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William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) online

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Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 16 of 48)
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^adverfafics, one of whofe miniiters, JVir. Jofeph Boyce, pre-
fently publiihed " Remarks, &c." in which, however, he
allows, that the bifhop's difcourfe was written with an air of
lerioLifnefs and gravity, becoming the weight of the fubjeft,
a.s well as the dignity of his character. Upon this, the bilhop
returned an anfv/er, under the title of " An Admonition to
the Diffenting Inhabitants of the Diocefe of Derry, con-
cerning a Book lately publiihed by Mr. J. L>. intituled,
Remarks, occ." 1695, 4to : to which Mr. Boyce replying,
: ' the



KING. 135

the bifliop rejoined in " A Second Admonition to the Dif-
fenting Inhabitants, Sec.'' publiihed the fame year at Dublin,
in 410": and fo the controverfy ended, having wrought as much
effect as controverfirs ufually do.

In 1702, he published at Dublin, in 410, his celebrated
treati fe 4l !)e Origine Mali;" which was republifhed the fame
year at London in 8v>; wherein our author makes it his
buiinefs to (hew, how all 'lie fcveral kinds of evil, with which
the world abounds, arc confident with the goodnefs of God,
and may he accounted fo: without the fuppofition of an evil
principle. We do not find ihat any exceptions were made to
this work at- home; but it fell under the cognizance of fome
yerv eminent foreigners. Mr. Bernard having given an
abridgement .of it in his " '<ouvelles de la Republique des
Lettres" for May and June 1703, that abridgement fell into
the hands of Mr. Bayle; who, obferving his Manicheaii
iyftem to be in danger from it, did not flay till he could fee
and confult the book it (elf, but examined the hypothesis of
our author, as it was reprefented in Bernard's Extracts, and
in a pailage cited bv the writers of the " A eta Eruditorum
Lipfiae," which had been omitted by Bernard. Bayle was
blamed for this by Bernard, and not without rcafon, as he
had manifeftly miilaken the prelate's meaning in many par-
ticulars, and attacked him upon principles which he would
have denied; but the difpute did not end ib: Bayle afterwards
replied to Bernard; and, having procured the bilhop's book,
made feveral new observations upon it, which were published
in the fifth tome of his Reponfe, &c. Leibnitz alfo wrote
" Remarks" on this work, which however he ftyles " a work
full of elegance and learning." Thele remarks, which are
in French, were published by Des Maizeaux, in the third
volume of the ** Recueil de diverfes Pieces fur la Philofophie,
&c. par. MeiT. Leibnitz, Clarke, Newton, &c." at Amfter-
darn, 1720, in three volumes 121110. In the mean time, the
biil;op, though he did not publicly and formally reply to thefe
writers, yet left a great number of manufcript papers, in which
he confidered their feveral objections to his fyftem, and la-
boured to vindicate it from every the lea ft- cavil. Tlufe
papers were afterwards communicated to Mr. Edmund Law,
M. A. fellow of Chrifl's college in Cambridge, who had
tranilated the hiihop's book, and written notes upon it ; and
who thereupon printed a fecond edition of his translation, in
the notes to which he inferted the fubilance of thofe papers.
*The whole came out with this title, " An flay on the Ori-
gin of hvil, by Dr. William King, late Lord Archbifhop of
Dublin : tranilated from the Latin, with Notes, and a Dii-
fertation concerning the Principle and Criterion of Virtue,

K 4 and



KING.

and the Origin of the Pafiions. The Second Edition. Cor-
rected and enlarged from the Author's Manufcripts. To
which are added, two Sermons by the fame Author ; the
former concerning Divine Preference, the latter on the Fall
of Man." Lond, 1732, in two volume 8vo A third edition
was published in 1739.

