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THE HISTORY



AMERICAN EPISCOPAL CHURCH



THE HISTORY

OF THE

AMERICAN

EPISCOPAL CHURCH

1587-1883



WILLIAM STEVENS PERRY, D.D., LL.D.

BISHOP OF IOWA



IN TWO VOLUMES



THE ORGANIZATION AND PROGRESS OF THE
AMERICAN CHURCH

1783— 18S3



PROyECTED BY CLARENCE f. JEWETT



BOSTON
JAMES R. OSGOOD AND COMPANY

I SS5



Copyright, 1SS5
James R. Osgood and Company



Press of Rock-Mcll and Churchill. Eosto



CONTENTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.



E\)z ©rsanijation anti progress of ttjc ^Slmrricaii Cljurrij.

Bi' THE EDITOR.

12S8550

CHAPTER I.

Men and Measures of the Period of Organization

Autographs: Samuel Seabury, Samuel Keene, 2; William Smith, 3;
Abraham Beach, 5; Samuel Magaw, 6; William White, 7; Abra-
ham Jarvis, 10; Samuel Parker, Samuel Provoost, 19.



Illustrative Notes



CHAPTER II.

The Early Conventions, North and South . .

If-lustration : Old Trinitj' Church, Boston, 2G.



Autographs : Samuel Parker, 2C; James Duane, Uzal Ogden, Joseph
Hutchins, Samuel Powel, 28 ; Richard Peters, Charles Henry
Wharton, Robert Clay, 29; David Griffith, 30; J. Graves, 31;
Jacob Duche, Alexander Murray, 34; Granville Sharp, 35;
William White, Jacob Read, 3G; Henry Purcell, John Page, 37;
William West, 40; Signatures of English Prelates, 43; Robert
Smith, 44 ; Francis Hopkinson, 45 ; Thomas Bradbury Chandler, 46.



Illustrative Notes



CHAPTER III.

The Consecration of the First American Bishops : Seabury,
Aberdeen, 1784; White and Provoost, at Lambeth, 1787



VI CONTENTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.

Illdstratioxs : House at Woodbury, Conn., in which the Convocation
met, 49 ; Consecration House, 53 ; Fac-simile Document signed
by Bisliops Kilgour, Petrie, and Slcinner, 54; Fac-simile Letter
and Seal of Bishop Seabury of Connecticut, 55; Bishop Sea-
bury's House, New London, Conn., 58; Bishop Seabury, 60; Fac-
simile of "Plan for obtaining Consecration," G2 ; Fac-simile Letter
of Archbishop of Canterbury, 69 ; Fac-simile Title-page of Act of
Parliament, 70; Fac-simile Act of Parliament empowering the
Consecration of American Bishops, 71 ; Lambeth Chapel, 73 ;
Seal of Archbishop of Canterbury, 73.

Autographs : Archbishop of Canterbury, Archbishop of York, 68.

Illustrative Notes



CHAPTER IV.

The Consolidation of the Churches of the Northern, Middle,

AND Southern States 76

Illustrations : Rt. Eev. Samuel Provoost, first Bishop of New York,
78 ; Rt. Rev. Samuel Parker, second Bishop of Massachusetts,
84 ; Bishop Provoost's Book-plate, 88.



Illustrative Notes



CHAPTER V.

The Principles Underlying the General Ecclesiastical Consti-
tution OF 1789

Illustration : Fac-simile of Signatures of Bishop Seabury and the
New England Deputies to the Amended Constitution of 1789, 97.

Illustrative Note



CHAPTER yr.

The Prater-Book as "Proposed" and Finally Prescribed . . 101
Illustrative Notes 115



CHAPTER ^^I.

The Adjustment of Conflicting Interests and Principles in the

Church 119

Illustrations ; Signatures to Bishop Claggett's Letter of Consecra-
tion, 125 ; Seal of Bishop Provoost, 126.

Illustrative Notes 128



CONTEXTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.



CHAPTER VIII.

The Revival of Church Life and Feeling in Virginia and
thkonghout the socth

Illustrations : Rt. Rev. James Madison, first Bishop of Virginia,
141 ; Rt. Rev. Richard Channing Moore, second Bishop of
Virginia, 145 ; Rt. Rev. Robert Smith, first Bishop of South
Carolina, 147.

AnTOGRAPUs : William Meade, 143; Tlieodore Dehon, 147; Nathaniel
Bowen, 148.



