William Stevens Perry.

The episcopate in America; sketches, biographical and bibliographical, of the bishops of the American Church, with a preliminary essay on the historic episcopate and documentary annals of the introduction of the Anglican line of succession into America online

. (page 1 of 27)
Online LibraryWilliam Stevens PerryThe episcopate in America; sketches, biographical and bibliographical, of the bishops of the American Church, with a preliminary essay on the historic episcopate and documentary annals of the introduction of the Anglican line of succession into America → online text (page 1 of 27)
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€l)c Clirijstiau literature Co.

Copyright, 1895,
By The Cmkishan Litf.rahre Company.



Advertisement vii


Introduci ION xi


. Samuel Seabury I

. William Wliite 5

Samuel Provoost 9

James Madison 11

Tliomas John Claggett I^^

Rol^ert Smith 15

Edward Bass 17

Abraham Jarvis ig

Benjamin Moore 21

Samuel Parker 23

. John Henry Hobart 25

Alexander Viets Griswold 2q

Theodore Dehon 31

Richard Channing Moore t^t,

James Kemp 35

John Croes 37

Nathaniel Bowen 39

Philander Chase 41

Thomas Church Brownell 45

John Stark Ravenscroft 47

Henry Ustick Onderdonk 49

William Meade 5 1

William Murray Stone 53

, Benjamin Tredvvell Onderdonk 55

Levi Silliman Ives. 57

,_ John Henry Hopkins 59

Benjamin Bosworth Smith 63

Charles Pettit Mcllvaine 65

George Washington Doane ^"1

James Hervey Otey '19

Jackson Kemper 7 '

Samuel Allen McCoskry 7,?

Leonidas Polk ... 75

William Heathcote De Lancey 77

Christopher Edwards Gadsden 79



Willi^mi Ri)lliiison Wliittinyliam 8i

Steplien ICUiott 83

Alfred Lee 85

John Johns 87

Manton Kastburn 8g

John Prentiss Kewley Henshaw 91

Carlton Chase 93

Nicholas Hamner Cobbs 95

Cicero Stephens Hawks 97

William Jones Hoone 99

George Washington Freeman loi

Horatio Southgate 103

Alonzo I'otler 105

George Hurgess 107

CJecirge Upfold 109

William Mercer Green in

John Payne 113

Francis Huger Kutledge 1 1 5

John Williams 117

Henry John Whitehouse 119

Jonathan Mayhcw Wainwright 121

Thomas Frederick Davis 123

Thomas Atkinson 12;

William Ingraham Kip 127

Thomas Fielding Scott 1 29

Henry Washington Lee 131

Horatio Potter 133

Thomas ^L^rch Clark 135

Samuel Bowman 137

Alexander Gregg 139

William Henry Odenheimer 141

Gregory Thurston Bedell 143

Henry Benjamin Whipple 145

Henry Champlin Lay 147

Joseph Cruikshank Talbot 149

William Bacon Stevens 151

Richard Hooker Wilmer 155

Thomas Hubbard Vail 157

Arthur Cleveland Coxe 159

Charles Todd Quintard 163

Robert Harper Clarkson 165

George Maxwell Randall 167

John Barrett Kerfoot 169

Channing Moore Williams

Joseph Pere Bell Wilmer

George David Cummins 17

William Edmon<l Armitage

Henry Adams Neely 17

Daniel Sylvester Tuttle 18


John Freeman Young i S 5

John Watrus Beckwith iS^

Francis McNeece Whittle 1S7

William Henry Augustus Bissell iSg

Charles Franklin Robertson igi

Benjamin Wistar Morris igj

Abram Newkirk Littlejohn 195

/William Croswell Doane 197

.Frederic Dan Huntington igc)

