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ITALY

AND

THE ITALIAN ISLANDS.

VOL. II.




ISOLA BELLA, IN THE LAGO flJAGGIORK.



OLIVER & BOYD, EDINBURGH.



ITALY



ITALIAN ISLANDS,



THE EARLIEST AGES TO THE PRESENT TIME.



By WILLIAM SPALDING, Esq.

Professor of Rhetoric in the University of Edinburgh.



U'lTH ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD BV JACKSON, AND ILLUSTRATIVE iMAI'S
AND PLANS ON STEEL.



IN THREE VOLUMES.

VOL. n.



fxiiij €Uiti0ii.



EDINBURGH:
OLIVER & BOYD, TWEEDDALE COURT;

AND

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, & CO., LONDON.



ENTERED IN STATIONERS' HALL,



Printed by Oliver & Rovd,
Tweeddale Court, High Street, Edinburgh.



CONTENTS OF VOL. II.



PART I.

ANCIENT ITALY.

CHAPTER X.

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE CHARACTER, LITERATURE, TOPOGRAPHY,
AND ART, OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN ITALY.

Introduction — Persecutions — Corruptions — Illustrations of
Character — The False Religion and the True — Symmachus
and Ambrose — Ambrose and Theodosius — The Hermit Paulinus
— Monachism — Literature from Constantine to Odoacer
— Theology — Heathen Writers — Struggle of the old Faith —
Ausonius — Claudian's Works — Symmachus — Ammianus — The
Encyclopedists — Christian Writers — Lactantius — Latin Doctors
— Sidonius — The Poems of Prudentius — Topographical An-
tiquities — Apostolic History and Traditions — Domine Quo
Vadis — The Abbey of the Three Fountains — The Catacombs
— Roman Catacombs — Their Graves — Inscriptions — Paintings
and Sculptures — Furniture — Tokens of Martyrdom — Catacombs
elsewhere — The Basilica — Their Origin— The Seven Churches
of Rome — Their Architecture exemplified — The Basilica of Saint
Peter— Characteristics of early Christian Art — Archi*
lecture— Paintings— Mosaics and Sculptures — Surviving Monu-
ments, Page 13



> CONTENTS.

PART 11.
ITALY IN THE DARK AND MIDDLE AGES.



CHAPTER L

THE DARK AGES.

POLITICAL HISTORY ; STATE OF SOCIETY ; LITERATURE AND ART
A. D. 476— A.D. 1000.

POLITICAL HISTORY :— Introduction— The Teutonic Na-
tions — The Italians. First Period : — Odoacerandthe East-
GoTHS : — External History — Theodoric — Belisarius — The
Islands — Internal Polity — Theodoric's Government. Second
Period: — The Lombards: — External History — Alboin — Italy
Imperial and Lombardic — The Roman Revolt — Pepin's Gift
— Charlemagne's Conquest — Internal Polity — The Lombardic
Governors — The Personal Laws — Municipalities — The Imperial
Provinces. Third Period :— The Prankish Empire, and
First Dynasty of the German Empire: — Internal Polity —
Charlemagne's Government — The New Italian Nation — The
Feudal System— jE'.r^erwaZ History — Fall of Charlemagne's Em-
pire — Petty Sovereignties — Anarchy of the Tenth Century — The
Republics — The Greek Provinces — Otho and Crescentius — The
Saracens in the Islands. STATE OF SOCIETY -.—Secular
Relations — Baronage — Vassalage — Serfship — Agriculture —
Commerce — Religion — Superstitions — Monasteries— Nunneries.
LITERATURE -.—The East- GoMs— Cassiodorus— Boethius—
The Lombards— Siint Gregory— The Monks— The Franks—
Barbarism— r/ie Tenth Century— Gerhert. ART:_Its Charac-
ter — The East- Goths — Ravenna — The Lombards— Paxisi —
Spoleto — Florence — Paintings and Mosaics — The Franks and
Saxons — Specimens — Classical Traditions, Page 53



CONTENTS. 7

CHAPTER II.

THE MIDDLE AGES.
POLITICAL HISTORV AND STATE OF SOCIETV.

FIRST PERIOD.