Illustrative Note



CHAPTER IX.

The Episcopate of John Henry Hobart, and its Influence at

THE North 149

iLLnsTKATiON : Trinity Church, Oxford, 155.

Adtographs : Samuel Provoost, 149; Abraham Jarvis, Bishop of Con-
necticut, 159 ; Benjamin Moore, Thomas Bradbury Chandler, John
Henry Hobart, 1G5.

Illustrative Notes 166



CHAPTER X.

Bishop Griswold and the New England Chukcues 173

Illustrations : Rt. Rev. Edward Bass, first Bishop of Massachusetts,
177 ; Rt. Rev. A. V. Griswold, Bishop of tlie Eastern Diocese, 182.

Autographs: Roger Viets, 174; Samuel Seabury, Bishop of Con-
necticut, 175; Robert Fowle, 178; James Nichols, Daniel
Barber, 180.

Illustrative Note 187



CHAPTER XI.

Parties in the Church 188

Illustration : Bishop Seabury's Receipt for Services, 190.
Illustrative Note 196



CONTENTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.



CHAPTER XII.

The Home Expansion of the Church . .



Illustrations : Ut. Rev. John S. Rayenscroft, Bishop of North
Carolina, 201 ; Rev. Joseph Pilmore, 213; Rt. Rev. Philander
Chase and Wife, 215; Rev. Francis Lister Hawks, 21G.

Autograph: Francis L. Hawks, 211.



CHAPTER XIII.

The Founders and Founding of the Church at the West . . 219

Illustrations : View of Gambier College, 227 ; On the Kokosing,
near Kenyon College, 230; Bishop Chase's Log Hut, the First
Episcopal Palace of Ohio, 231 ; Kokosing, the Home of Bishop
Bedell, 232; Old Kenyon, 233.

Illustrative Note 235



CHAPTER XIV.

The Missionart Spirit in the Church 236

Illustrations : The Rectory of St. Paul's Church, Baltimore, 237 ;
Rev. Alonzo Potter, 243 ; Rt. Rev. William Jones Boone, First
Missionary Bishop to China, 249.

Autographs: G. T. Bedell, 241; J. H. Hill, 242; James Milnor,
246.

Illustrative Note 250



CHAPTER XV.

Pioneer Work beyond the Mississippi 251

Illustrations : Rt. Rev. Jackson Kemper, 2.')1 ; Church of the Holy
Communion, St. Peter's, Minnesota, 201 ; the First Seabury Hall.
Faribiiult, Minnesota, 2G3 ; Mission Sod-house, Nebraska, 267.

Illustrative Note 268



CHAPTER XVI.

The Oxford Movement and its Influence upon the American

Church 269

Illustration : St. Mark's Church, Philadelphia, 273.
Illustrative Note ^ , . 274



CONTENTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.

CHAPTER XVII.

Troubles in Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey . . .

Illustrations : Rt. Rev. Henry Ustick Onderdonk, Bishop of Penn-
sylvania, 278 ; Rt. Rev. G. W. Doane, Bishop of New Jersey, 280.



Illustrative Note



CHAPTER XVIII.

Defections and Accessions : Loss and Gain



Illustration : Et. Rev. L. SiUiman Ives, Bisliop of North Carolina,
28G.



CHAPTER XIX.

The "Memorial" Discussion and its Practical Results . . . 292

iLLnsTRATiONS : William A. Muhlenberg-, 292; Divinity School of the
Protestant Episcopal Church in Philadelphia, founded by Bishop
Potter, 293.

AnTOGRAPH : William A. Muhlenburg, 292.

Illustrative Note 300



CHAPTER XX.
The Church on the Pacific Coast 311

Illustrations ; Good Samaritan Hospital, Portland, Oregon, .321 ;

St. Helen's Hall, Portland, Oregon, 323 ; Bisliop Scott Grammar

School, Portland, Oregon, 325.
Autographs : William Ingraham Ivip, 313; Benjamin Wistar Morris,

317; Daniel S. Tuttle, 327.



CHAPTER XXL

The Attitude of the Church during the Civil War

Illustration : Trinity Church, New York City, 335.
Illustrative Note



X CONTENTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.

CHAPTER XXII.

The Eecnion of the North and South 339

Illustrations : Et. Rev. Leonidas Polk, Bishop of Louisiana, 341 ;
St. Luke's Church, Philadelphia, 343.

