William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) online

. (page 10 of 48)
Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 10 of 48)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

joyed the friendfhip of Archbilhop Laud, whom he had
known at Oxford ; and, through his means, was made bifhop
of London and high treafurer. His promotion gave great
offence, and in particular to the puritans ; but he acted,
neverthcleis, with great moderation and prudence in a very
troublefome office and turbulent times. He was felecled by
Charles the Firfl, to aflift him in his devotions at the fcaiFold :
and, on the reftoration of Charles the Second, was pro-
moted to the higheft dignity of the church. He died June 4,
1663, at the age of 8 1.


K E B L E. 81

KAHTER (JOHN), born at Wolman, in the Lan^graviate
of Hefle Cartel, in 1640. He was profeffor of poetry,
maihemacics, and theology, at Rinletz, and member of the
fo.iety of Gottingen. He publifhed various differtations on
theological and philofophical fubjects, and died in 1729.

KEATING (JEFFERY), an Infb clergyman, a native
of Tipperary, and author of an hiftory of the poets of his
country, which was printed magnificently in London, with
the genealogies of the principal families in Ireland. He died
in 1650.

KEBLE (JOSEPH), an Englifh lawyer, was the fon of a
lawyer of eminence, during Cromwell's ufurpation, and born
in London, 1632. After a proper preparation, he was fen t to
Jefus-col!ege } Oxford ; whence he fhortly removed to Ali-
louls, of which he was made fellow by the parliament viiitors
in 1648. He took the degree of LL. B. in 1644; and, not
long after, went and fettled at Gray's Inn, London, where he
had been admitted ftudent, and became a barrifter about 1658.
The following year he went to Paris. After the refloration,
he attended the King's Bench bar with extraordinary afliduity,
continuing there as long as the court far, in all the terms
from 1661 to 1710; which is the more icmarkable, fince he
was hardly ever known to be retained in any caufe, or fo much
as to make a motion there. He died fuddenly, under the
gate-way of Gray's Inn, Aug. 1710, juft as he was going to
take the air in a coach. He was a man of incredible induftry.
He published feveral books in his life-time ; befides which, he
left above iOO large folios, and more than 50 thick quartos
In MS. He employed all his time in writing ; which faculty
was Ib habitual to him, that he continually laboured with his
pen, not only to report the law at the King's Bench, Weft-
mi nfter, but all the fermons at Gray's Jnn chapel, both fore-
noon and afternoon, amounting to above '4000. This was the
mode of the times, when he was young ; and there is a inecha-
nifm in fome natures, which makes them fond of proceeding as
they have fet out.

The firft work he undertook for the public was making a
new table, with many new references, to the ftatute-book, in
1674. 2. " An Explanation of the Laws againft Reculants,
&c. abridged, 1681," 8vo. 3. " An Alliftance to Juftices of
the Peace, for the eafier Performance of their Duty, 1683,"

VOL. IX. G folio i


folio; licenfed by all the judges. 4. c< Reports, taken at the
King's Bench at Weflminfter, from the lath to the goth year
of the Reign of our late Sovereign Lord King Charles II.
1685," 3 vols. folio. This work was alfo licenfed by the
judges ; but, not being digefled in the ordinary method of fuch
collections, and having no table of references, it was not fo
well received as was expeded ; and the credit of it, being once
funk, could not be retrieved, though the table was added in
1^696. 5. Two effays, one ' On Human Nature, or the
Creation of Mankind ;" the other " On Human Actions."
Thefe were pamphlets.