A. D. 1000— A. D. 1300.

POLITICAL HISTORY— Table of Rex^m— The Popedom -
Election of the Popes — Hildebrand — Papal Prerogatives — Inno-
cent — Countess Matilda— Internal Polity — State of Rome —
Rrancaleone — Naples and Sicili/ — The Normans — The Suabian
Kings — Charles of Anjou — Conradin's Murder — The Sicilian
Vespers— The Aragonese Kings in Sicily — Neapolitan and Sici-
lian Parliaments — The Empire and the Republics — Position of
Upper and INIiddle Italy — Guelfs and Ghibellines — Northern
Principalities — Prerogatives of the Crown — The Free Imperial
Cities — Their Constitutional Theory— Frederic Barbarossa in Italy
— The Diet of Roncaglia— The League of Lombardy — The War
of Liberation — The Peace of Constance — Subsequent Revolu-
tions in the Repubhcs — Their successive Enslavement — Forma-
tion of Hereditary Principalities — Constitutional andx^dministra-
tive Details in the Republics — Milan — Verona — Ravenna— Bo-
logna— Padua— Other Cities in Central and Eastern Lombardy
— Cities in Piedmont — Piedmontese Principalities — Piedraonhese
Parliaments. STATE OF SOCIETY— 72e%iora_Prevailing
Devotional Temper — Its Exceptions — Monastic Foundations —
Camaldoli and Saint Romuald — Saint John Gualbert and Vallom-
brosa —Persecutions of Heresy — The Mendicant Orders— Saint
Francis and Laverna — Administration of Justice — Reprisals —
Ordeal — Anecdotes — Villeinage — Its Decline — Free Land-
holders in Tuscany — Amusements — Pageants — Pseudo-chival-
ry, Page 100

CHAPTER in.

THE MIDDLE AGES.
POLITICAL HISTORY AND STATE OF SOCIETY.

SECOND PERIOD.

A. D. 1300— A. D. 1500.

STATE OF SOCIETY— Chaotic aspect of Morality— Religion
— Pilgrimages — Ecclesiastical Reforms — Dissent from Catho-



' CONTENTS.

licism — The Waldenses — Amusements — Warfare — The Con-
dottieri. POLITICAL HISTORY— The Papal States—
— Secession to Avignon — Rienzi — The Schism of the West —
Porcari — State of the Provinces — Naples and Sicily — Robert
the Wise — The two Joannas — The Aragonese — National Par-
liaments — The Principalities of Lombardy — Milan — The
Visconti — The Sforza— Other Princedoms— The Maritime
Republics — Pisa— Count Ugolino — Subjugation by Florence

— Genoa — Wars — Constitution — Decay — Venice — Picture in
the Fifteenth Century—Constitutional History — The Doge —
The Grand Council — The Ten — Foreign Policy — Statistics —
Tragical Incidents — New Constitutional Changes — The Three
Inquisitors — Their Statutes — The Inland Republics oV
Tuscany — The Smaller Cities — Their Revolutions — Cas-
truccio in Lucca — Oligarchies in Siena — Florence — Statistics —
Constitution — Victory of Guelfism and Democracy — Magistracies

— Parliaments — Barbarous Police — New Aristocracy — The
Ciompi — Oligarchies — The Medici — Lorenzo the Magnificent —
The Islands — Corsica — History and Administration — Sar-
dinia — History — Representative Constitution. Political
State of Italy in 1500 — The Great Monarchies of Europe —
The French Invasion — Appropriations of Italy, Page 142



CHAPTER IV.

ITALIAN literature IN THE MIDDLE AGES.
A.D. 1000— a. D. 1500.