The fame year alfo, that he publifhed his book " De Ori-
gine Mali/' viz. 1702, he was tranflated to the archbjlhopric
of Dublin. He was appointed one of the lords juftices of
Ireland in 1717, and held the fame office twice afterwards in
1721 and 1723. He died at his palace in Dublin, May the
8th, 1729. Befides the works abovementioned, he publifhecl
feveral occafional fermons. That " Concerning: Divine

o

Preference," which was printed by Mr. Law, was preached
jand publiihed in 1/09, with this title: " Divine Predeftina-
tion and Fore-knowledge confident with the Freedom of
Man's Will:" and, as the bifliop, in this difcourfe, had
flarted a doftrine concerning the moral attributes of the
Deity, as if different from the moral qualities of the fame
name in man, he was attacked upon this head by writers of
very unlike complexions : by Dr. John Edwards, in a piece
called " The Divine Perfections vindicated, &c:" and by
Anthony Collins, efq. in a pamphlet, intituled, " A Vin-
jdication of the Divine Attributes, &c." both in 1710. The
archbiihop did not enter into a controverfy, yet endeavoured
to remove all objections to his general fcheme, with which
this was intimately connected, in thofe papers; the fubflance
cf which, as we have obfervecl, was printed in Mr. Law's
notes, after his death.

KING (PETER), chancellor of England, and famous for
his ecclefiafiical learning, as well as his knowledge in the law,
was born in 1669 at txeter, Devonfhire. His father was
an eminent grocer and falter in that city ; and, though a man
of considerable fubftance, and defcended from a good family,
determined to bring up his fon to his own trade. With
this view, he took him into his bufinefs ; and kept him at his
jfhop for feme years: however, the ion's inclination being
ilronoly bent to learning, he took all opportunities of gra-
tifying his paiTion. He laid out all the money he couid
fpare in books, and devoted every moment of his Jeifure hours
to ftudy; fo that he became, in reality, an excellent fcholar,
before the world fufpecled any thing of the matter. His ac-
quaintance with Mr. Locke, who was his uncle by his
mother's fide, and who left him half his library at his death,
was of vaft advantage to him. That gentleman, after fome
difcoujfe, being greatly furprifed and pleafed with the pro-
digious advances his nephew had made in literature, adviied

him



KING, 137

him to go and perfect himfelf at Leyden: and it is faid to
have been by his advice, that Mr. King afterwards entered
himfelf a Undent at the Inner Temple, and applied himfelf
to the law ; in which profeffion his great parts and indefa-
tigable induftry, for he was remarkable for both, foon made
him famous.

In the mean time, he gave a proof of uncommon learn-
ing, by publishing, when he was no more than twenty-two
years of age, the firft part of a work intituled, " An Inquiry
into the Conftitution, Difcipline, Unity, and'Worfhip, of
The. Primitive Church, that rlourifhed within the firft three
hundred Years after Chrift, faithfully collected out of the
extant Writings of thofe ages," 1691, Svo. This was written
v/ ith a view to promote the fcheme of a comprehension with
the Diffenters: and the author has abundantly fhewn that
fpirit or peace, unity, and moderation, which he recommends
in a very powerful manner to all the parties concerned. He
afterwards publiihed the fecond part of the " Enquiry into
the Constitution, &c." Having defired in his preface, with
a true air of modefty, and in a very unaffected way, to be
ihewn either publicly or privately any miftakes he might
have made, that requeft was firft complied with by Mr.
Edmund hlys ; between whom and our author there palled
feveral letters upon the fubject in 1692, which were publiihed
by Mr, Elys in 1694, Svo. under the title of ** Letters on
feveral Subjects."

Mr. King had not been many years at the Temple, when
he had acquired as high a reputation for his knowledge in law,
as he had before for his knowledge in divinity; fo that in
1699, he obtained a feat in the houfe of commons, as re-
prefentative for the borough of Beer-Alfton in Devenfhire ;
and the fame honour was continued to him, not only in the
eniuing, which was the laft parliament of king William,
but allo in the five fucceedmg parliaments of queen Anne.
In the mean time, as if loth to quit his old purfuits, the more
beloved perhaps for having been the firft, he completed fome
collections he had already made from cccleiiaftical antiquity;
and, having digeited them into proper order, and made alib
proper remarks upon them, he publiihed them in 170-2, Svo,
under the title of " Che Hiftory of the Apoftle^' Creed, with
critical Ubfervations on its feveral Articles." This treatife is
written with furpriiing judgement and learning ; and Peter de
Cofte, who lent an abftral of it in French to Bcrnr.rd, to be
publiihed, as it accordingly was, in his " Nouv.eles tie ia
Republique des Lettres" for Nov. and Dec. 1702, has related
a very remarkable particular concerning it. He tells us, that
#n Englilh prelate, diftinguilhed for his erudition; being - er-

