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William Swinton.

Elementary course in geography : designed for primary and intermediate grades, and as a complete shorter course online

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ELEMENTARY COURSE



IN



GEOGRAPHY



DESIGNED FOR



PRIMARY AND INTERMEDIATE GRADES,



AND AS



A COMPLETE SHORTER COURSE.



BY



WILLIAM SWINTON,

AUTHOR OF ''COMPLETE COURSE IN GEOGRAPHY," "WORD-BOOK SERIES," "LANGUAGE SERIES,"

"OUTLINES OF HISTORY," ETC.



"Geography is the peg upon which the greatest quantity of useful and entertaining scientific information
may be suspended." — Huxley.



IVISON, BLAKEMAN, TAYLOR, AND COMPANY,
NEW YORK AND CHICAGO.



SWINTONS GEOGRAPHIES.



Sw^TLtoTh's Geographical Course, comprises two
books : -

1 -ELEMENTARY COURSE IN GEOGRAPHY: Designed as

a Class-Book for Primary and Intermediate Grades, and as a
Complete Shorter Course for Ungraded Schools. 128 pages 8vo.

2— COMPLETE COURSE IN GEOGRAPHY: Physical, Indus-

trial, and Political ; with a Special Geography for each State in
the Union. Designed as a Class-Book for Intermediate and
Grammar Grades. 136 pages 4to.



%* These two text-books do not bear the usual relation of a Primary to a Gram-
mar-School book ; that is, the ELEMENTARY is not a mere condensation of the
COMPLETE. Each is an independent book, individual in its plan and method, and
constructed with philosophic reference to the mental capacity of youth. They may
therefore be used either separately or together.



COPYRIGHT, 1875. IVISON, BLAKEMAN TAYI.OK, AND COMPANY.



PREFACE



A brief examination of this text-1 k will show

what it might require a somewhat Lengthy explanation
to set forth : namely, that in [Jan and place it Jitters
to a considerable degree from any geographical school-
book heretofore ill the market. The author will have
failed, however, in rightly interpreting the tendency of
geographical instruction as exemplified in our larger
cities if it does not meet a want deeply felt.

The Elementary Geography is designed to he truly
a primary manual ; so that it may be begun just as
soon as any text-book instruction ought to he begun.
But it 'Iocs not stop here, fur the matter is gradually
toned up, and a sufficiency of matter given, to make it
coverall the ground occupied by so-called "Intermediate
Geographies" or "Shorter Courses." Personal inter-
course and an extended correspondence with teachers
and school superintendents leave no doubt in the au-
thor's mind that there is a positive call for a text-book
which shall be lit for use during one or two years of
our Primary and one or two years of our (Jrammar
School course. And if the author is able to look with
any confidence to a favorable, reception for a geography
of this type, it is because he has heard the desire for
such a book' expressed a thousand times.

There are many features of the Elementary' Geog-
raphy which will come to view only on that minute
examination which a text-book receives in the class
room. In the mean time there are two aims which have
been so prominent in the author's mind, and which
have so moulded the method and matter of this hook,
that a specific mention of them here may be permitted.

First. To supply teachers with a detailed ami prac-
tical guide in the difficult but needful labor of com-
bining effective oral instruction with the task-work
assigned to the pupil. Such a combination is de-
manded by the latest Courses of Study in most of our
large cities ; but, so far as the author knows, this is the
only text-book by means of which the teachers of
Primary classes can do the work marked out in these
Courses of Study. It will be seen that the Elemen-
tary Geography is in a large degree objective and
inductive in its method. The mode of unfolding a
geographical topic is somewhat as follows : —

1. In place of enunciating a principle in generalized
abstract terms, a series of questions leading up to the
principle and addressed to the perceptive faculty of the



young scholar is asked, —questions the answers to which
will be supplied by the pupil's own senses.

1'. Then, when the mind of the pupil is awakened,
comes the oral work of tin- teacher, — explanations,

illustrations, suggestive queries, etc. The character of
this work is indicated in explicit terms at the exact
point where it should come in.

3. Finally, the pupil having by an easy inductive
process formed a true conception (though perhaps still
without ability to put it into language), the principle is
enunciated. At this point a specific question is asked
and the answer is given ; and as this is the part of the
lesson to be memorized, the answers an' printed in
bold-faced type so that the pupil can make no mis-
take about the matter.