Autograph : Stephen Elliott, 3.39.
Illustrative Note 344



CHAPTER XXIII.
The Ritualistic Controversy 346

Illustrations: Rt. Rev. John H. Hopkins, 347; Rt. Rev. William
R. Whittinghara, Bishop of Maryland, 357.

Autographs: John H. Hopkins, 347; M. A. De Wolfe Howe, 349;
Bishop of Liclifield, 351; Signers to the Report on Ritual, 353;
E. Edwards Beardsley, 354; B. B. Smith, Bishop of Ken-
tucky, 363; W. E. Wittingham, 363.



CHAPTER XXR^

The Missionary Convention of 1880

Autographs : William Bacon Stevens, Morgan Dix, 366.



CHAPTER XXY.

The Church's Centennial : A Hundred Years of Growth and

Progress 3G8

Illustrations : Hospital of the Protestant Episcopal Church, Phila-
delphia, 375; Church of the Holy Trinity, Philadelphia, 377;
Grace Church, New York City, 370.

Autograph : William Stevens Perry, 382.
Illustrative Note 380



CONTENTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.



ElttStrattbe JUlonograpl^s.



MONOGRAPH I.

The General Ecclesiastical Constitution op the Ajierican

Church ; Its History and Rationale. Francis Lister Haivks, 383

Autographs • Francis L. Hawks, 390.

How Far we are Bound by English Canons. Francis

Wharton 390

Autograph : Francis Wharton, 403

Notes on Dr. Hawks's Comments on the Constitution. S. Cor-
ning Judd 403

Autograph : S. Corning Judd, 406.



MONOGRAPH II.

The Huguenots in America, and their Connection with the

Church. A. V. Wittmeyer 407

Illustrations : Fort Caroline, 410 ; De Cliamplain, 415 ; Pine street

Cliurch in 1831, 420; Faneuil ILall in 1789, 427.
Autographs: De Cliamplain, 415; Francis Lovelace, Pierre Daille,

418 ; Pierre Peiret, 419 ; Li Ron, Elias Neau, E. De Lancey, 421 ;

De Bonrepos, 422 ; Jacob Leisler, 423 ; De Bondet, 425 ; Andrew

Le Mercier, 42G; Gabriel Bernon, 428; Pierre Baudouin, 430;

Isaac Qiiintard, A. V. Wittmeyer, 436.



MONOGRAPH III.

The Seaburys : Missionary, Bishop, Priest, Professor. Samuel
Hart

Illustrations : Letters of Orders of tlie Lord Bishop of London,
1748, 442, 443; Rt. Rev. Robert Kilgour, 449; Bisliop Seabury's
Mitre, 455.

Autograph: Daniel Browne, 437; Benjamin Moore, 450; James
Sayre, 453; William Smith, 455; Siimuel Hart, 458.



MONOGRAPH IV.
The First Bishop of Pennsylvania. William Bacon Stevens . .

Illustrations : Rt. Rev. William White, Bishop of Pennsylvania,
459 ; Bishop White's Visiting Card, 461 ; Bisliop White's Study,



XII CONTENTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.

467; List of Bishops Consecrated by Bishop White, 470; Bishop
Wliite, as seen walking in tlie streets in Philadelpliia, 471.

Autographs : William AVhite, 4G9 ; William Bacon Stevens, 472.

MONOGRAPH V.

Old Trinity, New York, axd its Chapels. 3Iorgan Dix . , . 473

AuTOGEAPH : Morgan Dix, 484.

MONOGRAPH VI.

A Century of Church Gro-\vtii in Boston. Pliillips Brooks . . 485

Illustrations : Souuding-Board, King's Chapel, 485; King's Chapel,
erected in the year 1749, 487; Pulpit, King's Chapel, 489; Tre-
mont Street, looking north, about 1800, 491; Kev. J. S. J.
Gardiner, 493; Franklin Place, 49.5; Kuins of Trinity Church,
1872, 497; Tower of Trinity Church, 501; Chancel of Trinity
Church, 503; New Trinity Church, 505.

Autographs : Mather Byles, 486 ; John C. Ogden, 488 ; James Free-
man, 490; 491; Phillips Brooks, 506.

MONOGRAPH YII.

Representative Educational Institutions 507

Historical Sketch of the General Theological Seminary.

Eugene A. Hoffman 507

- Illustrations : Rt. Rev. T. Dehon, Bishop of South Carolina, 509 ;
General Theological Seminary, New York City, 533.
Autographs: Daniel Burhans, 509; E. A. Hoffman, 534.