fuaded



G:



tt could hardly be any thing better than a wretched
Tfiapfody out of feveral clifcourfes on the fubje6l before printed,
snd efpecially Pearfon's " Expoiiiion of the Creed," who
itemed to have exhaufled that matter, took it up, and began to
read it with this disadvantageous preporTeflion : but that he was
quickly convinced of his miltake, and furpriied to iind fo many
C"arkras. things, not to be met with i Pcarfon, without
fereeivmg anything borrowed from that writer's " Expofition."
Henceforward our author found hirmelf under a necemty
of dropping all farther purluits in this way. The great bufi-
3ids", which his abilities as a lawyer brought into his hands,
left him no, time to fpare; and in a few years his merit in the
law was diftinguifned by the higheft honours. [uly 1708, he
was choien- recorder of London ; and knighted by queen Anne,
September following .'n 1709, he was appointed one of the
managers of the Houfe of Commons, at the trial of SacheverelL
Upon the aceftici of George 1. he was appointed lord chief
jttftice of the court of common-pleas, and foon after fworn of
be privy-council. He was created a peer, May the 25th,
1725, by the title of lord King, baron of Ockam in Surrey;
snd the great feal, being taken from lord Macelesfield, was
(delivered to him tlie iirft of June following. He is not
fcppofed t.o have made that figure, as chancellor, as was expected
from the character that railed him to it; and it is faid, that
3n ore of his decrees were repealed by the ho ufe of lords than of
any other chancellor's in the fame fpace of time. However,
3je took ex tract dinary pains in tlue difcharge of his office,
which-,, impairing his conititution by degrees, brought him at
lalt into a paralytic diforder; and, his diftemper increafmg, he

refigiied the feals the 2.6th Nov. 1733, an( ^ ^ s ^ l ^ e J u ^y r ^ e 22< ^
fcvllowing. He died at his feat at Ockham, leaving behind him
Iburfons and two daughters, and a widow, the daughter of
Richard Seys, of Boverrxm, in Glamprganflbire, elq. "I he
anotto under his coat of arms is, u Labor ipfe Voluptas,"
which has been thought to be chofen by him with great
propriety, as being the chnracleriftic quality of his nature;
although, as we have obierved, he had very uncommon
parts.

KIMG [Dr. WILLIAM), fon of the rev. Peregrine King,
was bora ^at Stepney, in Middle r ex, in 1685: and, after a
fchool education at Salifbury, wa? entered of Baliol-college,
Oxford, July 9, 1701. Proceeding on ihe law line, he took
bis doctor's degree in 1715; was fecretary to the duke of
Ormond and the earl of Arran, when chancellors of the
univeriity ; and was made principal of St. Mary-hall, in 1718.
Vv' hen he was candidate for the univeriity, in 1722, he.reiigj.l-
f d his office of fecretary ; but his other pi efeimsnt he enjoyed



KING.

(and it was all he did enjoy) to the time of his death. Dr.
Clarke, who oppofed him, carried his election; and, :ftcr this
disappointment, in i;2~, he- went over f> Tnla-d. With
whatde!'gp de went thither is to n> unknvvvn hnthis enemies
fay, it was fcr the pu of iivripve, a d to CXP fp hui ielf

