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Cat and Henry H. Bucher


B. P. 80



The Flaming Torch









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IN the pages of this volume I have endeavored to set
before the reader the dark land of Africa in the past,
with a gradual transition to the present.

I have introduced the struggles of the early travelers, not
only on account of the intense interest of the record of un-
paralleled personal adventure, but to draw a contrast be-
tween their methods of exploration and those of recent
explorers which have practically redeemed the lost continent.
Men in the past centuries fought awful duels with death in
the swamps and jungles of Africa to win riches or fame in
their native land. The real redemption of the heathen was
the last thing they considered. Exceptions there are, truly,
but the efforts even in these cases were puerile, and proved
by their lack of fruit to be without divine guidance. Who
can fail, after reviewing the work of all the explorers down
to Livingstone and Stanley, to acknowledge that these were
God-chosen men? To me it is just one of the Almighty's
w'ondrous ways of working. Before Livingstone His time
had not yet come, but the death of the doctor marked the
deciding point. Then came Stanle)' — the one man in the
world who had the pluck, the power, and the knowledge to
be the pioneer of Africa's redemption. He had already been
tested, and his enthusiasm had become an inspiration. The
power and the means came with the will. There was a
divine order in everything.

True, blood has flowed, but are there not many examples
in past history where heroic measures were absolutely neces-
sary for the cause of a nation's salvation ? The " open sore
of the world " had been penetrated by the all-seeing eye of
Heaven, and God permitted the nations to step in and wrest

6 Preface

the poor heathen, not alone from the awful devastating
Arab thieves of human beings, but from their own ignorant
superstition and internecine war and destruction. The work
has but begun, and it will doubtless go on until one day
Africa may lead the world in learning and culture and be a
continent covered with virtuous peoples, loving and fearing
the Lord who has permitted their painful afflictions and
mercifully redeemed them.

Since the object of this volume was but to deal with the
" dark land " I have deemed it prudent not to delve into
the past civilization of the North. The ruins of Karnak
and the records of the Rosetta stone are fascinating alike
to the historian and Egyptologist, or the Zimbabwe ruins-
also may indicate a great civilization of the past, but at
best these lead but to speculations and are not to be con-
sidered in the general design of this book. The heathen
and his redemption is the one theme nearest my heart.

I have endeavored to show by a few examples the alter-
nate good and bad qualities of the native, to illustrate the
horrors of superstition, and the necessity for light ; and I
have carefully reviewed the mission work which has been
carried on in the past in various parts of Africa. The mis-
sion work is the Flaming Torch — bearing the light of the

It is only fair to Mr. Stanley to say that when he favored
my book with his introduction the general arrangement had
not embraced his work in Africa. I saw, however, that in
dealing with the subject of Africa's redemption it was neces-
sary to deal with him as I have done. There is no fulsome
praise. Every word regarding this great man is just, and
his noble example of self-abnegation and achievement will
be held up to the youth of many future generations.



Preface 5

List of Illustrations i^

Introduction ; ig


The Dark Land 23

Ancient Africa 32

The Invasions of Islam 42

The History of the Dark Land, with its political power,
miliiary glory, arts, and sciences, almost totally eclipsed by its degen-
eracy into the darkness of heathenism. The archives of ancient history,
the records of enduring monuments and graven stone, have yielded up
their fairest gems under this modern search light. Bright lights glim-
mer among the shadows of the past as virtues shine forth amid the moral
darkness of the people. Carthage, the greatest maritime and commer-
cial state of antiquity, through her extensive connections, brought Herod-
otus, the earliest and most interesting of Greek historians, into personal
touch with the wide region extending from the Nile to the Atlantic. The
philosophers of Memphis ; the great Latin geographer, Mela ; noblemen
of Persia ; King Necho, of Egypt ; and Eudoxus, who lived about one
hundred and thirty years before Christ, report their investigations, includ-
ing the discoveries of large centers of civilized peoples, who were later
overwhelmed by barbarous nations. After the Roman conquest the
invasion of Islam forms a momentous epoch. In seventy years it ex-
pelled Europe ; in seven hundred years marched to the center of the
continent — a thrilling record of the sword ! Gathered from the most
authentic sources ; grouped in subjects of greatest helpfulness to those
who study the Dark Continent from every point of interest ; entertainly
told for all classes and all ages — this forms an important division of this
the first historv of Africa.