Ozi William Whitaker 201

Henry Niles Pierce 203

William WoodruiT Niles 20^

William Pinkney 207

William Bell White Howe 2oq

Mark Antony De Wolfe Howe 211

William H..bart Hare 213

john(.;..ttlicb Auer 215

l^enjaniin Henry Paddock 217

Theodore Benedict Lyman 219

John Franklin Spalding 221

Edward Randolph Welles 223

Robert W'oodward Barnwell Elliott 225

John Henry Ducachet Wingfield 227

Alexander Charles Garrett 229

William Forbes Adams 231

Thomas Underwood Dudley 233

John Scarborough 235

George De Normandie Gillespie 237

Thomas Augustus Jaggar 239

William Edward McLaren 241

John Henry Holjart Brown 243

, William Stevens Perry 245

Charles Clifton Penick 249

Samuel Isaac Joseph Schereschewsky 251

Alexander Burgess 253

George William Peterkin 255

George Franklin Seymour 257

Samuel Smith Harris 259

Thomas Alfred Starkey 261

John Nicholas Galleher . . 263

George Kelly Dunlop 2i->;

Leigh Richmond Brewer 267

John Adams Paddock 269

Cortlandt Whitehead 271

Hugh Mdler Thompson 273

David Buel Knickerbacker 275

, Henry Codman Potter 277

Alfred Magill Randolph 279

William David Walker 281


those will) would never sit f<ir a portrait. His likeness appears in a
group; but as the reproductions were unsatisfactory, a pen-and-ink
sketch was made from tiie photooraph.

Besides our portraits of Madison, W'hittingham, Green, and
Pinkney, taken from oil-paintings by photography, six others were
produced in the same way, viz., those of Robert Smith, Jarvis,
Kemp, II. U. Onderdonk, Stone, and Gadsden.

In cases where photographs are not known, or where they lack
merit, we have, wherever it has been possible, made use of engrav-
ings. Tw'enty-nine of our portraits ha\e been so taken. Of these
the following were engraved by J. C. Huttre: White (from Sully's
painting), Provoost, Claggett, Bass, Ilobart, Griswokl, R. C. Moore,
Croes, Bowen, P. Chase, Brownell, Ravenscroft, Mcllvaine, Ole\-,
De Lance\-. Ileiishaw, I'reeman, W'ainwright (from Brady's paint-
ing), and Cummins. Tiie portrait of the senior Boone is from an
engraving by Sartain, from Mooney's painting, and the likeness of
Bishop Polk is also from an engra\-ing by Sartain, and is used by
permission of Ur. William H. Polk, of New York. The portraits of
Bishops Meade and B. T. Onderdonk are from engravings by Neil
and Ormsby respccti\ely. The following are from engravings by-
unknown artists : Seabury, Benjamin Moore, Parker, Ives, Davis, and

All other illustrations are fi-nm photographs furnished by the
bishops themsehes, by members of their families, or b\' authorized

We are under obligations to the Rev. Y . D. Jaudon, of Manston,
Wi.'<.,and to the Rev. E. H. Porter, of Newport, R. I., for the loan
of photographs and engra\-ings from their collections, and to Mr.
Rollinson Colburn, of Washington, D. C, for material assistance in
many ways. Acknowledgments should also be made to the Rev.
Samuel F. Jarvis, of Brooklyn, Conn., for the use of the large por-
trait of Bishop Jarvis, taken from the only painting of that prelate
in existence; to Mr. D. E. Huger Smith, of Charleston, S. C, for a
photograph of Bishop Smith, taken from the painting in possession
of his brother, Mr. Robert Tilghman Smith; to the Rev. F. Chase,
of Scarsdale, N. Y., for our likeness of Bishop Carlton Chase ; and to
the Rev. Montgomery Schuyler, of St. Louis, Mo., for that of Bishop


TllK story of the introduction of the Anolican episcopate into
America is full of incident. The lives of the men who have filled
the office of bishop in the American Church are at once interest-
ing and instructi\e. The contributions the}' have made to Ameri-
can literature, even in the midst of absorbing labors antl constant
cares, are both creditable and important. To tell the st<;>ry of the
struggle for the episcopate, to record bricfl}- the Ii\es of the bish-
ops of the United States, and to furnish comprehensive lists of
their literary works, is the object of this work. The dry skeleton of
dates and facts has been clothed with such incidents and remarks as
shall afford to the reader an understanding of their characters and
the circumstances molding and influencing their lives. This has
been attempted in the spirit of historical impartiality. The effort
has been made to supply the means for correctly estimating both
the men and the measures marking their official careers.