to fale. But he favs himfelf, and the-? arc no ficis a'leged
to di'prove it, "At no time of my life," either m Knel^'d or
Ireland, either from the prefcnt or any former c,ove:mr.e t,
have alked, or endeavoured by anv means to ob: in L pi
penfion, or employment, of any kind. I could airirn y
reafons for my conduct; bm one an Twer I have slwavs re iy:
1 inheri'ej a patrimony, which I found fufficient to f :;piv all
my -want-', and to l-ave me at liberty to pur r ue th..-ie liberal
itudies, which afFoid^d me the mcti folid ple^fures in my
youth, and are the del-ght and enjoyment of ray o!d age.
Befides, 1 always con eived a fecret horror of a ftate o: fervi ity
and dependence: and i ivver yetfaw a placeman or a courtier,
whether in a higher or lower vUfs, whether a prieft or a lay-
man, who was his own mailer 1 During his flay in Ireland,
he is faid to have written an cp ; c poem, called " The Toail,"
bearing the name cf Seheffer, a Laplander, as its author,
and of -Peregrine O'Donald, efq. as its tranflator; which was
a political fatire, and was printed and given away to friends,
but never 'bid

n the dedication of Raclclifre's library, 1749, he fpoke
itm oration in the theatre at Oxford, which was received
with the hiaheft acclamations by a fplendid auditory.
IVIr. Warton, in " The Triumphs of Ifis," pays him a
very great compliment on that occafion, in the following
lines :

See on yon Sage how all attentive ftand,
To catch his darting eye and waving hand.
Ha^k! he begins with all a Tuliy's art
To pour the didates of a Cato's heart.
Skill'd o p.onounce what noblcil thoughts infpire,
He blend- the Speaker's \vith the patriot's fire.
Bold to conceive, nor timorous to conceal,
What Brirone da ; e to think, he dares to tell.
'Tis his dike rhe ea. and eye to charm,
To win wuh a61ion, and with ienfe to warm.
Unuughr in flowery didlion to difpenfe
The lull ing found of Tweet iivpertinence;
In fr wns orfmiles, he giins an equal prize,
Nor meanly fears to fall, nor creeps to rife:
Bids happier days to Albion be reftor'd,
Bids ancient juilicerear her radiant fvvoid ;

From



KING.

From me, as from my country, vvinsapplaufe,
And makes an Oxford's a Britannia's caufe.

But this oration, which was foon after printed, did not
meet with fuch favourable reception from the public; for he
was attacked in feverrJ pamphlets on account of it, in which
he was charged with writing; barbarous Latin, with being
difaffecled to the government, and that he inftigafed the
younger members of the univerfity to fedition and licen-
tioufiiefs ; very heavy accufations, if we may not candidly
fuppofe them didated by the fpirit of malevolence and party
zeal.

rain, in 175;, when the memorable conteft happened
in Oxfordfhire, his attachment to the old intereft drew on him
the reientment of the new. He was libelled in news-papers
and in pamphlets 3 and charged with the following particulars,
viz. that he \vas an Irifhman ; that he had received fub-
fcriptions for books never pubiifhecl to the amount of 1500!.
of which fum he had defrauded h:s fubfcribers; that he had
offered himfelf to fale both in England and Ireland, and was
not found worth the purchafe ; that he was the writer cf
" The London Evening PC. the author of a book in queen
Anne's reign, intituled, " Political Confiderations, 1710,"
in which there was falfe Engliih j and of a book then juft
publilhed, called, " The Dreanier, 1754," 8vo. At this
time he published his " Apology" in 4to, and plaunbly vin-
dicated himfelf from the leveral matters charged on him,
except, only the laft article, of his being the author of " The
Dreamer;" and war.nly retaliated on his adverfaries.

Befides feveral curious works of his own, he publifhed the
five firiT; volumes of Dr. South's fermons. He was known
and efteemed by the nrft n en of his time for wit and learning;
and mult be allowed to have been a polite fchoiar, an excellent
orator, and an elegant and eafv writer, both in Latin and

O ,> *

Englifh.

i here is a firiklns; likenefs of Dr. Kin? in Worlid<re's view

^-* <-3 ' f

of the inflallation of lord Weftmorland as chancellor ot
Oxford in 1761.

KING (Sir EDMUND), who w:.s originally a furgeon, ap-
plied himfelf much to the ftudy of chemrftry, which rccom-
mendedhim to Charles II. who fometimes amufed himiclf in
his laboratory. He attended that prince in his laft illnefs as
fir ft pa - n, when he incurred the penalty of the la\v by
letting him blood. He was oidered iccol. by the privy-
cour.; ; :, but never received the monev. In Phil. Tran.f. thtre
ave iome obfervations by him on ants, &c. No. 23, p. 425,

..c time of his death is unceituiu.

