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The text of this edition of The Te^npest is based upon
a collation of the seventeenth century Folios, the Globe
edition, and that of Delius. As compared with the text
of the earlier editions of Hudson's Shakespeare, it is con-
servative. Exclusive of changes in spelling, punctuation,
and stage directions, very few emendations by eighteenth
century and nineteenth century editors have been adopted ;
and these, with every variation from the First Folio, are
indicated in the textual notes. These notes are printed
immediately below the text, so that a reader or student may
see at a glance the evidence in the case of a disputed read-
ing and have some definite understanding of the reasons for
those differences in the text of Shakespeare which frequently
surprise and very often annoy. A consideration of the more
poetical, or the more dramatically effective, of two variant
readings will often lead to rich results in awakening a spirit
of discriminating interpretation and in developing true crea-
tive criticism. In no sense is this a textual variorum edition.
The variants given are only those of importance and high

The spelling and the punctuation of the text are mod-
ern, except in the case of verb terminations in -ed^ which,
when the e is silent, are printed with the apostrophe in its

place. This is the general usage in the First Folio. Modern



spelling has to a certain extent been followed in the
text variants, but the original spelling has been retained
wherever its peculiarities have been the basis for impor-
tant textual criticism and emendation.

With the exception of the position of the textual vari-
ants, the plan of this edition is similar to that of the old
Hudson Shakespeare. It is impossible to specify the vari-
ous instances of revision and rearrangement in the matter
of the Introduction and the interpretative notes, but the
endeavor has been to retain all that gave the old edition
its unique place and to add the results of what seems vital
and permanent in later inquiry and research.

While it is important that the principle of suum cuique
be attended to so far as is possible in matters of research
and scholarship, it is becoming more and more difficult to
give every man his own in Shakespearian annotation. The
amount of material accumulated is so great that the identity-
origin of much important comment and suggestion is either
wholly lost or so crushed out of shape as to be beyond
recognition. Instructive significance perhaps attaches to
this in editing the works of one who quietly made so much
of materials gathered by others. But the list of authorities
given on page li will indicate the chief source of much
that has gone to enrich the value of this edition. Espe-
cial acknowledgment is here made of the obligations to
Dr. William Aldis Wright and Dr. Horace Howard Furness,
whose work in the collation of Folios and the more impor-
tant English and American editions of Shakespeare has been
of such value to all subsequent editors and investigators.


With regard to the general plan of this revision of Hud-
son's Shakespeare, Professor W. P. Trent, of Columbia Uni-
versity, has offered valuable suggestions and given important
advice ; and to Mr. M. Grant Daniell's patience, accuracy,
and judgment this volume owes both its freedom from many
a blunder and its possession of a carefully arranged index.




I. Sources ix

The Main Plot x

An Unknown Romance x

The History of Witold xi

Die Schone Sidea xii

Las Noches de Invierno xiii

Thomas's Historye of Italye xiv

Storm and Shipwreck xiv

Strachey's True Reportory xv

Jourdan's Discovery xvi

A True Declaration xvi

Rich's Newes from Virginia xvii

GoNZALo's Commonwealth xviii

"That Foul Conspiracy," IV, i, 139 xviii

The Masque xix

Prospero's Speech, IV, i, 1 51-156 xx

Prospero's Invocation, V, i, 33-50 xx

Names of Persons and Places xxi

II. Date of Composition xxii

External Evidence xxii

Internal Evidence xxiii

[11. Early Editions xxiv

Folios xxiv

Dryden's Version xxv

Rowe's Editions xxvii




IV. Versification and Diction xxvii

Blank Verse xxvii

Alexandrines xxix

Rhyme xxix

Prose xxxi

V. Scene of Action xxxii

VI. Duration of Action xxxiv

VII. Dramatic Construction and Development . . xxxiv
Analysis by Act and Scene xxxv

VIII. The Characters xxxvii

Prospero xxxvii

Ariel xl

Caliban xliii

Miranda xlv

Ferdinand xlvii

Antonio, Sebastian, and Gonzalo xlvii

The Comic Matter xlix

Authorities (with Abbreviations) li

Chronological Chart Hi

Distribution of Characters Ivi


Act I 3

Act II 43

Act III 72

Act IV 93

Act V Ill

Index of Words and Phrases 133

Title-Page, First Folio Frontispiece


Title-Page, Dryden's Version xxvi


Note. In citations from Shakespeare's plays and nondramatic.
poems the numbering has reference to the Globe edition, except in
the case of this play, where the reference is to this edition.