First Period : — The Eleventh and Tw^elfth Centuries : —
The Scholastic Philosophy — Schools of Law — Chronicles — The
New Italian Language — Early Sicilian Poetry. Second Pe-
riod : — The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries : —
Mental Character of the Times — The Learning of the Thirteenth
Century — Saint Thomas Aquinas — The Golden Legend — Rise
of the Italian Universities — Troubadours — Sordello the Man-
tuan — Frederic the Second — Pietro delle Vigne — Prose Writers
— Dante Alighieri — His Life and Works — His Divina Commedia
— Its Character — Analysis of its Plan — The Inferno, Purgatorio,
and Paradiso — Petrarch and Boccaccio — Their Classical Stu-
dies — Petrarch's Life and Works — His Love-Poems — Boccac-
cio's Minor Works — His Decameron — Other Novelists — Sac-



CONTENTS. y

chetti — Florentine Chroniclers — Dino Compagni and the Villani.
Third Period: — The Fifteenth Century: — An Age of
Erudition — Printing introduced in Italy — The First Fifty Years

Poggio — The Classical Scholars — Wandering Minstrels and

Chivalrous Romances — The Age of Lorenzo the Mugnificent —
Philosophy in Florence— Politian's Learning and Poetry — Lo-
renzo's PoPHis — Chivalrous Romances at Court — Pulci's Mor-
gante Maggiore — Its Anomalous Character — Boiardo's Orlando
Innamorato— Its Rudeness and Originality, Page 187



CHAPTER V.

ITALIAN ART IN THE MIDDLE AGES.
A.D. 1000— A. D. 1500.

Architecture — The Byzantine Style — Saint Mark's — The Pi~
san Style — Monuments in Tuscany — The Norman Style — Re-
mains in Sicily — Tlie Italian Gothic — Cathedrals — The Doge's
Palace — Florentine Architecture — Fortified Palaces — Arnolfo —
Orcagna_B run elleschi— Ecclesiastical Buildings — Santa Croce —
Santa Maria Novella — Giotto's Belfry — The Cathedral — Sculp-
ture — Nicholas of Pisa — The Cosmati — The Fourteenth Cen-
tury — Andrea — Orcagna — The Fifteenth Century — Splendour
of Florence — Ghiberti's Doors of the Baptistery — Donatello's
Works — His Pupils — Verocchio — The Certosa of Pavia — Paint-
ing — Revival in Tuscany — The Byzantine Style — Remains of
Cimabue — Of Giotto — The Campo Santo of Pisa — Its Paint-
ings of the Fourteenth Century — Giotto — Simone— Buffalmacco
— Antonio — Orcagna's Great Pieces — Laurati — Spinello — Other
Artists— The Fifteenth Century— The Tuscans from 1400^0
1470 — Masaccio's Works — Fra Angelico's Life and Paintings —
Gozzoli — Fra Filippo's Adventures — The Florentine School
after 1470 — Diversified Character — Botticelli — Signorelli and
Others — The Sistine Chapel — Leonardo Da Vinci — His Services
to Art — His Works — TheUmbrian School — Pietro Perugino —
His Scholars — Raffaelle — Pinturicchio — Francia — The Vene-
tian School — Squarcione — Mantegna's Triumph of Caesar — Oil-
painting introduced — Giovanni Bellini — Carpaccio — Character
of Venetian Art fixed, 217



10 CONTENTS.

PART III.
MODERN ITALY.



CHAPTER I.

THE POLITICAL HISTORY OF ITALY TILL THE COMMENCEMENT OP
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.

A, D. 1500— A. D. 1789.

FIRST AGE (1500—1559) :— The Spaniards in Italy— Julius and
Leo — Francis I. and Charles V. — The Sack of Rome — The
Treaty of Chateau-Cambresis. SECOND AGE (1559—1700) :
. — Character of the Times — The Spanish Provinces — Revolts
— Grievances — Naples and Sicily — Fall of the Neapolitan Par-
liament — Sicilian Parliaments — The Duchy of Milan — Changes
— Results — Papal States — NevF Territories — Government —
Tuscany — Cosmo — Taxation — Municipalities — The Three
Small Duchies — The Este — The Farnese — The Gonzaga —
The Four Republics — San Marino — Lucca — Its Oligarchy —
Peasantry — Genoa — Constitution — Fenice — Decay — The Con-
spiracy — The War of Candia — Piedmont — Comparative Pro-
sperity—State of Society— Fall of the Parliaments. THIRD
AGE (1700— 1789) :— The Four Wars— The Treaty of Aix4a-
Chapelle — Naples and Sicily — Don Carlos and Tanucci —
Ferdinand's Government — Communal Boards — The Two Privi-
leged Classes — Justice — Taxation — Vassalage — Entails — The
Papal States — Weakness of Government — Foreign Relations
— Pius the Sixth — The Sardinian Kingdom — Victor Ama-
deus — Evils in Society — Parma and Modena — The Bourbons
— The Este — The Four Republics — Lucca — Oligarchy —
San Marino — Alberoni's Attack — Genoa — Revolt of Corsica —
Venice — Statistics — Society — Church- Commission — The Aus-
trian Princedoms — Milan and Mantua — Maria Theresa's
Administrative Constitution — Joseph's Reforms — Tuscany —
Leopold's Legislation — Reforms — Faults — Communal Coun-
cils, Page 257