KING



K I R C H E R. 141

KING (JoHN GLEN, D.D.), was a native of Norfolk,
End itudent of Caius-college, Cambridge. In 1763 he went
chaplain to the Englifh factory of Peterfburg , and, in 1772,
publifhed " The Rites and Ceremonies of the Greek Church,
containing an Account of its Doctrine, Worfhip, and Dif-
cipline." The doctor alfo printed " A Letter to the Biihop of
Durham, containing Obfervations on the Climate of Ruffia
ard the Northern Countries, with a View of the Flying
Mountains near Peterfburg." There are alfo fome obfervations
from the fame pen on the Barberini Vafe, He was appointed
medallift to the Emprefs ot Ruffia, and was engaged in a
medallic work at the time of his death, which happened in
1787.

KIRCHER (ATHANASIUS), a famous philofopher and
mathematician, and withal a moil learned man, was born at
Fulde in Germany, 1601. He entered into the fociety of
Jefuits, 1618; and, after going through the regular; courfe
offiudies, during which he fhewed moft amazing parts and
induftry, he taught philofophy, mathematics, the Hebrew
and Syriac languages, in the univerfity of Wirtzburg, in
Franconia. The war, which Guftavus Adolphus of Sweden
made in Germany, difturbing his repofe here, he retired into
France, and fettled in the Jefuits-coliege at Avignon, where
he was in 1655. He was afterwards called to Rome, to teach
rnathematics in the Roman college ; which he did fix years.
,He fpent the remainder of his life in that city ; and, for fome
time, profefled the Hebrew language. He died in 1680. after
having pubiilhed as many books as, one would think, mi^ht
employ a good part of his life even to tranfcribe ; for they
confift of twenty-two volumes in folio, eleven in quarto, and
three in otavo. His works are rather curious than ufeful,
oftimes favouring muqh of vifion and fancy; and, if they are
not always accompanied with the greateil exaftnefs and pre-
cifion, the reader, we prefume, will not be ailomfhed. His
principal work is, " Oedipus yEgyptiacus : hoc efr, imiver-
faiis hieroglyphica? veterumdoclnnce teaiporum injuriaabolirse,
inllauratio. Romas, 1052, 6cc." in four volumes, folrcu
Kircher was more than ordinarily addifted to the fludy of
hieroglyphical characters; and, if he could not always find a
true meaning for them, he contrived the molt piauiibJe in Ins
pow r er. As his rage for hieroglyphics was juftly eileemed
ridiculous, fome young fcholars, it is laid, had a mind tq
divert themfelves a little at his expence. With this view, they
engraved fome unmeaning faiiiaflic characters, or figures,
upon a fhapelefs piece of flone, and had it buried in a place
which was ihoitly to be dug up. Then they carried it to
Kircher, as a mcfl fmgular curiofity in the antique way ;



KIRCHMAN.

who, quite in raptures, applied himfelf inMantly to explain the
hieroglyphic, and made it, at length, the moll intelligible
thing in the world. If this ftorv was not true, there is no
doubt bet it might have been ; and if Kircher had been made a
dupe in the fcience of antiques, fo have ten thoufand befides
him. Among Kircher's other works are, " Ars Magnefia ;'
"Lingua Es:yptiaca reftituta;" " Obelifcus Pamphilius ;"
c< Iter extaticum coelefte ;" " Tter extaticum terreilrc ;"
" Alundus fubterraneus, in quo univerfse naturae majeftas &
divitiae demonfhrantur ;" " Arcce Noe ;" " Turris Babel;"
" Organon mathematicum ad difciplinas matbematicas facili
rnethodo addifeendas ;" " Ars magna fciendi in duodecim
Jibros digefta." For this laft work he was commended by the
fanatic Kuhlman, who was as great a vifionary in religious,
as Kircher was in learned matters, and therefore rather more
ridiculous.

KIRCHER (CONRAD), of Angfbonrg, is celebrated for his
" Greek Concordance of the Old Teftament," printed at
Frankfort in 1602. He has inferted the Hebrew words in
alphabetical order, and placed under them the Greek words to
which they anfwer. The author has followed the Complu-
tenfian edition of the Septuagint.