Secondly. To unite, in the descriptive geography of
countries, rt<t<lli><i and recitation matter. The author
was led to adopt this plan as a compromise between
two extreme methods of treatment. The one is the
hard, curt, matter-of-fact style of question and answer,
which characterizes most primary geographies. The
other style, the opposite of this, is exemplified in a few
class-books that have appeared as the result of a reac-
tion from the Gradgrind method : it consists in pre-
senting to the pupil flowing descriptions and animated
narratives. These, though charming as mere reading
lessons, fail in leaving that precise and definite knowl-
edge which in our public schools must be obtained as
a necessity in examinations for promotion.

In this manual it is sought to combine the defi-
niteness of the question-and-answer method with the
attractiveness of the reading lesson. They belong
together, and their union should help to make the
study of geography both enlivening and profitable.
The selection of the right kind of matter for the reading
lessons has been no easy task. The author has, how-
ever, aimed to give what was at once useful and
interesting ; and he feels confident that the prominence
given to 1 industrial topics is quite in place in a text-
book designed for American youth.

In conclusion the author would say that the Ele-
mentary Geography is in no respect a condensation
of his Complete Course, and that either may be used
without the other.

WILLIAM SAY1XT0N.

Cambridge, Mass., August, 1875.



54? £72



CONTENTS.



PART I. -PRIMARY LESSONS.



Section I. THINGS AROUND US .
Lesson I. What we are to study .
Local Geography .
Local Geography
To tell Direction
To tell Distance
VI. Review and Test Questions
VII. Lines and Angles

A Picture and a Plan .

Plan of the School Grounds

Maps of Countries

The Horizon

Shape of the Earth

Size of the Earth .

Our Planet ....

Review and Test Questions



II.
III.
IV.

V.



"VIII.
" IX.
" X.
" XI.
" XII.
"XIII.
" XIV.
" XV.



Section II. LAND AND WATER .

Lesson I. The Earth's Surface

" II. The Continents

" III. The Oceans .

" IV. Peninsulas and Capes .

" V. Bays, Gulfs, and Seas

" VI. An Isthmus and a Strait

" VII. Plains, Mountains, and Valleys

"VIII. Some Things about Plains .

" IX. Islands and Lakes .

" X. Rivers

" XI. History of a River .

" XII. Review and Test Questions

Section III. OUR WORLD .

Lesson I. On what the Earth turns .
" II. North and South Poles .
" III. The Equator
" IV. Situation North or South
" V. Review and Test Questions
" VI. Hot Weather and Cold .



PAGE
4

4
4
4
5
6
6
6
7
8
8
9
9
10
10

11

11
11

12
13
14
15
15
16
17
17
18
19
20

21
21
21
22
22
23
23



Lesson VII. Climate — A Journey .

" VIII. Zones of Climate

" IX. Globe Exercise on Climate

" X. Climate by Height .

" XI. Plants

" XII. Plants useful to Man

" XIII. Animals . . . .

" XIV. Animals by Zones .

" XV. Review and Test Questions

Section IV. MAN ON THE EARTH .

Lesson I. Races of Men

II. Wants of Man .

III. Our Wants : Food

IV. Our Wants : Clothing .
V. Our Wants : Shelter .

VI. Occupations of Men

VII. Kinds of Occupations .

VIII. Divisions of Countries .



PAGE

24
24
25
26

26

27
28
28
28

29
29
29
30
30
31
31
31
32



Part II.- DESCRIPTION OF COUNTRIES.

NORTH AMERICA 34

Nature of North America ... 34

Lands North of the United States . . 39

Lands South of the United States . 45

THE UNITED STATES 53

General Description .... 53

New England 59

The Middle States 65

The Southern States 75

The Western States 81

Pacific Highlands and Slope ... 91

SOUTH AMERICA 95

EUROPE 101

ASIA 113

AFRICA 121

POLYNESIA 125

GENERAL REVIEW 127



LIST OF MAPS.



PAGE

MAP OF COUNTRIES BY CLIMATE . . 25

HEMISPHERE MAP 33

NORTH AMERICA 35

MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, AND THE

WEST INDIES 52

THE UNITED STATES 54, 55

NEW ENGLAND ' . 58

MIDDLE STATES 67

SOUTHERN STATES 74

TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO .... 79



PAGE

CENTRAL STATES (Western Division) ... 82
CENTRAL STATES (Eastern Division) . • 83

PACIFIC STATES 90

SOUTH AMERICA 94

EUROPE 100

BRITISH ISLES 105

CENTRAL EUROPE 107

ASIA H2

AFRICA 120

POLYNESIA 125



1



GEOGRAPHY.



INTRODUCTION.