Besides the biographical sketches of the nearl)' two hundred
priests who ha\e been called to the office and administration of a
bishi.ip in the Church of God, we gi\'e, somewhat in detail, the story
of the efforts, dating back to the early days of American discovery
and settlement, made in this land and across the sea to secure for
the colonial Church the completion of the three orders of the min-
istry, and the privilege and power of self- reproduction and self-rule.
To this we add the documents which gi\-e the succession of the
American bishops, connecting them through Aberileen and Lam-
beth with the see of Canterbury, and back to the a]iostles and to
the great Shepherd and Bishop of souls. An essa\- on "The His-
toric Episcopate " is added, embracing in simple statement and in
the briefest possible compass the results of the latest scholarship
respecting this question. The pur]jose of this paper is to give to
those who are seeking a basis for Church unit>- an authoritative
presentation of the Chicago-Lambeth propositions, and a defense of
the position taken therein. There are papers on the episcopal suc-
cession in the Roman Catholic Church in the United States and on the
Methodist " superintendenc}' " of America, of which latter Thomas


Coke, LL.D., and I'raiicis Ashiiry were tlie first appoiiitmeiUs by
the foiiiuler of Methutlism, John Wesley.

The intelligent reader will find in these pages much to con\ince
him that the episcopate in the United States, like that of other da\s
and in other lands, has maintaineil the dignity of the order, and b)-
labors, devotion, and consecrated lixes has well and wiseh' ruled
that portion of the Holy Catholic Church committed to its charge.
Of these men of God it can truly be affirmed that their learning,
their labors, their liscs, will be found to have been freel}', fiiUv
gi\'en/;v salute hoiinnnin ct pro ccclesia Dei.

Bishop's House, Davkni'oki, I.\.,
Fea-st of the Ascension, a.d. 1895.



The critical examination vi the New Testament writings for
notices of the polity of the kinmlum of hea\en Christ set up when
tabernacled in the flesh |)laiiily indicates that the ultimate earthly
authority there recognized was that exercised by the apostles, in
the name of, and as representing, their Master, their Lord, their
King, and that the means for the transmission of this authority was
by the imposition of apostolic hands. The Church already existed.
The kingdom of heaven had long had its rulers and its rules. In
other words, the principle of individual overseership or episcopacy,
exercised by the apostles first, and by apostolic delegates afterward,
and gradually taking shape in most easily recognized and definite
form, is found in the New Testament Scriptures as an existing fact,
while we ma\- search their pages in \'ain for any indication of the
principle of presbyterian parity or of congregational democracy.
Few and scattered as are the New Testament allusions to the polity
of the Church in the da\-s in which the ajiostles were still present
on the earth, the trend of each and all of these passages is evident.
The source of power in the Church was not from the people or of
the people; it was from above; and in these scanty notices we see
apostolic rule gradually merging into episcopal authorit}- and power.

The exercise of the commission of their Master — " As the Father
hath sent Me, e\'en so send 1 \'ou " — by the Twehe, chosen not by
the company of believers, but by the Lord Himself; the solemn in-
vestiture of Matthias — not by the people, but by the Eleven acting
under divine guidance — with the office from which Judas tell ; the
choice of the great apostle to the Gentiles by the Head of the
Church Himself — " an apostle, not of men, neither by man, but by
Jesus Christ, and God the Father"; ' the headship of the Church
at Jerusalem, as well as the title of " apostle," so plainly accorded

xii rilE lU'ISCOPA'J E l.\ AMERICA.