The Episcopal Theological School in Cambridge, Mass.

Geonje Z. Grnij 535

Illustrations : Plan of the Episcopal Theological School, Cam-
bridge, 535 ; Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, 537.
Autograph : George Z. Graj', 538.



Trinity College. Samuel Hart



Illustrations : Trinity College in 1829, 539 ; Dining-hall Mantle-
piece, 540; Trinity College in 18G9, 541; Bishop Berkeley's
Chair, 542 ; View of Proposed Buildings, Trinity College, Hart-
ford, 543; Seal of the College, 544; Statue of Bishop Brownell,
545.

Autograph : Samuel Hart, 546.



CONTENTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. XIII

St. Paul's School, Concord. Hall Harrison 547

Autographs: George C. Sliattuck, 547; Henry A. Coit, 548; Hall
Harrison, 552.



Historical Sketch of Eacine College. Arthur Piper . . 552

AnTOGRAPH: Arthur Piper, 557.

The University of the South. W. P. DuBose 557

iLLnsTEATioNS : Seal of the University of tlie South, 557; St. Luke's

Theological Memorial Hall, Sewanee, Tennessee, 559.
AuTOGKAPH : W. p. DuBose, 560.

MONOGRAPH Wll.

The Church in the Confederate States. John Fulton . . . 561

AuTOGKAPH : John Fulton, 592.

MONOGEAPH IX.

The Literary Churchmen of the Ante-Revolutionary Period.

Henry Coppee 593

AnxooKAPU : Henry Coppee, 610.

MONOGRAPH X.

Church Literature Since the Eevolution. Julius H. Ward . . 611

Illustration : Rt. Rev. John Henry Hobart, 613.
Autograph : Julius H. Ward, 630.



MONOGRAPH XI.
The Church's IIyjinolooy. Frederic M. Bird
Autograph : Frederic M. Bird, 650.



THE HISTORY

OF THE

AMERICAN EPISCOPAL CHURCH.



©fie ©rsanffation anir ^rosre^s of tt)t
Mmttitun efiutcfi.

1783-1883.

By WILLIAM STEVENS PEKRY, D.D., LL.D.,

Bishop of Iowa.



CHAPTER I.

MEN AND MEASURES OF THE PERIOD OF ORGANIZATION.

ERE the close of hostilities between the mother-land and
the revolted colonies the minds of both clergy and laity who
had continued faithful to the church of their baptism had be-
come familiarized with the fact that the civil independence of the
American States involved the separation of the Church in America
from the parent Church of England. It was in Connecticut and in
Maryland that the recognition of this fact first took form in efforts for
organization, and the perpetuation of the church's continuity. These
measures proceeded from ideas wholly at variance, and in their devel-
opment threatened for a time the disruption of the infant Church. In
their subsequent modification and comprehension in a single system
they have each left their influence on the principles and procedure of
the American Episcopal Church.

In Connecticut, where the Episcopal Church had struggled for
existence for three-quarters of a century, and under wise leadership
and with a native ministry had attained no inconsiderable strength and
prominence, ten of the fourteen clergymen who were still in their
cures met in convocation at Woodbury, and on " Lady-day," the feast
of the Annunciation, 1783, as the first step towards organization and
the perpetuation of the Church, made choice of the Rev. Samuel
Seal)ury, D.D., as their bishop-elect. The clergy of the city of New



2 HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN EPISCOPAL CHURCH.

York united with their brethren of Connecticut in their approval of
this act, and the few clergy of the Church in New England outside of
the limits of Connecticut followed with kindly sympathies and hearty
prayers the indetlxtigable Seabury across the ocean on his difficult and

doubtful errand. Once entered upon this effort to secure the episco-
pate as the foundation of the Church, the Connecticut clergy never
relaxed their labors till the end was gained. Their action had been
taken without the presence of the laity, who had been trained to
"trust matters purely ecclesiastical to their clergy." ^ They consist-
ently declined to unite in schemes for organization or the formation
of ecclesiastical constitutions, or the consideration of alterations in
the liturgy, until they had secured the completion of the church's polity
in the possession of a valid episcopacy. Their longings and labors
were not in vain, and on the 14th of November, 1784, in an " upper
room " at Aberdeen the first Bishop of Connecticut received at the
hands of the primus and two other bishops of the Scottish Church the
consecration denied him in England.