GEOGRAPHY IN A CUP OF COFFEE.

tW This Lesson is designed merely to be read aloud iil the class.




tWSI



V NT-



Alice and Ralph sat one
morning at breakfast with
mi their parents and their Uncle
John. Uncle John was cap-
tain of a merchant-ship, and
for thirty years had followed
the sea. The children loved to hear him tell stories ;
for he had been all round the world, and had seen
many strange sights. His stories were not generally
what are called "sailor's yarns": he was fond of tell-
ing things that were useful and true; and sometimes
he surprised the children by bringing up a subject
that they thought was not at all interesting, and
then showing them that it was just as wonderful as
any fiction.

"Here's this cup of coffee your mother has just
poured out for me," said Captain John; "there is a
good deal more in that than you suppose. Where did
it come from, Alice 1 "

"From the kitchen," replied Alice.
"Ha! ha!" laughed the sailor ; " there 's a matter-
of-fact little housekeeper fir you! lint did the coffee
.//•<>»• in the kitchen? Molly the cook knows the coffee
came from the grocer's, and most likely thai is all she



cares about it; but you, Alice, who will one day lie
mistress of a house, my dear, and be cheated by the
grocers, unless you learn something about the goods
you buy, ought to know better."

"0 Uncle!" cried Ralph, "I have seen bags of
coffee at the store marked ' Old Java ' ; and I know
there is an island called Java near the coast of Asia :
that 's where it comes from ! "

"Perhaps it did come from Java," replied the Cap-
tain; "but labels do not always tell the truth, and
most likely it was Rio coffee, because almost all our
coffee comes from Rio." [He pronounced the word
ree'o.]

" You don't know where Rio is?" he asked. " Why,
Rio Janeiro, the capital city of Brazil, in South
America. See here," said the Captain, taking his fork
and marking on the table-cloth as if he were tracing
a map : " here is the great seaport of New York.
Three years ago we sailed from here to Rio for a cargo
of coffee, taking out New England calicoes and hard-
ware in exchange. This is the course we held, — a
southerly course down the Atlantic, past these islands
where oranges and bananas grow —




Map to illustrate the Geography in a Cup of Coffee.



I



GEOGEAPHY IN A CUP OF COFFEE.



'flint s'Ene West Imlies," interrupted Ralph.

" Yes : and across the lino — "

"The line I What line?" inquired Alice.

"Why, the Equator," replied the Captain. "Not

that there is any real line on the sea or the land

either; but when ships pass through the place where

the Equator is, we call it crossing the line. The

sailors have a great deal of fun when they cross the

line. Some of them dress up oddly and get into

a boat, and then pretend to hail the ship. One of

the sailors represents Neptune, wdio was said by the

Greeks to be the. god of the sea. They give a little

present to the captain, and dance on the deck, and

have very rough sports. Perhaps you know that for

a long distance on each side of the Equator, as this

line is called, the weather
is always very hot. Well,
we wei - e at last off the
coast of Brazil, and soon
dropped anchor in the
beautiful harbor of Rio
Janeiro. It took us seven-
teen days to make the
voyage from New York,
— a distance, as we reck-
oned it, of about five thousand miles."

"And it was there you visited the coffee plantation
we have heard you speak of 1 " inquired the children's
father.

•' Yes; while our ship was loading I accepted the
invitation of a friend of mine to go to his plantation.




Harbor of Rio




Coffee-Plant-
It was in February ; the coffee-berry was ripe, and the
gathering had begun."

"0 Uncle' February!" exclaimed Alice. "Isn't



that a sailor's yarn 1 Why, the snow is on the ground
in February ! "

•• My little skeptic, you will have to begin studying
geography ; then you will learn that in the countries
south of the line I told you about the seasons are
just the opposite of ours. Our winter is their sum-
mer, and their summer is our winter. Well, as I



mm




was saying, the coffee-bushes, — and handsome bushes
they are ; about as large as small plum-trees, with leaves
of dark, shining green, and white flowers, — the coffee-
bushes were full of ripened fruit. Get me a coffee-
bean, Ralph. You see this kernel ; it has a flat side,
idi '( Now, there was a twin-grain that fitted this one,
and the two. as they grew on tin? bush, were shut up
in a soft red pulp like a cherry. The negroes gather
these berries in deep baskets, and lay them out on large
Hat stones, where the grains are spread out to dry after
the red juicy part is rubbed off. In Brazil there are
thousands of these plantations, where great quantities
of the dried coffee are put up in bags and sent to
Rio Janeiro to be shipped to all parts of the world."

" Well, Uncle, you returned to New York with your
cargo. What did you do with it then 1 ?"

" Yes ; it was taken by a wholesale merchant, who
sold it by the bag to retailers; and if this coffee," said
Uncle John, taking a sip, — " if this coffee did not come
in my ship, it came the same way in some other."