by St. I'aiil to "James, tlie Lord's brother," wlio was evideiUl\- not
one of the Twche ; the absence of any hint that the apostolate w as
to be limited to the Twelve, and, on the other hand, the application
of the title to Barnabas,' to Andronicns and Junia,-' probably to Sil-
vaniis,^ and to others by St. Paul ; the condemnation of " false ajjos-
tles " ; the committal by St. Paul of the charge of the Churches he
had founded to Timotliy and Titus ; the latest messages of tlie Head
of the Church, not to the people, but to the rulers, the " angels," the
individually responsible heads of the apocalyptic Churches — these
are each and all parts of that vast network of scriptural testimony
uniting with its countless meshes the Church's chief Shepherd and
]iishop of souls with the threefold ministry and the polity of the
kingdom of hea\en which, ere the death of the last of the apostles,
St. John, was universally established throughout the Church of

1 1 is the judgment of Dr. l.ightfoot, late bisho]) of Durham, that
" history seems to show decisi\el_\- that before the middle of the
second century each church or organized Christian community had
its three orders of ministers — its bishop, its presb\-ters, and its dea-
cons. On this point there cannot reasonably be two opinions." ■*
The same distinguished scholar, in commenting on the position oc-
cupied by St. James, the brother of the Lord, in the Church of
Jerusalem, after expressing his conviction that " he was not one of
the Twelve," asserts that " the episcopal office thus existed in the
mother-church of Jerusalem from very earl}- days, at least in a rudi-
mentary form " ;•' while the government of the Gentile churches,

I " The apostlesliip of Barnalias is l)cyoiul (jucstion. St. I. like records his consecra-
tion to the office as takins; phice at the same time wiili, and in the same manner as, ."^t.
Paul's (Acts xiii. 2, 3). In his account of tlieir missionary labors he again names them
together as ' apostles,' even mentioning Barnabas first (.\cts .\iv. 4, 14). St. Paul himself
also in two different epistles uses similar lang;iage. In the (lalatian letter he speaks of
Barnabas as associated with himself in the ajiostleship of the Gentiles (ii. 9); in the first
to the Corinthians he claims for his fellow-laborer all the ]>rivikges of an apostle, as one
who, like himself, holds the office of an apostle and is doing the work of an ajiostle (ix.
5, 6). If, therefore, St. Paul has held a larger place than Barnabas in the gratitude and
veneration of the Church of all ages, this is due, not to any superiority of rank or office, but
to the ascendancy of his personal gifts, a mere intense energy and self-devotion, wider and
deeper sympathies, a firmer intellectual grasp, a larger measure of the spirit of Christ." —
Bisliop Lightfoot's " Hpistle to the Calatians," pp. 96, 97.

- " On the most natural interpretation of a jiassage in the F.pistle to the Romans (xvi.
7), .Andronicus and Junia, two Christians otherwise unknown to us, are called distinguished
members of the a]iostolate — language which indirectly implies a very considerable exten-
sion of the term." — Ihid., p. 95.

3 " In I Thessalonians ii. 6, again, where ... he speaks of the disinterested labors
of himself and his colleagues, adding, ' though -ir might have been burdensome to you,
being apostles of Clirist,' it is ])robai)lethat under this term he includes .Silvanus, who had
labored with him in Thessalonica, and whose name appears in the superscription of the let-
ter." — Ibid.

* Bishop I.ightfoot's " Dissertation on the Christian Ministry," a|i|)ended to his " Com-
mentary on the Phili|ipians," p. 184.