KECKERMAN (BARTHOLOMEW), a very learned man,
was born at Dantzick in Prufiia, 1571. He received the firft
rudiments of learning under James Fabricius, fo diftinguifhed
by his zeal asaind Papifts, Anabaptifts, and other heretics j
and, at 18 years of age, was fent to the univerfity of Wir-
temberg, where he applied hjnifelf to the ftudies of philofophy
and divinity. Two years after, he removed to the univerhty
of Leipfic; whence, after half a year's itay, he went, in
1592, to that of Heidelberg. Here he took a matter's degree,
and approved himfelf to the governors of the univerfity fo
high, that he was firfl made a tutor, and afterwards Hebrew
profeffor there. In 1597, the fenate of Dantzick, moved with
the high reputation and merit of their countryman, fent him a
formal and honourable invitation, by letter, to come and take
upon him part of the management of their academy. He
refufed to go then ; but, upon a repetition of this invitation,
an 1601, confented, after having firft received the degree of
D. D. from the learned David Pareus at Heidelberg. As foon
as he was fettled at Dantzic, -he propofed to lead the youth
Through the very penetralia of philofophy, by a newer and
more compendious method than had hitherto been found out ;
laying his plan fo, that, within the compafs of three year?,
they might fmi{h a complete courfe. For this purpofe h.e
purfued the fcheme he had began at Heidelberg, and drew
up a great number of books and iyflems upon all forts of fub-
jecls ; upon logic, rhetoric, oeconomics, ethics, politics, phy-
fics, metaphyfics, geography, aflronomy, &c. : and in this
indefatigable manner he went on till 1609, when, fairly worn
out with mere fcholaftic drudgery, he died at no more than 38
years of age.

Bayle tells us, that *' his books are full of plagiarifms j"
but adds, that " they have alfo been well pillaged by plagia-
ries," which, we will hope, may be fome atonement for the
fin. Gerard Voffius, in his account of Diogenes Laertius,
takes cccafion to fpeak in this manner of Kec^erman :
n, a man, in other refpe&s learned, but more

con vei fant

K E E N . 83

converfant in modern writers than in antiquity, pafics a very-
Wrong judgement upon Diogenes Laertius. For, in his treatife
concerning hiilory, he fays, that Laeitius has written languidly
and coldly, but often not unufefully ; which, in truth, is a
verv cold commendation of a moft ofeful -and valuable work.

* f

fincewemay learn from it many particulars relating to hiilory,
and excellent apophthegms of the ancients; for which Keeker-
man, letting a very ill example, chofe to quote and commend
Erafmus rather than Plutarch, Lacrtius, and other writers
of that rasik."

KERNE (EDMUND), was a native cf Lynn in Norfolk,
and a younger brother of the late Sir Benjamin Kecne, K. B,
formerly ambaflador to Spain, who left him his fortune. He
received his academical education at Caius-coljege, Cambridge,,
In 1738, he was appointed one of his maje fly's preachers at
Whitehall chapel. In 1740, he was made chaplain to a
regiment of marines; and, in the fame year, by the intereft
of his brother with Sir Robert Walpole, he fucceeded Bp.
Butler in the valuable re&ory cf Stanhope, in the. biflicpric
of Durham. In 1748, he preached and publifhed a fermon at
NewcaiUe, at the anniverfary meeting of the fociety for the
relief of the widows and orphans of clergymen; and, in
December following, on the death of Dr. Whalley, he was
chofen matter of St. Peter's college. In 1750, being vice-
chancellor, under the aufpices of the late duke of Newcaftle,
he verified the concluding paragraph in his fpeech on being
elected, " Nee tardum nee timidum habebitis procancella-
rium," by promoting, with great zeal and iuccefs, the re-
gulations for improving the diibipline of the univerfity.
This expofed him to much obloquy from the younger and
patriotic part of it, particularly in the famous " Fragment,"
wherein Dr. Keene was ridiculed (in prole) under the name
of Mun, and to that of the " Capitade" (in verfe), in which
he figured under that of Acutus, but at the fame time juftly
endeared him to his great patron, fo that in Jan. 1752, footi
after the expiration of his office, which he held for two years,
he was nominated to the fee of Chefter, vacant by the death,
of Bp. Peploe. With this he he'd in commenJam his rectory,
and, for two years, his headfhip, when he was fucceeded,
much to his fatib faction, by Dr. Law. In May following,
his iordfhip married the only daughter of Lancelot Andrews,
efq. of Edmonton, formeily an eminent linen-draper in
Cheapfide, a lady of confiderable fortune. In 1770, on the
death of Bp. Mawfon, he was translated to the valuable lee
of Ely. Receiving large dilapidations, 1 his lordfhip procured
an at of parliament for alienating the old palace in Holborn,
and building a new one, by which the fee .has been freed from