" Now, Uncle," said Ralph, " as you have been all
over the world, and know where everything grows,
please tell us where the sugar we put in our coffee to
sweeten it comes from."

" With pleasure, my lad. Many plants contain sugar,
but not enough to pay for getting it out. In France
and Germany millions of pounds of sugar are made
from the common sugar-beet ; but most of our sugar is
made from the sugar-cane."

" I have seen a picture of a field of sugar-cane, and
the negroes working in it, Uncle," said Alice.

" Probably it was a scene in the island of Cuba, one
of the West Indies. Half of all the sugar used in the
world comes from there. Or it may have been a scene
in Louisiana, which you know is one of the United



GEOGRAPHY IN A CGI' OF COFFEE.




Sagar-Mill.

States, through which runs the great Mississippi River.
New Orleans, not far from its mouth, is a place where
a great deal of sugar is sold. But wherever it was, a
Held of sugar-canes in blossom, with the jointed stems
rising twelve or fifteen feet high, is one of the prettiest
sights I ever saw."

" What is the difference, Uncle," asked Ralph, " be-
tween brown sugar and white sugar ] Do they come
from different kinds of cane 1 "

" Not at all : let me tell you. When the cane is
right for cutting down, it is stripped of its tops and
leaves, cut up into short pieces, tied into bundles, and
taken to the mill. Here the canes are crushed be-
tween iron rollers, somewhat as apples are in making
cider ; and the juice is taken and boiled into syrup
in large shallow pans. Next it is stirred in coolers
until it grains, or becomes granulated. Then it is
put into hogsheads having holes bored in the bottom,
and these are placed endwise over a large cistern and
left to drain. In this state it is brown sugar, and the
drainings are molasses. Now, white sugar is merely
brown sugar refined, or boiled over again, and worked
white."

" Why does n't the sugar-cane grow here 1 " asked
Alice.

" For the simple reason," replied the Captain, " that
the sugar-cane is a very tender plant, and will grow
only where there is little or no frost. When you
come to study geography you will know what I mean
when I say that the sugar-cane thrives only within
the tropics, or on their borders."

The Captain now lifted his silver spoon, and, looking
at it, said : " As you have set me to talking, I may
as well tell you that this spoon, with which we stir



our coffee, has a family history. We gel the spoon

from the jeweler's, to be sun. as w< I our coffee

from the grocer's; but what of the metal before the
silversmith wrought it into this useful shape ] 1 think
that more than likely it came from here [pointing on
his imaginary map to near the Pacific coast of the
United States], iii the far western pari of our country.
lu those mountains which we call, after the Spaniards,
the Siena Nevada, or Snowy Range, are the ri<
silver-mines in the world. And some time I will de-
scribe to you how the ore is taken out from mines
deep down in the earth, —how it is crushed by the
giant force of machines culled stamp-mills, — and how
it is moulded into bars, and made ready for coining
into money or for making into silver-ware."

"Can't you tell the children about the cups we are
drinking from," said the Captain's sister, a little proud-
ly. "You gave me this set of cups and saucers ten
years ago, when you came home from a voyage to
China, and the children have often asked me about
them."

" Well," continued the Captain, " these did come
from China, though most of the ware called China
ware has nothing Chinese about it but the name. Nor
indeed is there any need of our going to that far-off
land for our crockery, when such excellent ware is
made in our own country. Still, the name reminds
us that the Chinese first taught us the art of making-
cups and saucers, which, as you know, are made of a
fine white clay, ornamented and baked, but requiring
great skill in making. This queer, ingenious people,
though they use but little coffee, have for hundreds
and perhaps thousands of years been drinking tea.
From them we learned the use of the fragrant herb,
and all the world has still to go to the Flowery Land,
as they call their country, for its tea."

" Now, children," said the father, " you see your
uncle has shown you that for this simple cup of coffee
we have drawn on a large part of the world."

" Yes," continued the Captain, "if we could at one
view see all the hands, besides Molly's, that have been
at work in getting this cup of coffee ready for us, we
should see a great multitude. The agriculturist, the
navigator, the miner, the artisan, the merchant, have
all had a part in the work. Wouldn't it be a sight
indeed to see them all at work at one time getting
up a cup of coffee ! What a panorama it. would be !
Now, children, is n't there more geography in the cup
of coffee than you had any idea of ( "



PEIMAEY LESSONS.