8 Contents


The Portuguese and Dutch 53

England and France Explore Africa 69

An African Association 87

Mungo Park 96

Horneman, Campbell, Tuckey, etc 116

The New Era 129

About Lake Tchad 132

In Campbell's Footsteps ^ 1 58

The Romance of Exploration, a thrilling account of the per-
sonal adventures of ancient and modern travelers, presents a vast variety
of experiences, " now grave, now gay." Of the more than seven hundred
explorers who have traveled in Africa, five hundred and fifty of whom
there found their last resting place, have been selected those least
known in literature, to provide a fund of anecdotes hitherto unknown to
the general reader. These graphically picture the great forests, various
flowering plants of delicate hues, and products of native culture; animal
life in all its diversified forms, from the clumsy elephant to the graceful
gazelle, and the serpents and insects that abound. The fortunes and
misfortunes of travelers through these wild regions, " hairbreadth "
escapes, and complete annihilation of entire expeditions, form a romance
from real life. Adventures with wild beasts and wilder tribes of men are
relieved now and again by pretty native customs or an unexpected hos-
pitality. As in the long marches of many a traveler across the trackless
desert there was here and there an oasis, so in the experiences of those
who have entered the country by every avenue of approach have come
delightful incidents and scenes of real merriment in the dense forests and
upon the high mountains of the mysterious continent.



Livingstone's Discoveries 169

Stanley's Discoveries 1 86

The Dawn of Day in Africa, the period of real exploration
and valuable discovery, began with the advent of Livingstone, the pioneer
of Christian civilization in heathen Africa. The well-known record is
not here reproduced ; but as he led the advance that became the true

Contents 9

type of exploration the most interesting events of his life open the chap-
ters that here form the life story of the heroic host that followed him.
His death revealed the grandeur of his discoveries and enlisted great men
for the accomplishment of the task he had begun. In this unraveling of
a tangled web, the solution of more important problems than the dis-
covery of the North Pole, involving the gift to the world of a continent
comprising one fifth of its land area, the leadership was divinely assigned
to Stanley. He opened up the only practical way for the redemption of
the lost races of the dark land, laid the foundations of empire, and intro-
duced methods which have been successfully followed by the real ex-
plorers of Africa. The records of these men, who have penetrated every
forest, climbed each mountain, and navigated all the lakes and rivers, are
combined in this division, portraying the achievements of the real dis-
coverers of the Land of the Black.



Islam and the Natives 197

Commercial and Domestic 207

The Kaffirs a Century Ago 213

Native Religion and Fetichism 226

Worship of the Yorubas 233

Human Sacrifices 240

Cruel Native Tyrants — Uganda's Despot and Sepopo 249

Sacrificed to Crocodiles 266

The Zulus and "Judicial " Murders 278

Religious Superstitions in Garenganze 287

The Legendary Lore 296

Folk Tales of Angola 301

Heathen Africa^ the "habitation of cruelty"of those who "sit in dark-
ness and the shadow of death," presents the living picture of the real inner
life of the lost world as it appealed for redemption to the sympathizing heart
of the Son of God. The traditional superstitious beliefs that dominate every
wild tribe form the dark background of the picture, from which stands
out in bold relief every manifestation of mysterious art and savage cruelty.
In the center, its branches reaching out into every avenue of thought, its
roots penetrating the soil of every endeavor, flourishes the banyan tree of
polygamy. Among the flowers of innocent pleasure, the twining vines of

10 Contents

domestic life, and the luxuriant foliage of diversified customs, lies, half
concealed, the serpent, witchcraft, robbing the beautiful bloom of its
sweetness, breathing through the delicate tendrils of the vine, poisoning
every green herb. Eden is transformed into hades ! On the river bank
the crocodile's mouth receives the infant sacrifice ; the slender tree bends
to toss aloft the decapitated head of the kneeling captive; into the yawn-
ing earth tumble the living victims of the burial service ; the helpless
mother may not escape the agony inflicted by the devouring ants. It
is an awful picture ! Beautiful legends of folklore, and qunint customs
relating to the principal events of life, form the side lights of this lifelike
representation of the horrors of heathenism.



