by no means uniform in
itself. In the Elizabethan age, "Almost any part of speech can'be
used as any other part of speech. An adverb can be used as a verb,
*They askance their eyes;' as a noun, 'the backward and abysm
of time;' or as an adjective, 'a seldona pleasure.' Any noun, ad-
jective, or neuter [intrans.] verb can be used as an active [trans.]
verb. You can ' happy ' your friend, ' malice ' or ' foot ' your en-
emy, or ' fall ' an axe on his neck. An adjective can be used as
an adverb; and you can speak and act 'easy,' 'free,' 'excel-
lent ; ' or as a noun, and you can talk of ' fair ' instead of ' beau-
ty,' and ' a pale ' instead of ' a paleness.' Even the pronouns are
not exempt from these metamorphoses. A ' he ' is used for a man,
and a lady is described by a gentleman as ' the fairest she he has yet
beheld.' In the second place, every variety of apparent grammati-
cal inaccuracy meets us. He for Aim, him for he ; spokA and took for
spoken and taken ; plural nominatives with singular verbs ; relatives
omitted where they are now considered necessary ; unnecessary an-
tecedents inserted ; shall for mil, sJwuld for would^ would for ivish ;
10 omitted after ' 1 ought,^ inserted after ' / durst ; ' double nega-
tives • double comparatives (' more better,' &c.) and superlatives ;
such followed hj which [or thaf], that by as^ as used for as if ; that
for so that ; and lastly some verbs apparently with two nominatives,
and others without any nominative at all."— Dr. Abbott's Shakespe-
Han Grammar.

Shakespeare's VersifieaUon.

Shakespeare's Plays are written mainly in what is known as UU'
Timed, or blank-verse ; but they contain a number of riming, and a
considerable number of prose, lines. As a general rule, rime is
much commoner in the earlier than in the later plays. Thus, Love's
Zaftw's Xos< contains nearly 1,100 rimina: lines, while (if we except
the songs) Winter's Tale has none. The Merchant of Venice has

In speaking we lay a stress on particular syllables : this stress is
called accent. When the words of a composition are so arranged
that the accent recurs at regular intervals, the composition is said to
be metrical or rhythmical. Rhythm, or Metre, is an embellishment
of language which, though it does not constitute poetry itself, yet
provides it with a suitably elegant dress ; and hence most modern
poets have written in metre. In blank ve'-se the lines consist usu-

any of ten syllables, of which the second, fourth, sixth, eighth, and
Jenth are accented. The line consists, therefore, of five parts, each
of which contains an unaccented followed by an accented syllable,
as in the word attend. Each of these five parts forms what is called
Afoot or measure ; and the five together form a pentameter. " Penta-
meter " is a Greek word signifying " five measures," This is the
^sual form of a line of blank verse. But a long poem composed en-
tirely of such lines would be monotonous, and for the sake of variety-
several important modifications have been introduced.

(a) After the tenth syllable, one or two unaccented syllables are
sometimes added ; as —

" Me-tkought [ you said \ you nei \ ther lend \ nor hor I row."

(J) In any foot the accent may be shifted from the second to the
first syllable, provided two accented syllables do not come together.

" Pluck' the I young suck' \ ing cubs' \from the' \ she 'bear'. \ "

(c) In such words as "yesterday," "voluntary," "honesty," the
syllables -day., -ta-, and ty falling in the place of the accent, are»
for the purposes of the verse, regarded as truly accented.

" Bars' me I the right' \ of vol'- \ un-ta' \ ry chocs' \ ing."*"*

{d) Sometimes we have a succession of accented syllables ; this
occurs with monosyllabic feet only.

" Why, noio, blow wind, swell billow, and swim bark.^"^

(e) Sometimes, but more rarely, two or even three unaccented
syllables occupy the place of one ; as —

" He says | he does, | be-ing then \ mostflai, \ ter-ed.'"''

(f) Lines may have any number of feet from one to six.

Finally, Shakespeare adds much to the pleasing variety of hif^
blank verse by placing the pauses in different parts of the line
(especially after the second or third foot), insteaa of placing them
all at the ends of lines, as was the earlier custom.

N. B. — In some cases the rhythm requires that what we usually
pronounce as one syllable shall be divided into two, asfl-er (fire),
su-er (sure), mi-el /mile), &c. • too-elve (twelve), jaw-ee (joy), &c.
Similarly, she-on (-tion or -sion).

It is very important to give the pupil plenty of ear-training by
means of formal scansion. This will greatly assist him inhis



To attain to the standard of ' Perfect Pos-
session,' the reader ought to have an inti-
mate and ready knowledge of the subject.
(See opposite page.)

The student ought,' first of all, to read the
play as a pleasure ; then to read it over again,
with his mind upon the characters and the
plot ; and lastly, to read it for the meanings,
grammar, &c.

With the help of the scheme, he can easily
draw up for himself short examination papers
(i) on each scene, (2) on each act, (3) on
the whole play.



1. The Plot and Story of the Play.

(a) The general plot ;
(d) The special incidents.