Coleridge once said that a man carries within him his past
as a tree the rings of its growth. In the plot of The Tempest^
one of Shakespeare's last words to the world, are elements of
the profounder of all his earlier plays, from A Midsummer
Night's Dream and As You Like It, to Hamlet dind Macbeth.
Fairy lore, witch lore, stories of good men kept from their
own by baseness and treachery, inwoven with realistic narra-
tives of adventure told by Elizabethan sailors, and old-world
tales of enchanted islands ringed by mysterious seas, are
here gathered into a drama of purification by suffering, resto-
ration of lost ones, and a great reconciliation at the last.
Though The Tempest probably owes its place as the open-
ing play in the First Folio to its contemporary popularity
and its success as a court performance,^ there is peculiar
fitness in this position which it occupies in the earliest col-
lected edition of Shakespeare's works. It gives the leit-motif
of the whole Shakespearian drama cycle as a contribution to
the philosophy of life.

1 See below, Date of Composition, External Evidence, TheVertue
MS., with quotation from Sidney Lee.



The Main Plot

The interest attaching to The Tempest as one of Shake-
speare's latest plays has led to diligent search for the source
of the main plot. Thus far no tale, romance, or play has
been positively identified as an indisputable basis for the
central incidents of the story. The more important possible
sources are subjoined, but it is probable that, stronger than
any one source in previous play or story, was an autobio-
graphic and allegorical purpose ^ which shaped and com-
pacted to high result material common to historic tradition
and old romance.

I. An Unknown Romatice. The possibility of an undis-
covered romance as the foundation story of The Tempest
is interestingly stated in the following quotation from Thomas
Warton's History of English Poetry:

Nor do I know with what propriety the romance of Aiirelio and
T'sabella^ the scene of which is laid in Scotland, may be mentioned
here. But it was printed in 1 586, in one volume, in ItaHan, French,
and EngHsh. And again in Italian, Spanish, French, and English
in 1588. I was informed by the late Mr. Collins, of Chichester,^ that
Shakespeare's Tempest, for which no origin is yet assigned, was
formed on this favourite romance. But although this information
has not proved true on examination, a useful conclusion may be

1 Suggestive notes on allegory and autobiography in The Tempest
will be found in Lowell's Shakespeare Once More ; Masson's Shake-
speare and Goethe ; Dowden's Shakspere : His Mind and Art ; an essay
by £mile Montegut in the Revue des Deux Mondes, Vol. LVIII ; Victor
Hugo's Introduction to (Etivres Completes de Shakespeare ; Furnivall's
Introduction to The Leopold Shakespeare ; and Sir Daniel Wilson's
Caliban, the Missing Link.

2 William Collins, the poet, 1721-1759. He was insane during the
last six years of his life.


drawn from it, that Shakespeare's story is somewhere to be found
in an Italian novel, at least that the story preceded Shakespeare.
Mr. Collins had searched this subject with no less fidelity than judg-
ment and industry ; but his memory failing in his last calamitous
indisposition, he probably gave me the name of one novel for an-
other. I remember he added a circumstance which may lead to a
discovery, that the principal character of the romance, answering to
Shakespeare's Prospero, was a chemical necromancer, who had
bound a spirit like Ariel to obey his call and perform his services.
It was a common pretence of the dealers in the occult sciences to
have a demon at command.

The Statement by Boswell, the editor of the Variorum of
182 1, that a friend of his had "actually perused an Italian
novel which answered to Mr. Collins's description " probably
has reference to the existence of Aurelio and Isabella^ and
not to an Italian romance containing the plot of The Tempest.
2. The History of Witold. Old English chronicles ^ dealing
with the adventures of Henry Bolingbroke (Earl of Derby),
afterwards Henry the Fourth, tell how Witold, a prince of
Lithuania in the last quarter of the fourteenth century, re-
signed his government to a cousin, Jagiello. Fearful of plots
and schemes to regain what had been given up, Jagiello
threw him into prison, but in 1388 Witold made his escape
with his daughter Sophia. They fled to Prussia, where
Witold began a struggle for his inheritance, and was helped
by a band of English soldiers under the command of Henry
Bolingbroke. In Die historische Elemefite i?i Shakespeares
Sturm^ J. Caro maintains that in this history of Witold we

1 Walsingham, Hist. Anglicana, Rolls ed., II, 197-198. See also
Miss Toulmin Smith's The Earl of Derby^s Expeditions, Camden
Society, 1894.