To a Sure Foundation 3- '

Apostolic and Early Modern Missions 331

Christianizing Wild Tribes 342

Increase of the Advancing Host 35^

Scotch Missions and Methods 368

Abyssinia and Uganda 375

Triumphs in Madagascar 3^4

The Gospel in Mohammedan Centers. . 39°

Land of the White Man's Grave 399

The Gospel on the Gold Coast ... 408

INIissions West and Southwest 416

Light in the Valley of the Congo 4-6

The Gospel in South Central Africa 437

Mission to Garenganze 445

Methodist Industrial Missions 453

Practical Princii)lcs of Self-support .... 460

Fate of the First Party 467

The Church in the Wilderness 475

Missionary Heroes and Heroines 49°

Heroes of the Congo 498

Early Days of the Repui)lic of Liberia 510


Contents 1 1


Heathen Tribes on the Cavnlla 5 '6

Advance up the Sinoe River 5-"

Kroo Coast Experiences 53^

The Gospel in Tonga 55'

The Torch in a Strong Hand 555

My Latest EvangeHstic Tour 5^8

The Heathen's Redemption. Missionary triumphs in heathen
darkness display the choicest string of pearls in this collection of wonderful
events and history of heroic lives in this land of greatest interest to the
Christian world. This record of the heroic service and sacrifice that have
accomplished such glorious victories reads like a second edition of the
Book of Acts. These light-bearers of divine truth have penetrated the
densest darkness with life and hope, striking off the chains that bound
both body and soul, and building Christian empires. From the first Chris-
tian missionary to interior Africa, tlie Ethiopian eunuch baptized and com-
missioned by Philip, to the last martyr on the Congo, is tenderly traced
the great events in the lives that have been laid on the altar of Africa's
redemption. This one division of the book is a library of all the missions
of all the missionary societies of all denominations; not a statistical exhibit
merely, but an intensely interesting story. The facile pen of Bishop J. C.
Hartzell portrays the progress of Methodist missions, with an interesting
account of his travels in the Dark Continent, This section also contains
an account of the mission work and personal adventures of the author,
including his latest campaign in South Africa— the hitherto unwritten
chapters of his life.


Africa's Partition and Promise 5^7

Dr. Ravenstein's Political Division of Africa in 1893 60I

Africa : Present and Future 604

Africa's People and Languages 616

The Open Sore ^33

The Mines at Kimberley ^39

Retribution and Restitution "5'

Division of the Continent and Future Development. This

section has itself four iiiiportaiU divisions: Social— the disposition of the
various peoples and tribes, their languages, manners, and customs ; Politi-

12 Contents

cal — the partition among European powers and their advance into and
development of protectorates and planting of colonies ; Commercial — pro-
ducts of the country, their preparation and export, mineral wealth, includ-
ing a chapter on the greatest diamond fields in the world ; and the glorious
future of the Dark Continent, now emerging into light. Here we bring
the " First History of Africa " down to date in the present distribution
and condition of her peoples, the advance of civilization in railways, sub-
stantial cities on the sites of heathen capitals, and state building. Here
is recorded every important event that contributes to the making of a
new world of opportunity for marvelous achievement and the interesting
incidents connected with its unfolding. It freely discusses the South
African question, British or Boer supremacy, the Portuguese and German
situation in the East, Congo State's future, the French territorial delimi-
tation in the West, and the supremacy of the cross over the crescent in
the Soudan, including the recent British occupancy following the fall of
Omdurman and the avenging of Gordon.



Portrait of the Author Frontispiece

A North African Belle 25

In the Nubian Forest 28

Chimpanzees 30

African Elephant 31

Negro Type of North Africa 35

Mauri in Forest of Bananas 39

A Ship of the Desert 41

The City of Tangier 44

The Ancient City of Fez 47

Type of the Northwest 51

Wife of Marango Chief 57

Mammalia of the East African Steppe 63

Cattle of the Boers 68

Hippopotami 72

Ring-tailed Monkeys T]

The Dahoman Type 83

Negress of the Upper Niger pr

The Leopard 95

Timbuctoo from the East 98

Drawing Water from the Nile loi

Albino Negress 109

A Leaf Dwelling 115

Habitation of the Forest Dwellers 119

Arab of Upper Congo 123

Civilized Dahomans '25

Americo-Liberian and Native i -8

14 Illustrations


Gazelles ,-,-


Natives of Bornou i ^n

Musician of French Guinea i .g

Baralongs Pursuing Zebras i eg

Timbuctoo from the North j5^

Wa-ganda Boatmen jg-

Home Life of the Makololo 171

Market Scene at Nyangvve , 1 7 r

Dr. Emil Holub j g^

Mrs. Dr. Emil Holub ig.