G 2 a

84 K E I L L.

a great incumbrance, and obtained feme fncreafe alfo of annual
revenue. "The bifliopric," it has been humoroufly ob-
ferved, " though dripped of the Strawberries which Shakfpeare
commemorates to have been fo noted in Holborn, has, in lieu
of then what may very well confole a man not over-fcru-
pulous in his appetites, viz. a new manfion of Portland ftone
in Dover-ftreet, and a revenue of 5000!. a year, to keep it
warm and in good repute." Bp. Keene foon followed his
friend Dr. Caryl, " whom," he faid, " he had long known,
and regarded, and whom, though he had a few more years over
him, he did not think would have gone before h'm," farviving
him jufl lono: enough to appoint him a moft eligible fucceflbr
in the headfhip of Jefus-college. His lordfliip's fon, Ben-
jamin Keene, efq. was member in the lafl two parliaments for
the town of Cambridge, and was married, in 1780, to Mifs
Ruck. The bifhop has alfo left a daughter unmarried. " Bp.
Keene," it is obferved by Bp. Newton, * 4 fucceeded to Ely,
to his heart's defire, and happy it was that he did fo; for, few
could have borne the expence, or have difplayed the talte
and magnificence, which he has done, having a liberal
fortune as well rv a liberal mind, and really meriting the
appellation of a builder of palaces. P or, he built a new palace
atChefter; he built a new Ely-houfe in London ; and, in a
great meafure, a new palace at Ely ; leaving only the outer walls
Handing, he formed anew iniide, and thereby converted it into
one of the beft epifcopal houfes, if not the very beft, in the
kingdom. He had indeed received the money which arofs
from the fale of old E'y-houfe, and alfo what was paid by the
executors of his predecefLr for dilapidations, which, all to-
gether, amounted to about I I 3 oool. i but yet he expended fome
thoufands more of his own upon the buildings, and ntw
houfes require new furniture."

KEILL (JOHN), an eminent mathematician and philo-
fopher, was born Dec. I, 1671, at Edinburgh, where he re-
ceived the firft rudiments of learning; and, being educated
in that umverfity, continued there till he took the degree of
M. A. His genius leading him to the mathematics, he
Trade a great progrefs under David Gregory the profeffor there,
.who was one of the firft that had embraced the Newtonian
philofophy; and, in 1694, he followed his tutor to Oxford,
where, being admitted of Baliol, he obtained one of the
Scotch exhibitions in that college. He is faid to have been
the firfl who taught Newton's principles by the experiments
on which they are grounded, and this he did, it feems, by
an apparatus of inftruments of his own providing, and got
himfelf by that means a great reputation. The firft public
fpecimen he gave of his fkill in mathematical and philofophical


K E I L L. 85

knowledge, was his " Examination of Burriet's Theory of the
Earth," which appeared in 1698. It was univerfally ap-
plauded by the men of fcience, and allowed to be decilive
againft the doctor's " Theory." To this piece he fubjomed
4< Remarks upon Whifton's New Theory of the Eanh ;"
and thefe theories, being defended by their refpelive inventors,
drew from Keill, in 1699, an o tner performance, intituled,
"An Examination of the Refli&ions of the Theory of the
Earth, together with " a Defence of the Remarks on Mr.
Whifton's New Theory." Dr. B-urnet was a man of great
humanity, moderation, and candour; and it was therefore
fuppofed, that Keill had treated him too roughly, coniidering
the great cifparity of years between them. Keill, however,
left the doctor in poflefHon of that which has fince been thought
the great chara&eriftic and excellence of his work: anJ,
though he difclaimed him as a philofopher, yet allowed him
to be a man of a fine imagination. " Perhaps," fays he,
44 many of his readers will be forry to be undeceived about his
Theory; for, as I believe never any book was fuller of mif-
takes and errors in philofophy, fo none ever abounded with
more beautiful fcenes and furprizing images of nature. But
I write only to thofe who might expect to find a true philofophy
in it: they who read it as an ingenious romance will Hill be
pleafed with their entertainment."

