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Outlines of the world's history,
ancient, mediaeval, and modern

William Swinton

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Fof use in the Higher Ckfssies itt BuBlic *S}hool^^, *'^d> m High Schools^
Aca&fmesy ^ietninaf^esy ^eU* * ' '

By WII^LlAK^^I^.'tON^

Author of Condensed History of the United- fJt^iKs, ^aihp^i^s 6/ the Army of the Potomac,
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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1874,


in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

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In preparing the following Outlines of the World's His-
tory the author has assumed that the proper aim of such
historical study as can be pursued in high schools and
academies should be to give the learner a general vieiv of
human progress, — to furnish, for example, brief but explicit
answers to such questions as these :

1. What ufere the Egyptians, Greeks, Persians, Hebrews,
Latins, Spaniards, English, etc. ? What did each of these
nations contribute to the common stock of civilization ?

2. In what forms did the mind of the race express itself :
in religion, war, law-making, political organization, litera-
ture, art ?

3. What was the actual life of the people themselves, —
their condition as rf^gards politkal fre^'edoiti, education,
physical well-being, fot)<f/ dress, tradej sbcie^, etc. ? What
were their ways of thinking^, an'd how dfd these show them-
selves in the manners, clistorfis, "and social usages of the
time? '."'"*.''

4. What have been the great ftBps'^in hUman progress, —
the discoveries, social and political changes, advances in
thought and skill, that have carried forward civilization
and the " betterment of man's estate " (Bacon) ; and what

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is the series of events that has brought the world up to its
present standard of enlightenment and knowledge ?

These are questions that we have learned to ask only in
comparatively recent times. The asking of them and the
answering of them have given us history in its modem
sense ; that is to say, history as a showing forth of the life of
nations, in place of history as the mere biography of kings,
or the record of battles and sieges, of dynasties and courts.

The theory of this book may be stated in a single sen-
tence : it is, to bring to the treatment of history for elemen-
tary instruction the same method that has proved fruitful
and interesting in the larger classic works. Such treat-
ment is in marked contrast with that of the compendiums
in ordinary use, which consist mainly of catalogues of facts
and of chronologic dafa. The author believes, however,
that the judgment of progressive teachers will fully coincide
with his own in this: that far more valuable and more
lasting results can be secured by giving scholars a vivid
general view of the institutions and civilization of the
greater nations than by cramming the memory with ever
so imposing an array of isolated facts and dates.

This book bji^ grpyn, ojit.of^ S^.Sf^S^t ^^^ o^ experiment-
ing with class^V-r-^ test^g tA/^^^l TOpils can take in and
• •• • •• • " • • ••••*^«*

assimilate, of wh^tpecoii\!SsJrjiirful in their minds, and of
what, on the othQriiknd,M|rr^^tlined with difficulty or for-
gotten with eas^/.Qag: h^.t^qsn; taken to cast the para-
graphs into suctt a :fDrtn.**dlXt: ftilC subject-matter of each
may be easily grasped by the pupil and the same readily
elicited by means of the marginal notes, — a device which
seems to be better suited to a work of this grade than
mere literal questions would be. It is scarcely necessary to

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call attention to the maps : they have been drawn with great
care by Mr. Jacob Wells, and will be found both accurate
and ample. The engraving-work, which is exceptionally
excellent, is by Mr. John Karst.

In addition to these features there are two salient points
to which notice is called: i. This manual is made from
modem material^ and presents the fruit of those researches
that have so essentially modified and so greatly enlarged
our views both of antiquity and of more recent times. 2.
, It is written in the spirit of the modern method, — that
method which deals with the broad, vital facts, rather than
with the pedantries of history.

As, by the courses of study in our public schools, general
• history is not taken up until after several years' work on
the history of our own country, it would have been quite
superfluous to insert here an imperfect compendium of
what has already been gone over in detail ; hence in this
book the history of the United States is treated only in so
far as it touches that of other nations.

The author is deeply impressed with the conviction that
history, studied in the right manner, is of fundamental im-
portance in the. growth of the mental and moral nature*
And he believes that such study is of especial moment in
our own country, as a preparation for citizenship in a free,
self-governing nation : for how can we appreciate what we
enjoy, unless we know how it came to be ? In the sincere
hope that this survey of the providential ordainment of
human affairs may prove helpful, both to intellectual growth
and the formation of character, it is commended to the
judgment of the teaching profession.

Cambridge, Aug., 1874.