CONTENTS. 11

CHAPTER II.

THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY.

LITERATURE, PAINTIKG, SCULPTURE, AND ARCHITECTURE.
A.D. 1500— A. D. 1600.

LITERATURE — Learning— Chivalrous Poems— viWos/o—
The Orlando Furioso — Berni— Wis Poem — Bernardo Tasso —
The Araadigi — Torquato Tasso — His Life — The Gierusalemme
Liberata— The Drama — Tragedies — Trissino— Tasso— Giraldi

Comedies — Bibbiena — Ariosto — Pietro Aretino — Pastorals —

Tasso — Guarini — Operas— Poems Satirical, Didactic, and
Lyrical — Ariosto — Berni — Tasso — Vittoria— Michel Angelo —
Prose Literature — ]Machiavelli's Works — Guicciardini —
OtherHistorians— Science— Novehsts— PAINTING— Michel
Angelo — Easel Paintings — 7 he Sisfine Frescoes — The Old Tes-
tament — The Last Judgment — Raffaelle — His Early Works —
Frescoes in the Vatican — The Pictures of the Four Chambers —
TheLoggie — The Tapestries — The Seven Cartoons — Sketches —
Marcantonio — O/Z-joamiin^s— Masterpieces — The Roman and
Florentine Schools — RaffaelUsts — Giuho Romano — Tus-
cans — Bartolorameo — Andrea — Mannerists — New Schools in
Rome — Mannerism — Revival — Titian and the Venetians —
Giorgione — His Genius — Titian — His Masterpieces — Tintoret-
to — His Energy — Paolo and Bassano — Their Characteristics
— Correggio — Oil-paintings — Frescoes — Parmigianino —
SCULPTURE— Michel Angelo— Early Pieces— The Three
Great Works — Minor Names — Sansovino — Bandinelli — Cellini
—Ammanato— Giovanni Bologna— ARCHITECTURE— In
Rome — Bramante — Peruzzi — Raffaelle — Michel Angelo — San-
gallo — Vignola — Ammanato — In the North — Sanraichele —
Sansovino — Palladio — His Style — His Followers, Page 310

CHAPTER IIL

ITALIAN LITERATURE IN THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH
CENTURIES.

The Seventeenth Century: — The Brama — Establishment of
the Opera — Comedy — Pastorals — The Improvised Comedy —
Its Characters — Epic Poetry — The Adone of Marini—Ly rieaZ
Poetry — The Odes of Chiabrera — The Odes and Sonnets of
Filicaja — Other Lyrists — The Bacco of Redi — Burlesque Epics
— Tassoni and Others — Prose Literature — Boccalini — Gra-
vina— Sarpi — Davila — Science — Galileo — Other Names. Thb



12 CONTENTS.

Eighteenth Century : — Physical Science — Cirillo — Scarpa
— Galvani — Volta — Prose Literature — Muratori — MafiFei— Gian-
none — Denina — Tiraboschi — Lanzi — iNIinor Writers — Miscel-
laneous Poetry — The Ricciardetto — Frugoni — Pignotti — Cesa-
rotti — Parini's Odes and Satire — Varano's Visions — The Opera
— Metastasio's Works — The Comic Drama — Goldoni's Comedies
— Gozzi's Dramatic Fairy-Tales — Albergati — Federici — The
Tragic Drama — Alfieri's History and Character — His Works —
Political Science — Retrospect — Beginnings of Political Economy
in Italy — Political Philosophers in the Eighteenth Century —
Vico's Philosophy of History — Pagano's Writings and Death —
Genovesi's Lectures on Political Economy — Galiani's Dia-
logues on the Corn-Laws — Verri's jNIeditations on Political
Economy — Beccaria on Criminal Law and PoUtical Economy —
Filangieri's Science of Legislation, Page 369

CHAPTER IV.