2 Englische Studien, 1878, II, 141 ff.


have the germ of The Tempest^ a theory warmly supported
by Professor Mark Harvey Liddell in his edition of the play.

3. Die Schone Sidea. Within two centuries the history of
Witold had gathered to itself floating legendary material, and
in Die Schone Sidea (The Fair Sidea), a crude and tedious
comedy by Jakob Ayrer of Nuremberg, who died in 1605,
the Lithuanian prince appears as a magician, with an attend-
ant spirit. Sophia is now the fair Sidea. Interesting points
of resemblance between Ayrer's comedy^ and The Tempest
are : (i) a deposed ruler, given to magic, gets the son of his
rival into his power ; (2) he charms the young man's sword
so that it cannot be drawn from the scabbard ; (3) the young
man is made to carry logs ; (4) Sidea (Miranda) and the
young man fall in love with each other ; and (5) the marriage
of the lovers leads to the reconciliation of the parents.

In his Deiitsches Theater^ published in 1817,^ Tieck first
drew attention to the likeness between Die Schone Sidea and
The Tempest, but he remarked significantly that Ayrer's
comedy had unmistakably the stamp of an imitation. This
view is supported by A. Cohn, who, in his Shakespeare in
Germany, argues that Ayrer " worked after some German
original, and this may come to light in England in the form
of some metamorphosis or other. Neither is it impossible,
or even improbable, that Ayrer's piece itself may have come
to Shakespeare's knowledge through the medium of come-
dians who had returned to England." ^

1 An English version of Die Schbtie Sidea is given in the Appen-
dix to Furness's A New Variortim — The Tempest.

2 In \i\% Alt-Englisches Theater, published in 181 1, Tieck had already
written interestingly of Ayrer's plays and the resemblance between
them and certain Elizabethan dramas.

^ English actors were in Nuremberg in 1604 and 1606.


4. Las Noches de Invierno. The possible sources referred
to above have inland forests and Lithuanian plains as their
scene, and while Shakespeare's genius, stimulated by narra-
tives of Elizabethan seamen (see below), would seem suffi-
cient to effect the " sea-change " found in The Tempest^ recent
research has revealed an interesting Spanish tale in which the
Mediterranean is the scene of enchantment and reconciliation.

In Das Magazin fur die Litteratur des In- tind Auslandes^
January, 1885, Edmund Dorer pointed out the significance
and importance of a tale ^ in a collection called Las noches de
invierno (The Winter Nights), by Antonio de Esclava, pub-
lished in Madrid, 1609. Here King Dardanus, a good man
with supernatural power and knowledge of the black art, is
forced to yield his kingdom to the Emperor Nicephorus.
With his faithful daughter, Seraphina, Dardanus seeks a new
home, and, smiting the waters of the Venetian sea, he makes
a sea palace amid the waves, haunted of sirens and nereids,
who sing and serve the old king and his daughter.

Years pass ; Nicephorus dies ; his younger son, Julianus,
reigns, the elder son, Valentinianus, having been disinherited
because he was peaceable and gentle of heart. But the dis-
inherited prince sails to seek help of the Emperor at Constan-
tinople, and the ship he sails in is controlled by Dardanus in
the guise of an ancient mariner, who takes Valentinianus to
the palace in the sea, where he and Seraphina fall in love and
are wedded. Meanwhile Julianus sails the Adriatic to wed
the daughter of the Roman Emperor, and when returning
with his bride he comes to where his brother's marriage to

1 A condensed translation is given in Porter and Clarke's '■First
Folio ' Shakespeare, The Tempest, where a vigorous plea is made for
its being the main source of the play.


Seraphina is being celebrated. The imperial fleet is wrecked,
Dardanus tells Julianus of his wickedness and doom, and after
many adventures Valentinianus, Seraphina, and Dardanus
come into full possession of all that had been taken from
them by force and treachery.

Internal evidence points to this story of King Dardanus
being but a Spanish version of an Italian original.