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In the present edition the Outlines of History has
undergone a careful revision in the light of valuable
suggestions from teachers who have had the work in use
in the class-room. To such teachers the author takes
pleasure in expressing his hearty thanks. He has also to
acknowledge in a very particular manner his obligations
to Prof. C. K. Adams, of the University of Michigan,
who kindly went through the whole book and commu-
nicated to the author his scholarly annotations. The pres-
ent edition contains such modification of the text as were
necessitated by these suggestions. It is proper to add
that the textual differences are not such as to interfere
with the simultaneous use of both old and new editions
in the class.

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I. Geographical Sketch 8

II. Egypt 12

1. Historical Outline 12

2. Egyptian Civilization 20

in. The Assyrians and Babylonians .... 27

1. Introduction 27

2. Early Babylonian, or Chaldaean, Kingdom 29

3. Assyria 32

4. Later Babylonian Kingdom 35

IV. The Hebrews 38

V. The Phcenicians 43

VL The Hindoos . 50

VII. The Persian Empire 55

1. Historical Outline 55

2. Persian Civilization 60

VIII. Commerce of the Ancients 64



I. General Sketch 73

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II. History of the First Period : From the Dorian
Migration to the beginning of the Persian Wars,

1100-500 B. C 81

1. Beginnings of Greek History .... 81

2. Growth of Sparta and Athens 85

III. History of the Second Period: From the beginning

of the Persian War to the Victory of Philip of

Macedon at Chaeronea, B. C. 500-338 ... 91

1. The Persian Invasions 91

2. The Age of Pericles 98

3. The Peloponnesian War 100

4. Period of Spartan and Theban Supremacy . . loi

IV. History of the Third Period : From the Victory of

Philip to the Absorption of Greece by the Romans. ia3

1. Supremacy of Macedon. — Philip .... 103

2. Career of Alexander the Great .... 104

3. Alexander's Successors 108

4. Later History of Macedon and Greece . . 109

V. Grecian Civilization 114

1. Political Ideas 114

2. Religion II4

3. Grecian Festivals . . . . . . . 117

4. Greek Literature and Philosophy 119

5. Grecian Art 125

6. Greek Life, Manners, etc 128



I. Geography and Races . ,130

II. Primeval Rome. — Period of the Kings . . 133

III. The Roman Republic 136

1. Epoch of the Struggle for Existence . . . 136

Great Names of Early Rome . . . .137

2. Epoch of the Roman Conquest of Italy . 143

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Cd^tTJSAtTS. ix

3. Epoch of Foreign Conquest 147

4. Epoch of Civil Strife 159

IV. Rome as an Empire 182

1. Age of Augustus . . .... 182

2. Political History 191

3. Spread of Christianity 194

4. Roman Life, Manners, Customs, etc. . . . 201

5. Last Days of Rome ...... 207



Introduction 212

I. The New Races . 213

II. Three Centuries of History 221

1. The Byzantine Empire 221

2. Italy down to Charlemagne 222

3. Beginnings of France 224

4. Beginnings of England 225

5. Rise of the Saracens 227

III. Empire of Charlemagne 234

IV. The Feudal System 240

V. Growth of the Papal Power 247

VI. The Crusades 253

1. Introduction 253

2. The First Crusade 256

3. The Second Crusade 261

4. The Third Crusade 262

5. The Later Crusades 264

6. Results of the Crusades • 265

VII. Chivalry, -—its Rise AND Decay 267

VIIT. Civilization in the Middle Ages 272

1. The Dark Ages 272

2. The Age of Revival. — Cities and Commerce 276

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IX. Political Outline : From Charlemagne to the Close of

the Middle Ages 285

1. The German Empire 285

2. France * . 287

3. England 291

4- Italy 295

5. Spain '. 298



I. Transition to Modern History 305

1. Introduction 305

2. Fall of the Eastern Empire 306

3. Maritime Discoveries 308

4. The Revival of Learning 312

5. Decline of Feudalism 314

6. Rise of Great Monarchies 315

11. Great Events of the Sixteenth Century . . 317

1. Age of Charles V. 317

2. England under Henry VIII 325

3. Rise of the Dutch Republic 331

4. Civil and Religious Wars of France . . . 334

5. Age of Queen Elizabeth 339

Great Names of the Sixteenth Century . . 347

in. Great Events of the Seventeenth Century . . 350

1. England under the Stuarts . . . . 350

2. The Thirty Years' War 364

. 3. The Age of Louis XIV 368

4. Progress of Civilization 379

Great Names of the Seventeenth Century . 387

IV. Great Events of the Eighteenth Century . 390

1. England under the Georges 390

2. Prussia and Frederick the Great .... 396

3. The Rise of Russia 402

4. The French Revolution 409

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5. Progress of Civilization 429