The following year Dr. Millington, Sedleian profefibr of
natural philofophy in Oxford, who had been appointed phyii-
cian in ordinary to king William, fubftituted Keill as his de-
puty, to read lectures in the public fchools. This office he
discharged with great reputation; and, the term of enjoying
the Scotch exhibition at Baliol-collegc now expiring, he ac-
cepted an invitation from Dr. Aldrich, dean of Chnfl-church,
to reiide there. In 1701, he publifhed his celebrated treatife,
intituled, " Introdutio ad veram phyficam," which is fup-
pofed to be the beft and moft ufeful of all his performances.
In the preface he infinuates the little progrefs that Sir Ifa^c
Newton's "Principia" had made in the world; and fays, t^at,
" though the mechanical philofophy was then in repucc, yet,
in moft of the writings upon this iubjecl, fcarce any thing was
to be found but the name." The firfh edition of this book
contained only 14 lectures -, but to the fecond, in 1705, he
added two more. About 50 years a^o, when the Newtonian
philofophy began to be efbblifheci in France, this piece was
in great efteem there, being thought or coniiJered as the beft
imroduclioa to the cc Frincipia;" and a new edition in
Fnglim was printed at London in 1736, at the inilance o
M. Maupenuis, who was then in England,

G 3 About

86 K E I L L.

About this time he was made fellow of the Royal Society ;
and, in 1708, publifhed, in the " Philosophical Tranfac-
tions," a paper 4< of the Laws of Attraction, and its Phy-
fical Principles." At the fame time, being offended at a
paflage in the " A&a Eruditorum" at Leipfic, wherein Sir
Ifaac Newton's claim to the firfh invention of the method of
flexions was called in queflion, he communicated to the
Royal Society another paper, in which he afferted the juilice
of that claim. In 1709, he was appointed treafurer to the
Palatines and in that ftation attended them in their paffoge
to New England; and, foon afcer his return in 1710, was
chofen Savilian profefTor of aftronomy at Oxford. In 1711,
being attacked by Leibnitz, he entered the lifts againft that
mathematician, in the difpute about the invention of flux-
ions. Leibnitz wrote a letter to Dr. Hans Sloane, then fe-
cretary to the Royal Society, dated March 4, 1711, where-
in he required Keill, in effect, to make him fatisfa&ion for
the injury he had done him in his paper relating to the.paflage
in the " Acta Eruditorum" at Leipfic. He protefted, that he
v/as far from aifuming to himfelf Sir Ifaac Newton's method
of fluxions; and dcfired, therefore, that Keill might be ob-
liged to retract his falfe- aflertion. Keiil defired, on the other
hand, that he might be permitted to juftify what he had
aflVrtcd, He made his defence, to the approbation of Sir
Ifaac, and other members of the fociety; and a copy of it
was fent to Leibnitz, who, in a fecond letter, remonftrated
fhll more loudly againft Kcill's want of candor and fmcerity;
adding, that it was not fit for one of his age and experience
to enter into a difpute with an upftart, who acted without any
authority from Sir Ifaac Newton; and defining, that the Royal
Society would enjoin him file nee. Upon this, a fpecial com-
mittee was appointed; who, after examining the fads-, con-
cluded their report with " reckoning Mr. Newton the in-
ventor of fluxions; and that Mr. Keill, in averting the fame,
had been no ways injurious to Mr. Leibnitz." In the mean
time, Keill behaved himfelf with great firmnefs and fpirit;
which he aifo fhewed afterwards in a Latin epiftle, wrtten in
1720, to Bernoulli, mathematical profeiTor at Bafil, on
account of the fame ufage (hewn to Sir Ifaac Newton; in the
title page of which he put the arms of Scotland, viz. a thiftle,
with this motto, " Nemo me impune laceffit."