2. The Characters: Ability to give a connected account

of all that is done and most of what is said by
each character in the play.
S. The Influence and Interplay of the Characters upon
each other.

(a) Relation of A to B and of B to A ;
(i>) Relation of A to C and D.
4. Complete Possession of the Language.
{a) Meanings of words ;

(5) Use of old words, or of words in an old mean-

(c) Grammar;

(d) Ability to quote lines to illustrate a gram-

matical point,
§» Power to Reproduce, or Quote.

(a) What was said by A or B on a particular

occasion ;
(d) What was said by A in reply to B ;

(c) What argument was used by C at a particu-

lar juncture ;

(d) To quote a line in instance of an idiom or of

a peculiar meaning.
il Power to Locate.

(a) To attribute a line or statement to a certain

person on a certain occasion ;
(3) To cap a line ;
(c) To fill in the right word or epithe*


This delightful comedy, which was first published
in the folio collection of 1623, was long supposed to
be one of its author's latest compositions. But in
1828 there was discovered in the British Museum a
manuscript diary of a student of the Middle Temple,
recording the performance of the play at a Candlemas
feast In 1602 ; and. as Meres' list, 1598, does not in-
clude this comedy, we are warranted in concluding
that it was written some time between 1598 and 1602,

The serious portions of the plot appear to have
been imitated from an Italian comedy, founded on
one of Bandello's novels, and having the general title
of // Sacrijicio. The Rev. Joseph Hunter, in his N'e'w
Ilhcstrations of Shakespeare, suggested this source,
and the suggestion is well supported by the analysis
he gives of // Sacrijicio, the chief portion of the
analysis being as follows : —

" Fabritio and Lelia, a brother and sister, are sepa-
rated at the sack of Rome in 1527. Lelia is carried to
Modena, where resides Flamineo, to whom she had
formerly been attached. Lelia disguises herself as a
boy, and enters his service. Flamineo had forgotton



Lelia, and was a suitor to Isabella, a Modenese lady.
Lelia in her male attire is employed in love embassies
from Flamineo to Isabella. Isabella is insensible to
the importunities of Flamineo, but conceives a violent
passion for Lelia, mistaking her for a man. In the
third act Fabritio arrives at Modena, v^rhen mistakes
arise, owing to the close resemblance there is between
Fabritio and his sister in male attire. Ultimately
recognitions take place ; the affections of Isabella are
easily transferred from Lelia to Fabritio ; and Fla-
mineo takes to his bosom the affectionate and faithful
Lelia. . . . We have in the Italian play a subordi-
nate character, named Pasqtiella, to whom Maria cor-
responds ; and, in the subordinate incidents, we find
Fabritio mistaken in the street for Lelia by the servant
of Isabella, who takes him to her mistress's house,
exactly as Sebastian is taken for Viola, and led to the
house of Olivia. . . . Malvolio is a happy adapta-
tion from Malevolti, a character in the // Sucrijicio.
A phrase occurring in a long prologue or preface
prefixed to this play in the Italian {la Notte di Beffava)
appears to me to have suggested the title Tzvelfth

On the evening of the Twelfth Day after Christmas
(the Epifania or Epiphany, commemorating the Visit
of the. Magi), shows and festivities prevailed in Eng-
land as well as on the Continent ; and Shakespeare,
very possibly, in naming his play, judged it suitable


as an entertainment for such occasions as Twelfth

This play, like many others of Shakespeare's, has a
double plot. A twin brother and sister (Sebastian and
Viola) are wrecked in a voyage in the same ship, and
each unknown to the other is rescued.

The sister Viola is in love with the Duke of Illyria,
upon whose coast she has been wrecked, and enters
his service in disguise as a page. But the Duke is in
love with a countess named Olivia, and sends the sup-
posed page to carry his love messages to her. Olivia,
however, complicates matters further by falling in
love with the supposed page. Now Olivia's unclfe.
Sir Toby Belch, has a foolish and rather dissolute
friend, named Sir Andrew Aguecheek, whom he is
persuading to pay attentions to Olivia. The latter
has vowed that she will mourn for her dead brother
and receive no suitors for seven years ; and Sir Toby,
seeing his own candidate discredited, and the page in
favor with Olivia, picks a quarrel with the page, and
in jest sets up Sir Andrew to fight him. Just as the
duel is coming off, the friend of Viola's twin bro,ther
appears on the scene, and, thinking that he sees Sebas-
tian about to fight with a more experienced man than
himself, he intervenes and rescues the supposed t^y.
Sir Andrew, however, is again spurred on to attack
Viola, but this time falls in, not with Viola, but with
her brother, who breaks Sir Andrew's head. Shortly

IN TR on UCTION. 1 3

after, this brother Sebastian meets Olivia and marries
her secretly, Olivia, of course, mistaking him for his
disguised sister. Next day the Duke, v^rith Viola in
attendance, comes to pay his addresses to Olivia. She
begs Viola to declare the marriage, but Viola naturally
denies it. During this complication Sebastian enters
to make his apologies for the brawl with Sir Toby.
Explanations ensue, and the Duke and Viola, and
Sebastian and the Countess Olivia, are of course duly