KIRCHMAN (Joiix), a learned German, was bom,
1575, at Lubeck, where his father was a merchant. He
fludied in his native place till he was eighteen years of age ;
and then went to Frankfort on the Oder, where lie continued
four years, in a conftant attendance upon lecture?, and dole
application to his books. He afterwards iludicd in the uni-
verfity of Jena, and then in that of Strafburg. He had a great
mind to travel, but he was not rich enough to bear the ex-
pences of it : however, not long after, a burgo- mailer of
Luneburg, who had received a great character of him, chofe
him to accompany his fon into France and Italy. He re-
turned to Germany in 1602 ; and', flopping at Roftock, gave
there iuch proofs of his learning, that the next year he was
appointed profefTor of poetry. The work which he published
in 1604, " De funeribus Romanorum," gained him the repu-
tation of a very learned man. He afterwards puhlifhed ano-
ther work, " De unnulis," which was alfo much efteemed, as
it illuftrated antiquity very well in that particular. He mar-
ried a wife the fame year that he commenced author, namely,
in 1604 ; and the compofer of his funeral oration tells us, that
he did it purely for the propagation of his fpecies ; for, " as.
he endeavoured to improve literature by the offspring of his
mind, fo he defigned to increafe mankind by the offspring of
his body." He did not mils his aim, for he had a great many
children. Being looked upon as no lefs careful than Ikilful

in



K I R S T E N I U S. 545

m the education of youth, he had a great many fcholars fent
to him from the other cities of German The rnagiilrr

fLubeck, wanting a new principal er reft or for their col-
lege^ cleared him to take that office upon him; and h<j was
accordingly inftalled into it in i6ic. He peffonmed the
functions of it the remainder of his days with the urmofl ap-
plication ; -though the decline of the college, which happej.
in his time, was falicly aicribed by fome to his neghc;en .
He died, March 20, 1643; and, the 4th of May, hr; ;a!
oration was pronounced at Lit heck by James Stolferfhot, who
had married his el-deft daughter.

The two works already mentioned are his principal per-
formances ; yet he was the author of other things ; of rreai:
upon logic and rhetoric, and funeral orations. He pufoHfhed
xlfo, in Latin, " The horofcope of the iirH-born fon of the
moil: illuftrious prince, Adolphus Frederic, duke of Mecklen-
burg, 1624," in quarto. He was a man of a good deal of
fuperflition, and had more learning than parts.

KIRCHMAGER (JoHN GASPER), profeffor at Wlttem-
berg, and member of the Royal Societies of London and
Vienna ; was born at Uffenheim in Franconia, an ^35, and
publifhed many works of great learning. He was a good
claffic, and particularly Ikilled in natural hiftory. He pi
lifhed *' Commentaries on Cornelius Nepos a-nd Tacitus,"
fo^ie orations and poems ; *' A Treatife cle Balfamo, Co-ralio,
et Saccharo." Kirch masjer died in 1700.

KIRSTEN1US (PETER), a profeiTor of phyfic at UpfaS,
aiidphyiician extraordinary toChriftina queen of Sweden, was
born, Dec. 25, 1577* at Hreflaw, in Silefia, where his father
was a merchant. He loft his parents whe;i he was very young,
but his guardians took good care of his education ; and, as
they intended him for his father's profefliori, had him weffl
iaiftiuclied in arithmetic, and fuch other knowledge as -might
prepare him for it. But Kirftenius's turn did not lie this way;
lie had a pafiion for letters, which, as they did not think pro-^
per to controui, he was left to indulge at full length. He
learned the Greek and Latin tongues, to which he alfo joined
a little Hebrew and Syriac, As phyfic was his intended ofojcft,
he cultivated natural philofophy, botany, and anatomy, with
the greateft care, in his native place. Afterwards he went to
viiit the univerfities of Leiphc, VV ittemberg, and Jena; and
having made a great progreis, during four years, under
the profeflbrs there, he took a journey into the Low-Coun-



Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 16 of 48)