5 /iid., p. 196.


though presenting no distinct traces uf a similar (jryanization, ex-
hibits " stages of development tending in this direction." ' Light-
foot, who discusses this subject with singular moderation and fair-
ness, concedes that the ijosition occupied by Timotln- and Titus,
whom he styles " apostolic delegates," " fairh' represents the func-
tions of the bishop early in the second centur)*."'-' I{\'en admitting
with Lightfoot that " James, the Lord's brother, alone, within the
period compassed by the apostolic writings, can claim to be re-
garded as a bishop in the later and more sj^ecial sense of the term,"
and that " as late, therefore, as the year 70 no distinct signs of epis-
copal government ha\"e appeared in Gentile Christendom," still it
must be acknowledged, in the language of the same authorit}', that
" unless we have recourse to a sweeping condemnation of received
documents, it seems \'ain to den)- that early in the second centur)-
the episcopal office was firmly antl wiilely established. Thus, dur-
ing the last three decatles of the first century, and consequently
during the lifetime of the latest sur\'i\ing apostle, this change must
have been brought about."-' Again and again dues this great
scholar refer to the fact <if the earh- and general establishment of
episcopacy " from the apostles' times." For example, he asserts
that " the evidence for the early and wide e.xtension of episcopacy
throughout proconsular Asia, the scene of St. John's latest labors,
may be considered irrefragable." * And again, " These notices, be-
sides establishing the general prevalence of episcopac}-, . . . estal)-
lish this result clearly: that its maturer forms are seen first in those
regions where the latest survix'ing apostles, m<ire especially St. John,
fixed their abode, and at a time when its prevalence cannot be dis-
sociated from their influence or their sanction." '

And again, " It has been seen that the institution of an episco-
pate must be placed as far back as the closing years of the first cen-
tury, and that it cannot, without violence to historical testing in_\-.
be dissevered from the name of St. John."" "It will appear."
continues Lightfoot. " that the pressing needs of the Church were
mainly instrumental in bringing about this result, and that this de-
velopment of the episcopal office was a providential safeguard amid
the confusion of speculative oi)inion. the distracting effects of per-
secution, and the growing anarchy of social life, which threatened
not only the extensi.m but the very existence of tlie Church >•{
Christ."' With this cumulative presentation of the proofs of the
historic episcopate from the writings of the leading .scholar of the
age, we may be prepared for the bishop's summing up of the whole
matter among the clo.sing words of his " Di.s.sertation on the Chris-
tian Ministry " : " If the preceding investigation is substantially cor-

1 Li-htf.iot's " Christian Mini-trv." p. nVx - Ihi.l., p. \c^~. 3 Iln.l., p. 199.

1 Ihid., p. 212. 5 //,„/., pp. 225. 226. e //'/,/., p. 232. " Ihid.

xiv riiE /■:/•! SCO PA J/-: /.v amehica.

rect, the threefold ministry can be traced to apostolic direction ; and
short of an express statement we can possess no better assurance
of a divine appointment, or at least a divine sanction." ' In e\'en
stronger language, in his sermon before the Wolverhampton Church
Congress, he asserts that the Church of England has " retained a
from of church government which had been handed down in un-
broken continuity from the apostles' times."

With these statements and these proofs the language of the
Ordinal of the Book of Common Prayer is in strict accord: " It is
evident unto all men diligently reading Holy Scripture and ancient
authors that from the apostles' time there have been these three
orders of ministers in Christ's Church — bishops, priests, and dea-
cons." The full meaning of this statement appears in the fact that
it is the requirement of the canon law of the Church, as well as of
the Ordinal, that " no man shall be accounted or taken to be a law-
ful bishop, jiriest, or deacon, in this Church, or suffered to execute
any of the said functions, except he be called, tried, examined, and
admitted thereunto according to tlie form hereafter following, or
hath iiad episcopal consecration or ordination." In the judgment
of Liglufoot, as e\'identl\" in the intention of the Ordinal, the " his-
torical episcopate " includes the apostolical succession — the threefold
ministry communicated by the imposition of hands and continued
" in unbroken continuity from the apostles' times."