ITALIAN ART IN THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES,

PAINTING :— The Seventeenth Century— T/ie School of
Bologna — Its Principles — The Three Caracci— Their Works—
Lanfranco and Albano — Domenichino's Genius — Guide Reni —
Guercino — Other Bolognese— Painting in Rome — Landscapes
of Nicholas Poussin — Caspar Poussin — Landscapes of Claude
Lorraine — Salvator Rosa — Historical Pieces of Nicholas Poussin
— Minor Artists— OMer Italian Schools— Florence — Spagno-
letto and Luca Giordano in Naples — Venice — Genoa — Lombardy
— The Procaccini— The Eighteenth Century — Its Feeble
Character — Venetians — Canaletto — Bologna — Florence — Soli-
mene in Naples — Mengsand Batoni in Rome — SCULPTURE:

Works of Bernini — Algardi— II Fiammingo— Minor Artists of

the Seicento— The Eighteenth Century— ARCHITECTURE:
—The Seventeenth Century— Impure Taste— Bad Churches
— Good Palaces — Ponzio — The Family from Como — Ber-
nini's Genius and Works — Venice— Guarini at Turin— The
Eighteenth Century — Mixed Taste — Ivara at Turin —
Vanvitelli at Naples — His Palace of Caserta, 394



ENGRAVINGS IN VOL. II.

Map of Modern Italy, To face the Vignette.

Vignette — Isola Bella, in the Lago Maggiore.

Plan of the Original Basilica of S. Peter's, To face page 47



ITALY

AND

THE ITALIAN ISLANDS.



PART I.

ANCIENT ITALY.



CHAPTER X.

Illustrations of the Character, Literature, Topography,
and Art, of early Christianity in Italy.

Introduction — Persecutions — Corruptions — Illustrations of
Character — The False Religion and the True — Symmachus
and Ambrose — Ambrose and Theodosius — The Hermit Paulinos
— Monachism — Literature from Constantine to Odoacee
(a.d. 306— 476) : — Theology— //"ea^/iera JrnVers— Struggle
of the old Faith — Ausonius — Claudian's Works— Symmachus
— Aramianus — The Encyclopedists — Christian Writers — Lac-
tantius — Latin Doctors — Sidonius — The Poems of Prudentius
— Topographical Antiquities — Apostolic History and
Traditions — Domine Quo Vadis — The Abbey of the Three
Fountains — The Catacombs — Roman Catacombs — Their
Graves — Inscriptions — Paintings and Sculptures — Furniture —
Tokens of Martyrdom — Catacombs elsewhere — The Basilica
— Their Origin — The Seven Churches of Rome — Their Archi-
tecture exemplified — The Basilica of Saint Pet^-r— Character-
istics OF early Christian Art — Architecture — Paintings
— Mosaics and Sculptures — Surviving Monuments.

We have now traced the political revolutions of Italy till
the £all oT the Western Empire in the year of grace 476.



14 ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHRISTIAN ANTIQUITIES.

The literature, arts, and character of the nation have
also been hastily sketched ; but the picture represents
these features in their Pagan aspect ; and attention is
now demanded by a new state of things which arose with
Constantine's recognition of Christianity. The most
important steps of that great measure took place in
the year 824. The ancient Roman empire survived a
century and a half longer ; but it thenceforth occupied
a position exceedingly different from that which it had
formerly held. Those times resemble both the heathen
period and the dark ages, and yet can scarcely be classed
with either.