The second plot is much simpler. Olivia has a
house steward named Malvolio, who has a very great
dislike to Sir Toby Belch, and his friend Sir Andrew
Aguecheck, because they drink and make riot in the
house. He remonstrates with them, and thus also
incurs the enmity of Olivia's maid, Maria, for she is
in love with Sir Toby. The result is, that Sir Toby,
Sir Andrew, the fool Feste, and Maria, all join to-
gether in a conspiracy to punish him. Maria drops
a letter in his way, purporting to be from her mis-
tress, Olivia, expressing great affection for him, and
begg'ng him if he returned her love to smile at her
and to wear yellow stockings and to appear cross-
gartered. All these things Malvolio does, and the
Coui tess supposes him mad. He is accordingly bound
and i^ut in a dark room and exceedingly fooled by
the Clown, who, however, at last carries a letter for
him to his mistress, which induces her to see him.


and, on his presenting the letter he picked up, the
mystery is made clear, and he goes off vowing ven-
geance. Fabian now declares Sir Toby's marriage i
with Maria.

The love matters in this play are abundant, various,
and interesting to a degree. First, Viola's love for
the Duke. Her affection for him grew up while she
"was serving him.

The process, though rapid, is natural. Viola gains
liis heart quickly by her good service. She is musical,
and the Duke being very fond of music, in three days
she is no stranger, as the other attendants observe,
and so the Duke takes her into his full confidence, as
he could not have done with a lady. This confidence
inspires affection, and three days' service produces

The next love matter to be noticed is that of Olivia
for Viola in her assumed character as page (Cesario).
This is a very curious affair altogether, because Olivia
is so dignified and stately a lady, and because Cesario's
mission to her is so very unpleasing that it might
almost be expected to render the message distasteful.
But Olivia is charmed by the frank modesty of the boy,
and he takes her captive at once.

The Duke's hopeless passion for Olivia is very beau-
tifully expressed all through. He at least follows his
own maxim, that the man should be the elder, in mar-


rying Viola at the end. Probably Olivia is nearer his
own age,

Malvolio's love affair, which brings him into such
derision, and indeed puts him into ludicrous predica-
ments throughout, can hardly be regarded as genuine
at all.

Sir Toby Belch finds something congenial in Maria's
love of the comic. Fabian is guilty of a good-natured
untruth when he states that Sir Toby's great importance
caused Maria to write the letter, and that he married
her in recompense ; for it is to be observed that Maria
proposed the trick herself, and that Sir Toby admires
her all through. He has many pet names for her, as
" youngest wren of nine," " little villian, " and so forth.

As regards Olivia's affection for Sebastian, one can
but hope that he may daily become more and more
like the twin-sister who did his wooing for him (he cer-
tainly does not resemble her greatly in character,
though he is so like her in face), or that Olivia may
change her standard a trifle, and prefer more masculine

The characters in Twelfth Xight are all as distinct
from each other, or from any that occur in other plays,
as Shakespeare's invariably are.

Sir Toby Belch seldom appears on the stage entirely
sober, and more than once he appears exceedingly
drunk, When he is reasonably sober, but withal re-
freshed and cheered with a cup of sack, he is not only


witty, but has the art of inventing and carrying- out very
ingenious devices. Indeed, such a delight does Sir
Toby take in his little conspiracy for causing Sir An-
drew and Viola each to be terrified by the other that
he actually sacrifices to it the last hope of carrying
through another scheme, for bringing about a marriage
between Sir Andrew and his niece ; that is if he ever
was really serious in that matter, and was not merely
keeping Sir Andrew hanging on for the purpose of
sponging upon him. Of his wit in his treatment of
Sir Andrew there can be no question. Sir Andrew is
so great a fool that, apart from Sir Toby, he must
necessarily have been a very great bore ; but Sir Toby
has the power of drawing amusement even from the
slow, unoriginal, imitative, thick-headed creature who
acknowledges that many do call him fool. This is
done by flattering Sir Andrew's self-love at one time,
and rousing his jealousy at another ; setting him up to
brag, and laughing at him when Maria " puts him
down ;" lashing him into rage <^with a suggestion that
he may safely vent it), and then rousing all his latent
cowardice, and showing up the abject fear of which the
man can be capable. We may observe, however, that
Sir Toby is faithful to his boon companion ; he brags
for Sir Andrew, as well as provokes him to brag, and
in act i. sc. 3 does not allow Maria to say aoy harm of
him. There seems some sense of kindliness even in the
man who takes gray Capilet on false pretenses from his


foolish friend, and who boasts, "I have been dear to
him, lad, some two thousand strong or so." Note
his behavior when Viola first begins to hope that her
brother lives, and, torn with conflicting doubts, ex-
claims —

"Prove true, imagination, oh, prove true
That I, dear brother, ' now ta''en for you

As soon as he sees her sorrow he acts with kindliness

1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Online LibraryWilliam ShakespeareShakespeare's Twelfth night; or, what you will, with introduction, notes, and plan of preparation. (Selected.) → online text (page 1 of 9)