In Maryland, under the proprietaiy and colonial governments,
the Church had been established by law, and upon the breaking out of
the war, under the name and title of "the Protestant Episcopal
Church " the identity of the Church in the independent State with the
mother-church of England, and its rights of property in the churches,
chapels, glebes and endowments of that mother-church, were duly rec-
ognized in the "vestry act" of 1779. There was danger that the
legislature might go further than merely secure the church's rights
and property. So closely was the Erastianism of the age ingrained
in churchmen and legislators alike that it was proposed in the Assem-
bly to proceed to organize the Church by legislative enactment, and to
appoint ordainers to the ministry. Happily, this extraordinary propo-

sition attracted the attention of the wise and scholarly Samuel Keene,
who hastened to Annapolis, and was heard before the House in oppo-

^Vide an interestin? letter from (he Rev. Notes and Documents, illiistrating the Orcraiilza-

Abraham Beach to the Rev. Di-. White, report- tion of the Clnirch," appended to the repriut of

injr the result of a visit to the meeting of the the " Journals of General Conventions," m.,

Connecticut clergy in 1784, inPeray's " lUstorical p. 12.



THE PERIOD or ORGANIZATION. 3

sit ion to the measure contemplated. His arguments were convincing,
and the scheme was abandoned.

The temporal necessities of the various parishes induced action on
the part of "a very considerable number of vestries, wholly in their
lay character," ^ in the fonn of a petition to the General Assembly of
the State for the passage of a law for " the support of the Christian
Keligion," enabling any church-wardens and vestry "by rates on the
pews from time to time or otherwise, ... to repair the Church or
Chapel, and the Chm-ch yard and Burying Ground of the same." The
consideration of this petition was not pressed during the continuance
of the war, but on the coming of peace, the question of a religious
establishment was brought before the Assemljly in an address from the
executive, warmly commending the provision of a "public support for
the Ministers of the Gospel." A copy of this address came into the
hands of a number of the clergy, assembled at the commencement of
Washington College in May, 1783, who at once took the initiative in
securing " a Council or Consultation " for the purpose of considering
" M'hat alterations might be necessary in our Liturgy and Service ; and
how our Church might be organized and a succession of the Ministry
kept up. "2 At a meeting of the clergy, held with the permission of
the Assembly, I:)esides the preparation of a draft of an act or char-
ter of incorporation for adoption by the legislature, the following
"Declaration of fundamental rights and liberties" was unanimously
agreed upon and subscribed. In the stjde and arrangement of this
paper we see the hand of the leading man of the jNIarjdand clergy, the
celebrated Rev. Dr. William Smith, at that time President of Wash-




ington College. The original manuscript is preserved among the
Smith papers in the archives of the General Convention. We give it in
full as one of the most important, as it is the earliest, of our ecclesi-
astical " state papers " : —

A Declaration of certain fundamental Eights & Liberties of the Pi-otestant
Episcopal Church of Maiyland ; had & made at a Convention or Meeting of the Clergy
of said Church, duly assembled at Amiapolis, August 13, 1783, agreeable to a Vote

' "An Address to the Members of the Prot- Principles of the American Ecvolution." Bal-

cstant Episcopal Clnu-ch of Maryland, containing tiniore, 1784. 8vo. p. 17. Tliis rare ti-act is

an account of the Proceedins'9 of some late Con- rcj)rintecl in full in Peny's "Uist. Notes and

Tcntions both of clersT and laity, for the purpose Document'!," pp. 1-1, 33.

of organizin'T the said Church, and providing a " Tlic address, etc., p. 6. Peny's " Ilist. IsTotes

Succession in her Ministry agreeably to the and Documents," p. 19.



4 HISTOKY OF THE AMERICAN EPISCOPAL CHURCH.

of the General Assembly passed upon a petition presented in the Name and Behalf
of the said Clergy.

Wliereas by the Constitution and Form of Government of this State " all
persons professing the Christian Religion are equally entitled to protection in
their Religious Liberty, and no person by any Law (or otherwise) ought to be
molested in his Person or Estate on account of his Religious persuasion or pro-
fession, or for his religious practice ; unless, under Colour of Religion, any man
shall disturb the good order, peace, or safety of the Sfcite, or shall infringe the
Laws of morality, or injm-e others in their natural, civil or religious Rights ;" And
Whereas the ecclesiastical and Spiritual Independence of the different Religious
Denominations, Societies, Congregations, and Chiu-ches of Christians in this State,
necessarily follows from, or is included in, their Civil Independence.