Under the early emperors, there had sprung up in
Rome, in the midst of its imperial guilt and heathen
idolatry, a religious sect of mean and despised men,
whose moral system possessed a purity hitherto unima-
gined, and was founded on a faith contradicting alike
the licentiousness of the mythological religion professed
by the state, and the proud self-sufficiency of the philo-
sophical theologians. Shielded by the divine favour, this
small society grew and prospered, and its purifying in-
fluence gradually" spread more and more widely. The
rulers soon discovered the progress of the new opinions ;
and, in respect to this sect, the careless toleration of
paganism was violated. While the bad emperors were
incited by casual caprice or malicious counsels, some of
the wise ones were alarmed by inaccurate notions as to
the ulterior views of a community, whose brotherly co-
operation and moral strength were so unlike to the
vicious weakness of the civil government and its instru-
ments. Persecution of the believers in Italy began as
early at least as the reign of Nero, and was repeated at
intervals till the death of Diocletian ; but the prisons
of the martyrs, and the amphitheatres in which they
were brought out to die, became more successful schools
of the true faith than if they had been converted into
churches ; and when Constantine ascended the throne,
such was the prevalence of Christianity in the empire,
that his conversion, whatever may have been the motives



ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHRISTIAN ANTIQUITIES. 15

which really prompted it, had all the effects of a step
dictated by sound views of worldly policy.

But even before that time, the church had declined
deeply both in doctrine and discipline ; and the decay
became still more lamentable in the unhappy period
which followed. There were numerous good men, and
a few who maintained in many points the purity of the
gospel faith ; but the ecclesiastical community at large
was stained by increasing departure from evangelical
truth, by an undue assumption of power on the part of
the higher members of its government, by a worldly and
arrogant temper in its priests, by a half-pagan splendour
in its ceremonies, and (perhaps the worst fault of all)
by an ascetic spirit, which led the clergy to encourage
the growing inclination of devout laymen to seclude
themselves from. alL the active duties of life.

ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER.

No feature of the age is more interesting than the very
natural struggle which ensued between the false religion
and the true. Paganism was dead in spirit ; but long
after the time of Constantine, its dry bones were still
adorned hy the trappings of its mythology and ritual ;
and, especially in Italy, its temples yet stood to remind
the people of its ancient glory. The pomp of the Chris-
tian rites, likewise, which already in some of their varied
shapes rivalled the splendour of the heathen ceremonial,
was less fully displayed in the west than in those
Greek provinces that surrounded the imperial court ;
and in Rome national recollections and family pride
concurred in supporting the image of the fallen worship.
The people were partly heathen, partly Christian ; the
senate was also divided, the majority being pagans till
the time of Theodosius ; the priestly colleges of the an-
cient city were still maintained, and filled by the noblest
Romans ; and the Christian emperors themselves accepted
the nominal dignity of Chief Pontiff.

The apostasy of Julian gave fresh force to the old
party ; and that prince restored to the senate-house of



16 ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHRISTIAN ANTIQUITIES.

Rome the altar and statue of Victory, which had stood
in it during the heathen times, but liad been removed by
Constantine. Gratian abolished the sacerdotal colleges,
and anew displaced from the senate-house the idolatrous
altar and its rites. In the reign of Valentinian I. the
question between the two religions was referred formally
to the throne. A majority of the senate petitioned the
emperor for the restoration of the altar of Victory ; and
the skilfully oratorical petition is still extant, in which
their spokesman, the senator Symmachus, maintained
the cause of the old faith. The rhetoric of the Roman
was outweighed by the eloquence of a yet abler advo-
cate, the celebrated Ambrosius, bishop of Milan, who,
after a distinguished civil career, had devoted himself
with heart and soul to the advancement of religion and
the church. In the year 388, the great Theodosius,
having replaced his co-emperor Valentinian on the
throne of the West, entered Rome in triumph ; the
question as to the religion of the senate was debated in
his presence ; and a majority of the members declared
in favour of Christianity. The heathen party were
never again able to resist, either in the city or in the
provinces ; in 890 their worshij) was prohibited by
imperial edicts ; and early in the succeeding century its
last trace in Italy had vanished. A few men of letters,
whose faith is doubtful, may be classed as sceptics rather
than pagan believers.

The zeal of the devout, and the facility with which
the emperors }' ielded to the tide of feeling in favour of
the church, gave to its ministers a wealth and conside-
ration on which, in some cases, they founded claims not
less arrogant than those of the proudest popes in the
middle ages. But the power of the clergy was often
exerted for purposes which did them honour. No priest
of the age ranked higher than Ambrose, or better de-



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