Cattle Transportation 18^

Henry M. Stanley, M.P 186

Prime Minister of Uganda 188

The Heart of Livingstone 190

East African Tower 102

King M'wanga lo^

Malagasy Embassage 195

Ba-Tlipen Women in the Field 201

A Worker in Iron 205

Habitations and Game Dance of the Ma-Sar\va 209

Earthnuts (Arachis hypogsea) 212

Heathen Kaffir Dance 215

Heathen Kafifirs at a Great Beer Drink 219

Camel Caravan at Rest 225

Carriers of a Native Expedition 229

Chief and his Family 232

The Bay of Cameroons 235

The Rhinoceros 239

A Houssa Soldier 243

Oasis of the Desert 248

Wa-ganda Warriors 251

The Ma-Rutse King, Sepopo 255

Matebele Warriors 259

Sepopo's Serving Maid 264

Wangbattu Boatmen and Village 269

A Typical Witch Doctor 274

Illustrations 15


Zebra of the Uplands 277

A Zulu Family 280

Fair Zulus in Full Dress 283

Types of Lake Victoria 291

A Curious Native Salutation 295

Punishment of a Prisoner ". 300

Mission Station 303

Type of Upper Congo Native 31 1

A Forest Habitation . . 316

Mammoth Palms of Madagascar 319

Native Salutation 324

Childhood Type 327

Hottentot Kraal , 333

Rock Village of Mashakulumbe 337

Uncivilized Girls of Pondoland 345

Ba-Mangwato Woman at Work 349

Christianized Girls of Pondoland 353

Port Durban, Natal 357

In the Baobab Forest. 362

Unchristianized Pondo Women 365

Native Dwelling on Ant-hill 369

City and Harbor of Zanzibar 371

Rubaga, Highest City in Uganda 377

A Home in Uganda. 379

Mount Kilima-Njaro 381

Hova Type 385

The Queen and her Sister 386

Queen's Palace and French Residence 388

Semicivilized Habitation 389

Arab Type 391

City of Khartoom 393

Oran, Algeria 393

The Citadel in Cairo '. .... 395

Freetown, Sierra Leone 400

A Somali Type 401

Camp in a Banana Plantation 4^3

16 Illustrations


West Coast Fetich House 411

A Boy of the Coast 414

Efulen Mission, West Coast 417

Rev. Robert Nassau 420

Church at Kangwe, West Coast 422

Woman of Bailundu 424

Matadi, on the Congo 428

Lofanza — Congo-Bololo Steamship " Pioneer " 431

Mission Steamer on the Congo 434

Children of Swedish Mission 435

Encampment on the Plains 439

A Barotse Hut 442

Barotse Types 444

Entrance to the Palace 447

Coillard Mission 449

Royal Party on the March 454

A Mounted Trader 456

Saint Paul de Loanda 458

Galla Type 462

Kano, Sokoto 464

A Fleet of Canoes 468

Carriers on the Path 47 1

Aye-aye, Squirrel of Africa 477

A Forest Encampment 480

Temporary Mountain Encampment 481

GrUiding at the Mill 487

.^vng6la Plantation Buildings 493

Rev. S. J. and Ardella Mead 496

On Congo Shores 499

Missionary Postal Service 501

Punishment of Congo Slave 503

Bangala, on the Congo 505

Landing at Banana Beach 509

Heathen in Full Dress 511

Natives on a Journey 515

Ma-Shupia W^oman 517

Illustrations 17


Ma-Rutse Man 519

Natives of tlie West Coast 523

Mission House 527

Group of Boys 529

River Carriers 531

Camping Under a Mimosa 538

Entrance to tlie Village 541

The Devil Doctor 547

The Camel Driver 550

Tizora and Muti 552

Farangwana and Mabumbi 553

Bishop J. C. Hartzell 556

Salisbury, Mashonaland 560

A Madamba, tlie African Piano 563

Cape Town and Table Mountain 569

Rev. William Flint 572

Rev. James Thompson 572

Railway Station in the Karroo 573

Bloemfontein, Orange Free State ... 574

Pretoria, Transvaal 575

A Breakdown on the Road 576

Interpreter Mdolomba 577

Bishop Taylor and Native Congregation 579

Mr. HuUy, Founder of Shawbury Mission 581

"Wesleyan Church, Durban, Natal 5S2

A Pondo Herdsman 5S3

Street Scene m Johannesburg 585

A Portion of Ujiji 589

Bongandanga Blacksmith 592

Lower Falls of tlie Congo 595

M'wanga Abroad 599

Hospital and Palace Hotel, Buluwayo 605

Arrival of Wool at Queenstown 606

Madagascar Queen's Palace 607

The Negus Meneiek 608

Empress Tauti 609


18 Illustrations


Baiberton, Transvaal 6io

Cape Town to Buluwayo 6i i

Wesleyan Mission House 613

Country Seat of Cecil Rhodes 615

Ama-Khosa Chief 617

Type of Bushman 618

Malagasy Type 619

An Ama-Tonga 623

Young Men of Garenganze 624

Ba-Mangwato Tailors 626

A Kabyle Type 628

Typical Korannas 629

A War Drum 630

Fan Palm Tree 632

Gathering Dates 634

Tonga Town of Kambine 637

Kimberley Diamond Fields 641

Landscape of the Transvaal 643

Kaffir King Kreli 646

A Kafifir Kraal 647

Slatin Pasha 649

Map of Egypt and the Soudan 653

Capturing Cattle 657

View of Tiniis 659

Crossing Palm Tree Bridge 661

Gordon Avenged ! 663

Military Occupation 667



ANY books have been written upon Africa. Some
are devoted to one part of the vast continent, and.