Wherefore we the Clergy of the Protestant Episcopal Church of Maryland,
(heretofore denominated the Church of England, as by Law established) with all duty
to the Civil authority of the State, and wth all Love and Good will to our Fellow-
Christians of every other Religious Denomination, do hereby declare, make known,
and claim the following as certain of the fundamental RiMits and Liberties inher-
ent, and belonging to the said Episcopal Church, not only of common Riglit, but
agreeable to tlie express words, spirit and design of the Constitution & Form of
Government, aforesaid, viz. —

1st. We consider it as the undoubted Right of the said Protestant Episcopal
Church, in common with other Christian Churches under the American Revolution,
to compleat and preserve herself as an entire Church, agi-eeable to her antient
Usages and Profession ; and to have the full enjoyment and fi-ee exei'cise of those
purely spiritual powers which are essential to the Being of every Church or Con-
gregation of the faithful ; and which, bein^ derived only from Christ and his
Apostles, are to be maintained independent of every foreign or other Jurisdiction,
so far as may be consistent with the Civil Rights of Society.

2d. That ever since the Reformation, it hath been the received Doctrine of the
Church whereof we are members (& which by the Constitution of this State is entitled
to the perpetual enjoyment of certain Property and Rights under the Denomination
of the Church of F^ngland), that there be these three Orders of INlinisters in Christ's
Church : Bishops, Priests and Deacons, and that an Episcopal Ordination and Com-
mission are necessary to the Valid Administration of the Sacraments, & tlie due
Exercise of the Ministerial Functions in the said Church.

3d. Th.at, without calling in Question, or wishing the least Contest with any
other Christian Churches or Societies, concerning their Rights, Modes and Forms,
we consider and declai'e it to be an Essential Right of the Protestant Episcopal
Church to have, & enjoy the Continuance of the said three Orders of Ministers
for ever, so far as concerns matters purely Spiritual, & that no persons in the
character of ^Ministers, except such as are in the Communion of the said Church and
duly called to the ministry by regular Episcopal Ordination can or ought to be
admitted into or enjoy any of " the Churches, Chapels, Glebes, or other Property "
formerly belonging to the Church of England, in this State, & which by the Con-
stitution and Form of Government is secured to the said Church for ever, by what-
ever Name she, the said Church, or her Superior Order of Ministers, may in future
be denominated.

4th. That as it is the Ri^ht, so it will be the Duty, of the said Church, when
duly organized, constituted and represented in a Synod or Convention of the differ-
ent Orders of her ministry and People, to revise her Liturgy, Forms of Prayer &
publick worship, in order to adajjt the same to the late Ilevolutiou, & other local
cireiunstances of America, which it is hiunbly conceived may and will be done,
without any other or farther Departure from the Venerable Order and beautiful
Forms of worship of the Church from whom we sprung, than may be foimd expe-
dient in the Change of our situation from a Daughter to a Sister Church.

AVilliam Smith, President, S' Paul's & Chester Parishes, Kent County.

John Gordon, S' Michael's, Talbot.

John IMacPherson, W" and Mai-y Parish, Charles Coimty.

Samuel Keene, Dorchester Parish, Dorchester County.

W° West, S' PauVs Parish, Baltimoi-e County.

W° Thomson, S' Stephen's, Cecil County.

Walter Magowan, S' James's Parish, Ann Arundel County.

John Stephen, All-Faith Parish, S' Mary's County.

Tho' Jn° Claggett, S' Paul's Parish, Prince George's County.



THE PERIOD OF ORGANIZATION. 5

George Goldie, King & Queen, Saint Mary's County.

Joseph Messenger, fc>' Andrew's Parish, S' J\Iary's County.

John Bowie, S' Peter's Parish, Talbot County.

Walter Harrison, Durham Parish, Charles County.

W° Hanna, S' Margaret's, Anu Anindel.

Thomas Gates, S' Ann's, Annapolis.

John Andrews, S' Thomas's, Bait. County.

Hamilton Bell, Stephney, Somerset Comity.

Francis Walker, Kent Island.

John Stewart, Port-tobacco Parish, Charles County.

In this important document we find the first public assumption
of the present legal title of the " Protestant Episcopal Church " hy a
representative body of that Church. There is also the assertion of
" the ecclesiastical and spiritual independence of ' the Protestant Epis-
copal Church in Maryland,'" as necessarily following from the civil in-



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