Part I. -PRIMARY LESSONS



To the Teachek. — A brief examination of the arrangement of the matter in these Lessons will enable the Teacher to explain
to the pupils what is required of them in preparing a Lesson. First, it will be noticed (see Lesson IV. etc.) that certain answers
are printed in heavy-faced type. These form the only part to be committed to memory. Second, there are oral questions, the
answers to which the pupils will be able to give in their own language. Third, there are suggestions to the teacher ; these are in
smaller type, anil enclosed in brackets.



Sect. I. THINGS AROUND US.

I. -WHAT WE ARE TO STUDY.

1. What is this study which >•■> art now to take up?
We take up the study of Geography.

Teacher. I will pronounce, ami you may spell, — Geog-
raphy.

I will spell, and you may pronounce, — Geography.

2. Where do you live? Is it in a city, or is it in
the country ?

T. Geography tells how many people live in the same
place with you, and how they make their living.

3. What is the name of the State in which you live ?
T. Geography tells us about the different parts of our

State, and how we may travel from one place in it to another.

4. Do you know the name of any other State ?

T. Geography tells about all the States in our country.

5. What is the name of Our Country ? Do you
know the name of any other country besides our own'!

2'. Geography tells about our owu country, and about
all other countries in the world.

6. Did you ever see an island?

T. Geography tells about all the islands in the world.

7. Did you ever see a mountain 1

T. Geography tells about the great mountains of the
world, some of them several miles high and thousands
of miles long.

8. Did you ever see any part of the ocean?

T. Geography tells about the ocean, which is so large
that steamships may sail on it for weeks without coming
to land,

9. Did you ever see a lake 1
T. Geography tells about lakes.

10. Did you ever see a river?

T. Geography tells about the rivers of all countries ;
and this is very interesting, because most of the great
cities of the world are built on the banks of rivers.

11. Did you ever see. a map?

T. Geography tells us how to use maps, ami these
show us all the countries ami places in the world.

12. Wlint does Geography tell about ?
Geography tells about the outside, or surface of

the earth, on which we live.



II. -LOCAL GEOGRAPHY.

[For City Classes.]

1. What is the name of the city in which you live I
2. In what county is it? . 3. In what State? 4. Is
this city situated on the sea-coast, or on a river or
lake ?

■5. Can any mountain be seen from this place 1 6. Is
it a large city or a small one ? 7. Do you know the

number of j pie living in it ? 8. What is the name

of the principal street in this city? 9. In what street
is our school house situated ?

10. In what street is your home? 11. Point in
the <lire.tii.il of the City Hall? — of the Post-Office.
1 1'. Does any railroad pass through this city ? 13. Have,
you ever seen any other city except your own ? 1 4. How
did you travel to that city ?

15. Is it a larger or a smaller city than your own?

16. How far is it to the city which you visited?

17. Can you tell the name of any railroad that ends
in (or passes through) your city? 18. What place in
the country did you ever visit? 19. How does the
country differ from the city?

20. Give a short account of the longest journey you
over made, — telling how you went, what places you
visited, and what you saw.

Exercise. — On slates or paper, write a short geographi-
cal description, by filling the blanks in the following sen-
tences : — I live in the city of , •county. State

of This place is situated on the River. It is

a city, containing, I believe, inhabitants. The

name of the principal street is Our school is situated

in Street. Among the public buildings in this city

an- , etc [name of the city] is noted for

. . . . , . . . . , etc



III. — LOCAL GEOGRAPHY.

[For Country Classes.]

1. What is the name of the town (or township) in
which you live? 2. In what county is it! .'>. In
what State? 4. How for is it from your home to
the school-house?



LOCAL GEOGEAPHY.— TO TELL DIRECTION.



5. Point in the direction of your home. 6. What
river, mountain, or hill, lake or pond, is there in this
place? 7. Does any railroad pass through this place I
8. To what markets do the farmers in this neighbor
hood send their produce? 9. What towns near here
have you ever visited ?

10. Name any town near this. 11. What city have
you ever seen? 12. How does it differ from this
place ? 13. Tell the names of any cities in this State.
14. How far is it from this place to the nearest city f

15. Give a short account of the longest journey you
ever made, — telling how you went, what places you
visited, and what you saw.

Exercise. — On slates or paper, write a short geograph-
ical description, by Ailing the blanks in the following sen-

ii aces : — I live in the town (or township) of

county, State of .... The name of our village is ... .
Other villages are .... The principal river in this town is
called .... Most of the people in this place make their
living by ... . There is a railroad depot at .... The
trains run to [name of nearest large city].




TV. — TO TELL DIRECTION.

1. Point toward the nearest church. Point toward


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Online LibraryWilliam SwintonElementary course in geography : designed for primary and intermediate grades, and as a complete shorter course → online text (page 1 of 23)