5. Thomases History e of Italye. In Thomas's History e of
Italy e, edition of 1561, occurs the following interesting
passage : " Prospero Adorno was established as the Duke
of Millain's [Milan's] liuetenaunt there [Genoa] ; but he
continued scarcely one yeare, tyl by meane of new practises
that he held with Ferdinando, kyng of Naples, he was had
in suspicion to the Milanese." According to Thomas, Pros-
pero was deposed. It is noteworthy that Thomas gives the
name of Ferdinand's predecessor as Alonzo.

Storm and Shipwreck

America may justly claim to have had a large share in
suggesting and shaping the delectable workmanship of The
Teinpest. In May, 1609, a fleet of nine vessels under the
command of Sir George Somers sailed from England with
provisions and five hundred settlers for the newly founded
colony of Virginia. On July 25 a storm separated the
" Sea Adventure " (some narratives give the name as " Sea
Venture ") from the other vessels of the fleet, and, with
Somers and Sir Thomas Gates on board, it was wrecked
three days later on the coast of the Bermudas. The crew
reached one of the islands in safety, and in May, 1610, con-
tinued their voyage to Virginia m two boats of cedar which
they had built on the island. Meanwhile news of the disaster


had reached England, and intense was the excitement there
when in 1610 some of those who had taken part in these
thrilling experiences returned home. That year saw the ap-
pearance of at least four narratives of the wreck, and to all
Shakespeare may have had access. It is not unlikely that he
would learn some details from the lips of the returned sailors
and adventurers themselves. In this connection the fact is
noteworthy that Shakespeare's friends and patrons, the earls
of Southampton and Pembroke, were among the noblemen
interested in the Somers expedition for business reasons.

I . Strachey^s True Repoi^ory. The earliest written narrative
of the shipwreck of the " Sea Adventure " is in a Reportory}
dated July 15, 1610, addressed by William Strachey (Strachy)
from Jamestown to some "excellent lady" in England. The
full title of this Reportory, as printed, probably for the first
time, in Purchas, Part IV, lib. ix, ch. vi, is here given in facsimile :

Chap. VIi

A true reportory of the '^racke , andredempion ofSirTn omasGates

i^^ht i "Ppon^ and from the Ilands of the Bomudas : bit comvtin^ to

Vir^nia, and theeflateofthAt Coionietben, and after y'^n.

der the ^ouernment of the Lord La Warrb,

July 1 5. 1610. -written ^^^ W I l L l a m

Strachy, Efqmre.

k. I.

^AtnB^dreadfuSTempeJl (tbemanifeld deaths tphereof are here tithe life

deferihed) their nracketn Bcrmoda, and thedefirif-

tion ofthefe Hands.

•Xcellent Lady, know cliac vpon Friday late in the euening,wc brake gwunJ out

{ of the Sound oiPljmouU), our whole Fleece then confiftmg of feucn good Ships,

* and two Pinnaces.all which from the faid fecond of Iune,vnto the twenty three

wluly.kept in friendly conforc together not a whole watch at any time , loo-

t^^' ''6*'« "ch of other. Our courfe when we came about the height of be-

weeue itf.and a7.desrees, we declined to the Northward , aod wcording »

^ report, account. The spelling ' reportary ' is also found.


In the Repertory and The Te7npest are several striking
verbal coincidences, both in the account of the storm and in
the description of the birds and berries of the island ; and
the probability is strong that Shakespeare had access to
Strachey's original manuscript, which seems to have been
brought to England by Sir Thomas Gates immediately after
it was written. Strachey was a man of genuine poetic power ;
and it is interesting to note that in 1 6 1 2 he had a lodging in
the Blackfriars, where Shakespeare purchased a house in 1 6 13.

2. Jourdan^s Discovery. Silvester Jourdan (Jourdain) came
to England with Gates in 1610, and in October published
his narrative of the famous wreck under the following title :
A Discovery of the Bannudas, otherunse called the He of
Divels : By Sir Thomas Gates ^ Sir George Sommers, and
Captayne Newport^ zvith diners others. Set forth for the hue
of my Country., and also for the good of the Plantation of

Virginia. Sil.fouRDAN,Lo?ido7i, 1610. Jourdan's pamphlet
describes the region as "never inhabited" but " ever esteemed
and reputed a most prodigious and enchanted place." " Yet
did we find there the ayre so temperate and the country so
aboundantly fruitfull for the sustentation and preseruation
of man's life . . . that we were refreshed and comforted."