some to another. Several writers have confined
themselves to the countries the)' have explored, while
others have treated of the ethnology, physiology, and lan-
guage of the various peoples.

It is no mean task to search out the most interesting facts
about Africa and gather them all together as links in a
golden chain to bind the burning recoidsof missionary trials
and triumphs.

In the volume before us the author pictures the Darlc Con-
tinent with facile pen, tcndcrlv tracing the variations of
nature in the fauna and flora from north to south and from
east to west. He turns the veil of the past aside, and we
catch a glimpse of the Midnight Empire of yesterdax', and
speculate upon its dim and buried past — its civilization, C(Mn-
mercial influence, mihtcU'}' i)o\ver, and la[xse into heathen-
ism. The ancient history of Africa and the record of the
Mohammedan aggression and possession, with their com-
mercial and religious influence and slax'e trade, are interesting
and instructive. The period of earl)- European exploration
and individual adventures, together with the later explora-
tions in which I have been personall)' interested, are chained
together in delightful vein.

As the pages roll b)' we peruse the somber records of
heathen Africa and the government of its barbaric poten-

20 Introduction

tates, military methods, religions and superstitions, social
customs, slavery, and the horrors of human sacrifice.

The sections devoted to missionary trials and triumphs in
Africa are of world-wide importance. The barriers encoun-
tered — the climate, the geographical difficulties, languages,
witchcraft, and polygamy, and the prejudices of dense igno-
rance and savage natures — are recorded with the convinc-
ing touch of experience.

The closing chapters of this unique work, on the political
partition, recent discoveries of diamonds and gold, and the
present development, are full of information which is up-to-
date and reliable, while the Bishop speaks of Africa's future
in prophetic vein.

The title adopted by the Bishop for his book may possibly
be considered somewhat sensational by those unacquainted
with its origin. TJic Flaming TorcJi in Darkest Africa, how-
ever, is a title peculiarly well fitted to the volume he has pro-
duced. The natives everywhere in the territories where
his missionary work called him knew him as "The Flam-
ing Torch," or "Fire Stick," as some might translate the
Zulu word Isikunisivutayo. Therefore in speaking of him-
self as "The FlamJng Torch" he has but raised a fitting
mental monument to his converts in Africa. Since the
African native speaks only as the facts impress him,
it may be taken for granted that he had been deeply
impressed by the beautiful truths taught, and the man-
ner in which they had been conveyed to his mind by
Bishop Taylor.

This Grand Old Man of Africa mission work was indeed a
flaming torch of light and truth many, many years ago, when
first he began his self-sacrificing lifework among the native
people, preaching with great clearness and eloquence, until

Introduction 21

he touched the hearts and awakened the souls which seemed
dead to all but debauchery and savage instincts.

At one of the great religious awakenings not less than
twelve hundred colonists were brought to a sense of their
responsibilities to the Almighty under his ministry, and the
grand work spread on and on, from kraal to kraal, through-
out the native territories, until it was known that over seven
thousand of the native Africans had been converted. Well
might the natives call him " Isikunisivutayo."

William Taylor was the God-chosen man for the work.
He inspired his co-workers, not only by his words, but by the
force of his example. He taught the people how to make
their lives happier by giving them object lessons in many
things. When he founded the first Protestant missions ii;
the territory of Angola, he discovered large districts where
the people suffered from want of water. They had been ac-
customed to carry it long distances as their forefathers had
done, but the practical Bishop taught them how to dig wells,
and thus he was known by the Ambundu for hundreds of
miles as " The Well-digger."

Like bearers of light the Christian missionaries, among
whom William Taylor was conspicuous by his indefatigable
labors, traveled thousands of miles through swamp and jungle,
impelled by the noble spirit within to shed forth the light
of truth where the gloom of despair and heathenism had
hitherto prevailed.

For his long journeys, when he visited the various missions

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