Great Names of the Eighteenth Century . . 436

V. Great Events of the Nineteenth Century . 440

1. The Consulate and the Empire 440

2. Modern English Politics 458

3. Revolutions in French Politics 463

4. The Unification of Italy . . 470

5. The German Empire Restored ..... 473
Great Names of the Nineteenth Centuiy . 483

INDEX . 489

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Ancient Oriental Monarchies. (Double page.) ... 8

Historic Era at the Beginning of Records ... ii

Egypt at the Time of Persian Conquest .... 13

Dominion of Solomon 39

Phoenicia and her Colonies . 44

Persian Empire. {Double page.) 54

Routes of Ancient Commerce .... ^ . 65

Greece and her Colonies. {Double page.) .... 72

Greece before Dorian Migration 77

Greek Races after Dorian Migration .... 83

Persian Invasions of Greece . . 92

Vicinity of Marathon and Athens 93

Thermopylae. 96

Races of Ancient Italy 131

Latium, or Primeval Rome 133-

The Punic Wars 148

Mithridatic Wars 161

Campaigns of Caesar 167

Roman Empire. {Double page.) 182

Plan of Ancient Rome. 186

Europe, Close of 6th Century 220

Original Home of the English 226

Europe, a. d. 800 233

Map of the Crusades 252

Iberian Peninsula, 1491 298

Europe, i6th Century. {Double page.) .... 304
Globular View of Geographic Discoveries .308

Europe, Time of Napoleon. {Double page.) . . 440

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1. History may be defined, in a general way, as the rec-
ord of the life of mankind. In a more special History dc-
view, it is the narrative of the rise and progress **°****

of those famous peoples whose doings constitute the history
of civilization.

2. In this its proper and highest sense history presup-
poses the races advanced beyond the natural its relation to
or primitive state, and gathered in political *»»**<»«»•
communities, or nations; and it confines itself to those
nations whose achievements have influenced the general
current of the world's affairs, and made the condition of
the world what we now see it.

3. Respecting mankind outside of nations^ there is much
interesting and valuable knowledge, supplied Aids to

by various sciences. Among these are, — history.

Ethnol'ogy, or the science of the several races, or types
of mankind.

ARCa«OL'OGY, or the science of the ancient works of

Philol'ogy, or the science of language.

By the aid of these sciences much is now known regard-
ing humanity in its lower stages of progress. In our own
times a vast amount of inquiry has been made into the con-
dition of the primeval races ; interesting studies have been
made also on the customs, manners, arts, languages, and
religions of savage tribes.

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4. These researches belong to Anthropol'ogy, which
DiflFcrcnce be- deals with man in natural history^ rather than
poTogJr^smd'^^" to History proper, which deals with nations.
History. tji^t is to say, with man in civilization,

5. Viewing history as confined to the series of leading
The real his- civilizcd nations, we observe that it has to do
toric race. ^j^j^ ^^^^ ^^^ grand division of the human fam-
ily, namely, with the Caucasian, or white race. To this
division belonged the people of all the elder nations, —
the Egyptians, Assyr'ians and Babylo'nians, the Hebrews
and the Phoeni'cians, the Hin'doos, the Persians, the Greeks,
and the Romans. Of course, the modem European na-
tions, as also the states founded by European colonists^ all
belong to this ethnological division. Thus we see that his-
tory proper concerns itself with but one highly developed
type of mankind; for though the great bulk of the popu-
lation of the globe has, during the whole recorded period,
belonged, and does still belong, to other types of mankind,
yet the Caucasians form the only tnriy historical race.
Hence we may say that civilization is the product of the
brain of this race.

Of the peoples outside of the Caucasian race that have made some
figure in civilization, the Chinese, Mexicans, and Peruvians stand alone.
P'Ut though those races rose considerably above the savage state, their
civilization was stationary, and they had no marked influence on the
general current of the world's progress.

6. Modem scholars divide this historical stock — the
Its three di- Caucasian race — into three msiin branches:
visions. J The A'ryan, or Indo-European branch;
II. The Semit'ic branch \ III. The Hamit'ic branch. This
classification is a linguistic one, — that is to say, it is a
division based on the nature of the languages spoken by
the three families of nations, — but at the same time it
represents three distinct civilizations.

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7. The Aryan branch is that division to which we our-
selves belong : it includes nearly all the pres-

ent and past nations of Europe, — the Greeks, * Vf^^^-
Latins, Germans or Teu'tons, Celts, and Slavo'nians, — to-
gether with two ancient Asiatic peoples, namely, the Hin-
doos and the Persians.