About 1711, feveral cbjelions were urged againfl Sir Ifaae
'Newton's philofophy, in fupport of Des Cartes's notions of a
plenum; which occafioned Keill to draw up a paper, which
was publifhed in the *' Phrlofophical Tranfaclions," " Oti
the Rarity of Matter, and the Tenuity of its Compofitien.'?
]3ut, while he was engaged in this controverfy, queen Anne


K E I L L. 87

v.-as pleafed to appoint him her decipherer; a pofl for which
lie was, it feems, very fit. His fagacity was fuch, that, though
a decipherer is always fuppofed to be moderately (killed in the
language in which the paper given him to decipher is written;
yet he is faid cnce to have deciphered a paper written in
Swediih, without knowing a word of the language. The
univerlity conferred on him the degree of M. D, at the public
act in 1713; and, two years after, he put out an edition of
Command inus*s " Euclid/' with additions of his own. In
17 17, he was married to fome lady, who recommended herfelf
to him, it is faid, purely by her perfoualaccomplimments. In
1718, he publifhed his " Introdudlio ad veram aftronomianv."
which trcatife was afterwards, at the requeft of the duchefs
of Chandos, tranilated by himfelf into Englim; and, with
feveral emendations, publifhed in 1721, under the title of
<c An Introduction to the true Aftronomy, or, Aflronomical
Lectures read in the Agronomical Schools of the Uni-
verfity of Oxford." This was his laft gift to the public;
for he was leized this fummer with a violent fever, which
put an end to his life, Sept. i, when he was not quite 50
years old.

KEILL (JAMES), an eminent phyfician, and younger
brother of John Keill, was alfo born in Scotland, March 27,
1673. He received part of his education there, and completed
it in travels abroad. He applied himfelf early to diiTc&ions,
and the ftudy of anatomy; made himfelf known by reading
anatomical lectures in both Universities; and had the degree
of M. D, conferred upon him at Cambridge, having fome
time before publiflied his " Anatomy of the Human Body,"
for the ufe of his pupils. In 1703, he fettled at Northampton,
as a phyiician: and, in 1706, publifhed a paper in the
" Philofophical Traofa&ioiis, Numb. 306," containing " An
Account of the Death and Diflection of John Bayles, of that
Town, reputed to have been 130 years eld." He was aifo
well (killed in mathematical learning; and, in 1708, gave
the world a proof of it, in a book, intituled, ' An Account
of Animal Secretion, the Quantity of Blood in the Human
Body, and Mufcuiar Motion." He afterwards publiihed the
fame treatife in Latin, with the addition of a " Medicina
Statica ;" and, in 1717, printed a fecond edition of this work
in Englifh, having added an effay " concerning the horce
of the He.,rt in driving the Blood through the whole Body."
This drew him into a controverfy with Dr. Junn upon that
fubjecl, which was carried on in ievcral papers printed in the
<( Philofophical Tranlaftions," to the time of our author's
death. He had now for fome time laboured under a mofl
pajniul diforder, namely, a cancer in the roof of his mouth;

G 4



and, in order, if poffible, to procure fome relief, ha<J applied
the cautery with his own hands to the part; but in vain, fof
he died July 16, 1719, in the vigour of his age, and was
buried at St. Giles's church at Northampton. An handfome
monument and infcription were placed over him by his brother,
John Keill, to whom he left his eftate, being never married;
but who furvived him, as we have ieen, little more than two