To quote the language of Mr. Gladstone: " In the latter part of
the second century of the Christian era the subject " of the apos-
tolical succession " came into distinct and formal view ; and from that
time forward it seems to have been considered by the great writers
of the Catholic body a fact too jjalpable to be doubted, rmd too
simple to be misunderstood." -

\Ve have thus far dealt merel)- with the proofs of the historic
episcopate as indicated in the New Testament and as existing dur-
ing the lifetime of St. John. We turn to the witness of history to
the fact that our Lord instituted in His Church, by succession from
the apostles, a threefold ministry, the highest order of these minis-
ters alone having the authority and ])ower to perjietuate this min-
istr_\- by the la}-ing on of hands.

The Church of Jerusalem, the mother of us all, as we have al-
ready seen, presents the earliest instance of a bishop in the sense
in which the word was understood in post-apostolic times. The
rule and ofificial ])rominence of St. James, " the Lord's brother," is
recognized both in the Iv[)istles of St. Paul and in the Acts of the
Apostles. That which is so ]ilainly indicated in the canonical Scrip-
tures is supported by the uniform tradition of the succeeding age.

' Lightfoot's " Christian Ministry," p- 265.

2 Gladstone's " Chuvcli Principles Considered in their Results," p. 1S9.

/.vyA'o/)C'cyvo.v. xv

On tlie death of St. James, wliich took place immediately before
the war of Vespasian, Symeon succeeded to his place and rule.
Hegesippus, who is our authority for this statement, and who rep-
resents Symeon as holding the same office with St. James, and with
equal distinctness styles him a bishop, was doubtless born ere Sym-
eon died. Eusebius gives us a list of Symeon's successors. In
less than thirty years — such were the troubles and uncertainties of
the times — there appear to ha\'e been thirt\- occupants of the see.
On the building of ^^Llia Capitolina on the ruins of Jerusalem, Mar-
cus presided over the Church in the holy city as its first Gentile
bishop. Narcissus, who became bishop of Jerusalem in the year I go,
is referred to by Alexander, in whose fa\or he resigned his see in
the \-ear 214, as still lix'ing at the age of one hundred and sixteen
— thus in this single instance bridging over the period from the
time when the Apostle John was still li\-ing to the date when, by
universal consent, it is conceded that episcopacy was establishetl in
all quarters of the world.

Passing from the mother-church of Jerusalem to ;\ntioch, where
the disciples were first called Christians, and which may be regarded
as the natural center of Gentile Christianity, we find from tradition
that Antioch received its first bishop from St. Peter. We need not
discuss the probabilities of this story, since there can be no doubt as
to the name standing second on the list. Ignatius is mentioned
as a bishop by the earliest authors. His own language is conclusive
as to his own conviction on this point. He writes to one bishop,
Polycarp. He refers by name to another, Onesimus. He contem-
plates the appointment of his successor at Antioch after his decease.
The successor whose appointment Ignatius anticipated is said by
liusebius to have been Hero, and from his episcopate the list of
^Antiochian bishops is complete. If the authenticity of the entire
catalogue is questionable, two bishops of .Antioch at least, during
the second centur}-, Theophilus and Serapion, are confessedly his-
torical personages. With reference to the epistles of Ignatius con-
troversy has raged for centuries. Their outspoken testimony in
favor of episcopac\- has been regarded by the ad\-ocates of parity
or of independenc\- as a [jroof of their want of authenticit}'. I'uit
the discussion has been practically settled in our i>\vn tlay, and the
judgment of Lightfoot, the latest and greatest commentator on
these interesting remains of Christian antiquity, will be received
without question by all whose opinion is worth}- of consideration.
He assigns these epistles to the earliest \-ears of the second century,
and he regards the testimony of Ignatius to the existence and uni-
versality of the threefold mini.stry at the period in which he lived
and wrote as conclusive. The celebrated German critic and scholar.

Online LibraryWilliam Stevens PerryThe episcopate in America; sketches, biographical and bibliographical, of the bishops of the American Church, with a preliminary essay on the historic episcopate and documentary annals of the introduction of the Anglican line of succession into America → online text (page 1 of 27)