3. A True DecIaratio?t. Towards the close of 16 10
appeared a third narrative of the shipwreck of the " Sea
Adventure," and a description of the regions involved. The
title reads : A True Declaration of the Estate of the Colonic
in Virgi?iia, With a Coiifutation of such scandalous Reports
as have tended to the disgrace of so tvorthy a?t enterprise. In
this anonymous pamphlet, purporting to be published " by
Advise and direction of the Councell of Virginia," the wreck
is said to have been caused by a thunderstorm ; the after


events are called a " Tragicall-Comaedie "; and the Bermudas
are described as "an inchanted pile of rockes, and a desert
inhabitation for divels "; but, adds the writer, " all the fairies
of the rocks were but flockes of birds, and all the divels that
haunted the woods were but heardes of swine."

4. Rich 'i- Newes from Virginia. Along with these prose
narratives of the year 1610 must be mentioned a set of
" butter-women's rank to market " verses, a ballad with the
following title : Newes from Virginia. The Lost Flocke trium-
phant^ with the happy Arriual of that famous afid worthy
knight, Sr Thomas Gates, and the well reputed and valiant
Captaine Mr. Christopher Newporte, and others, into Ting-
land. With the manner of their distresse in the Jland of
Deuils {otherwise called Bermoothawes), where they remayned
42 weekes, and builded two Pynaces in which they returned
into Virginia. By R. Rich, Gent., one of the Voyage. London,
1 6 10. The third stanza repeats the interesting spelling " Ber-
moothawes " (cf. note, I, ii, 229):

The seas did rage, the windes did blowe,

distressed were they then ;
Their ship did leake, her tacklings breake,

in daunger were her men.
But heaven was pylotte in this storme,

and to an iland nere,
Bermoothawes call'd, conducted then,

which did abate their feare.

From such contemporary narratives as these Shakespeare
derived color and atmosphere for his enchanted island. That
he did not intend the Bermudas as the scene of the action
is evident from Ariel's words in I, ii, 228-229 (^^^ below,
Scene of Action).


GoNZALo's Commonwealth

Gonzalo's descripton of an ideal commonwealth, II, i,
143-160, was undoubtedly suggested by the following pas-
sages in a chapter entitled Of the Caniballes ^ in John Florio's
English translation of Essais de Montaigne :

(i) It is a nation . . . that hath no kinde of traffike, no knowledge
of Letters, no intelligence of numbers, no name of magistrate, nor
of politike superioritie ; no vse of service, of riches, or of povertie ;
no contracts, no successions, no partitions, no occupation but idle ;
no respect of kinred, but common, no apparell but naturall, no
manuring of lands, no vse of wine, corne, or mettle. The very words
that import lying, falshood, treason, dissimulations, covetousnes,
envie, detraction, and pardon, were never heard of amongst them.

(2) These leave this full possession of goods in common, and
without division to their heires, without other claim or title but that
which nature doth plainely impart vnto all creatures, even as shee
brings them into the world.

Florio's translation was published in 1603, and a new edi-
tion appeared in 1610.

"That Foul Conspiracy," IV, i, 139

One of the famous episodes of the enforced residence of
Somers and his sailors on the Bermudas was an attempt
made by three of the men to set up a little kingdom of their
own. The triumvirate was broken up by a quarrel over a
mass of ambergris found on the shore. In this episode
Washington Irving read a possible origin of " that foul con-
spiracy Of the beast Caliban and his confederates," IV, i,
139-140. See "The Three Kings of the Bermudas," The
Knickerbocker Magazine, January, 1840.

1 Cf. note on ' Caliban,' I, ii, 284.


The Masque

In his Untersuchungen iiber Shakespeares Sturvi^ Meissner-"
finds the source of the Masque, IV, i, 60 ff., in the famous
festivities at Stirling Castle when Prince Henry was bap-
tized: " The representation of happiness by the three figures,
Ceres, Iris, and Juno, was taken by Shakespeare from a
description of the magnificent festival performance at Stir-
ling Castle given by order of King James in 1594 on the
occasion of the baptism of Prince Henry. It was an event
of state of the first importance." This was the Prince Henr}^
who died suddenly in November, 16 12, and Meissner, who
assigns a very late date for the play, finds interesting signifi-
cance in Shakespeare's having probably been at work on
The Tempest at this very time. But the characters of the
Masque in the fourth act are among the conventional clas-
sical and allegorical dramatis personae of this kind of play

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Online LibraryWilliam ShakespeareThe comedy of The tempest → online text (page 1 of 13)