KEITH (JAMES), field-marftial in the king of Pruflia's
fervice, was born in 1696; and was the vounger fon of Wil-
liam Keith, earl marfhal of Scotland. He had his grammar-
learning under Thomas Ruddiman, author of the " Rudi-
ments;*' his academical, under bifnop Keith and William
Mellon, in the college of Aberdeen. He was defigned by his
friends for the profefiion of the law; but the bent of his
genius inclined him to arms, with which they wifely com-
plied. The firfr. occafion of drawing his fword was but an
unhappy one. When he was 18, the rebellion broke out in
Scotland. Through the inftigation of the countefs his mo-
ther, who was a roman catholic, he joined the pretender's
partv, and was at the battle of SherifTmuir. The pretender's
ani.y was routed, Keith was wounded, yet able to make his
efcape to France. Here he applied to thofe branches of edu-
cation, which are necefiary to accomplifh a foldier. He ftu-
ditd mathematics under M. De Maupertuis ; and made inch
proficiency, that he was, by his recommendation, admitted
a fellow of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Pans, He
afterwards travelled through Italy, Switzerland, and Portu-
gal; v.ith uncommon curioHty examined the feveral produc-
tions in architecture, painting, and fculpture; and furveyed
the fTerent fields where famous battles had b?en f -night.
In 1717, he had an opportunity of making an acquaintance
wit!, Peter czar of Mufcovy at Paris, who invited him to
enter into the Ruffian fer/ice. This offer he declined, be-
caufe '.he emperor was at that time at war with the king of
Sweden, whole character Keith held in great veneration. He
Jei't Pans, and went to Madrid; where, by the intereft of
the duke of Lyria, he obtained a commiffion in the Irifh bri-
gades, th^n commanded by the duke of Ormond. He after-
ward 'ccompamed the duke of Lyria, when he was fent
ambaiiador extraordinary to Mufcovy. By him Keith was
recommenced to the fervice of the czarina, who promoted
him ' the rank of lieutenant-general, and invefted him with
the order ot the Bbck Eagle.

The Turks at this time invaded the Ukrain on the fide
of Ruffia, and the emprefs fent two numerous armies to re-
pel the invaders; one of which marched for Oczakow, under



the command of count Munich, which place was invefted and
taken by the valour and conduct of Keith, to whom the
fuccefs was chiefly attributed. In the war with the Swedes,
he had a command under Marfhal Lacey, at the bmle of
Wilim,mflrand; which he gained by fetching a compafs
about a hill, and attacking the Swedes in flank, at a time
when victory itemed ro declare in their favour. He Jikewife,
by a ftratagem, retook from them the iiles of Aland in the
Baltic, which they had leized by treachery. It muft he re-
membered too, that he had no inconfiderable fhare in the
bringing about that extraordinary revolution, when the em-
preis Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter, was raited to the
throne. He ferved the Ruffians in peace a!fo by Icveral
embaiTies: but, -finding the honours of that country no better
than a fplendid fervitude, and not meeting with thoie re-
wards which his long and faithful fervices delerved, he left
that court for one where merit is better known, and better

The king of Pruflia received him with all poffible marks
of honour, made him governor of Berlin, and field marfhal
of the Pruffian armies; to which places he annexed aotu
tional falaries. He likewife diftinguifhed him io far by his
confidence, as to travel with him in difguife over a great
part of Germany, Poland, and Hungary. In buiinefs, he
ma^ie him his chier counsellor ; in his diverfions, his conilant
companion. The king was much pleafed with an amufe-
ment, which the marlhal invented in imitation of the game
of chefs. The marfbal ordered ieveral thoufand fmall ftatues
of men in armour to be caft by a founder: thefe he would
fet opposite to each other, and range them in battalia, in
the fame manner as if he had been drawing up an army:
he would bring out a party from the winr;s or centre, and
fhew the advantage or diiadvantage refulting from the feveral
draughts which he made. In this manner the kin^ and t^e

o o

marfh-il often amufed themfelves, and at the fame tune im-
proved their military knowledge.

This brave and experienced general, after having greatly
diftinguifhed him'elf in the late memorable wars of that i!-
luftrious monarch, was killed in the unfortunate affair of
Hohkerchen, and died in the bed of glory in 1758.

KELLER (JAMES), efteemed by Bayle one of the beft

Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 10 of 48)