8. The evidence of language shows that the Celtic, Ger-
man, Slavonian, Greek, and Latin tongues all Their unity,
bear a remarkable family likeness, and that ^°^ proved,
they share this likeness, with the Sanscrit, which was the
ancient language of India, and with the Zend, the ancient
language of Persia. It is quite certain that the forefathers
of the Persians and of the Hindoos and the forefathers of
all the European nations were once one people, and lived
together somewhere in Western Asia. This was at a time
long before the beginning of recorded history (for we know
nothing of the Greeks, Latins, Germans, Celts, etc., as such,
until we find them in Europe) ^ but still it is proved by the
evidence of language that their original home and native
seat was Asia.

9. The Semitic branch includes the ancient inhabitants
of Syria, Arabia, and the Tigris and Euphrates
countries. /The leading historical representa-
tives of the Semitic branch are the Hebrews, Phoenicians,
Assyrians, and Arabs.

10. The Hamitic branch has but one prominent repre-
sentative, — the Egyptians. It is probable, j^^j^..^^
however, that the ancient Chaldae'ans also be-
longed to this race.

11. The history of the civilized world is the history of
the Aryan, Semitic, and Hamitic races. It is comparison of
of interest to know that the race to which we **** ^*^®®-
belong, the Aryan, has always played the leading part in
the great drama of the world's progress. The Hamitic
nations, the Egyptians and Chaldaeans, though they devel-

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oped a peculiar type of civilization, yet grew up and re-
mained in a great degree apart from tiie rest of the world,
having no considerable influence on the main current of
history. As to the Semites, there is one respect in which
they have the greatest place in the story of mankind,
namely, in religious development; for the three religions
that have taught men that there is but one God — namely,
the Jewish, the Christian, and the Mahom'etan — have all
come from among them. But, aside from this, the Semites
do not make nearly so important or so conspicuous a figure
in history as do the Aryans, or Indo-Europeans. They
have never been greatly progressive. They have generally
shown a conservative disposition that has, in the main,
kept them fixed to their native seat, in the small tract of
country between the Tigris, the Mediterranean, and the
Red Sea. Thus they have not, like the Aryans, been the
planters of new nations; and they have never attained a
high intellectual development, or that progress in political
freedom, in science, art, and literature, which is the glory
of the Aryan nations.

12. If we trace back the present civilization of the ad-
The Aryans in vanced nations of the world, — our own civil-
history, ization, and that of England, Germany, France,
Italy, etc., — we shall find that much of it is connected by
direct and unbroken line with the Roman. The Romans,
in turn, were heirs of the Greeks. Now, all this is Aryan;
and when we go back to the primitive age of the undivided
Aryans in Asia, we see that this race must even then have
been placed far above the condition of mere savages, and
that they had made good beginnings in government, and
social life, and religion, and the simple mechanical arts.
Thus we are fully authorized to say that the Aryans are
peculiarly the race of progress; and a very large part, of
the history of the world must be taken up with an account
of the contributions which the Aryan nations have made to
the common stock of civilization.

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13. In these Outlines of the world's history we shall
take up:— DivWontof

I. The groups of ancient Oriental nations, ****• *^***'-
including, i. The Egyptians; 2. The Assyro-Babylonians/
3. The Hebrews ; 4. The Phoenicians ; 5. The Hindoos ; 6,
The Persians.

II. The history of Greece.

III. The history of the Roman Dominion.

IV. The history of the Middle Ages.

V. The history of the modem European states and na-

14. The entire historical period, commencing with the
early Empires of the East, and coming down chronologic
to our own times, is usually divided into dis- ?«"«<*■•
tinct portions, sometimes two and sometimes three; that
is to say, some historians make a double division, into
Ancient history and Modem history; and others a triple
division, into Ancient^ Medicevaly and Modern history. In
either case Ancient history ends with the breaking up of
the Dominion of Rome, in the fifth century a. d. (fall of
the Western Roman Empire, 476 a. d.). Then, if we make
the double division, Modern history will begin with the
downfall of Rome ; but if the triple division, the interval
from the fifth to the fifteenth century will be regarded as
a period by itself, called Mediaeval history, or the history
of the Middle Ages ; while Modern history, according to
this method, will be confined to the centuries between the
fifteenth and the present time.

15. Such divisions of the historic period into portions
are merely arbitrary, seeing that history forms Nature of tho
in reality an unbroken whole. We shall adopt diviaions.

Online LibraryWilliam SwintonOutlines of the world's history, ancient, mediaeval, and modern: with ... → online text (page 1 of 39)