William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) online

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Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 17 of 48)
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tries, and into France. He had been told, that a man could
not diflinguifh himfelf in the practice of phyfic, mile's he un-
derftood Avicenna ; and, knowing the tranflation of that
phyikian's works to be very bad, he had a ftrong inclinatica


144 K I R S T E N I U S.

to learn Arabic. To this he was urged by Jofeph Scaligef
and llaac Caufabon, who judged him proper to do great fer-
vice to the public of letters in that way; and he refolved to
read not only Avicenna, but' alfo Mefue, Rhafls, Abenzoar,
Abukafis, and Averroes. This paflion did not hinder him
from gratifying the inclination he had to travel, in which he
fpent feven years from home. He took a doctor of phyfic's
degree at Bafil, in 1601 ; and then he vivked Italy, Spain,
England, and even Greece and Alia. Soon after his return

o *

into Silefia, he went to Jena, and married a wife, by whom
he had eight children. In 1610, he wa's chofen, by the
magiftrates of Breflawj to have the direction of their college
and fchools ; but he afterwards refigned that difficult employ-
ment, being obliged to it by a fit ot iicknefs, and applied him-
ielf intirely to the ftudy of Arabic, and to the practice of phy-
iic. He fucceeded greatly in his application to that language,
and was fo zealous to promote the knowledge of it, that he
employed all the money he could fpare in printing Arabic
books. We are not told why he removed into Prufiia \ but he
had reafons to be well Satisfied with his removal ; for it gave
him an opportunity of entering into the family of chancellor
Gxenfticrn, whom he accompanied into Sweden ; where, in
1636, he was appointed profeflbr of phylic in the univerhty of
Upfal, and phyficran to the queen. His conftitution, how-
ever, was much broken, and he did not enjoy thefe advan-
tages above four years ; for he lived only till the 8th of April,
1640. He was one of thofe few, who joined piety to the
practice of phylic. It is obfervcd in his epitaph, that he
underftood twenty-fix languages.

He publifhedfeveral works, for which divines are as much ob-
liged to him as thofe of his own faculty : as, i. " Grammattca
Arabica, 1608," 2. " Triafpeciminacharafterum Arabicorum,
&c. fol. 3. " Decas facraCanticorum & Carminum Arabicorum
ex aliquot MSS. cum Latina ad verbum interpretatione, 1609,"
8vo. 4. Vita^ quatuor evangel iftarum ex antiquiffimo codice
MS. Arabico erutae, 1609," fol. 5. " Liber fecimdus ca-
nonis Avicennae, ty pis Arabic! s ex MSS. editus, & ad verbum
in Latinum tranflatus, notifque textum concernentibus illtif-
tratus, 1610," fol. u. ' ; Liber de vero ufu 6c abufu medi-
cine, 1610," 8vo. 7. u Notae in evangelium S. Matthaei ex
collatione textuum Arabicorum, Syi iacorum, ^Egyptiacorum,
Graecprum, et Latinorum, 1611," fol. 8. 4< Epiilola S.
Judse ex MS. Heidelbergenfi Arabico ad verbnm traniiata, &c.
1611," fol. and a " Latin Oration,'' delivered when he was
inftalled redor of the college at Breda w, in 1610.

FCLINGSTADT, born at Riga, in Livonia 1657, ^' ec ^ at
Paris, aged 77, He excelled especially in miniatures, and *.vas


K N E L L E R.

called the Raphael of fnufF-boxes, for his executing drawings
for them, which it was held a favour to obtain at fifty guineas
each. The fubjecls were indeed generally libertine, which
might enter for fomething into his exactions of fo high a
price. His works of a larger fize are extremely rare, and
much valued, being, in general, not only of a fine compofi
tion, but precioufly finilhed. It has been afTured, with fome
credibility, that for one particular picture he had five hundred
pounds fterling.

KNELLER (Sir GODFREY,) an eminent painter, was
born at Lubeck, a city of Holftein in Denmark, about 1648.
His grandfather enjoyed an eftate near Hall, in Saxony, where
he lived in great efteem among feveral princes of Germany ; his
father was educated at the univerfity of Leipfic ; whence he
removed into Sweden, being employed by the dowager of
Guftavus Adolphus, after whofe death he married and fettled
at Lubeck.

His Ion Godfrey was fent to Leyclen, after having been fuf-
ficiently inftructed in the Latin tongue ; where he applied
himfelf to the mathematics, particularly to fortification, being
at firft defigned for fome military employment ; but his genius
leading him ftrongly to drawing figures after the hiftoricai
manner, he foon made great improvements in it, fo as to be
much taken notice of and encouraged. From this city he was
removed to Amfterdam, and placed under Rernbrant: but,
not contented with that guilo of painting, where exact defign
and true proportion were wanting, his father fent him into
Italy at the age of feventeen. He ftudied at Rome under Carlo
Marat and Bernini, and began to acquire fame in hiftory-
painting, having firft ftudied archite6ture and anatomy ; the
latter aptly difpofing him to relifh the antique ftatues, and to
improve duly by them. He then removed to Venice, where
he had great marks of civility from the Donati, Gartoni, and
many other noble families, for whom he drew feveral hiftories,
portraits, and family-pictures, by which his fame was con-
fiderably increafed in that city. This, however, could not
detain him there : by the importunity of fome friends, he was
prevailed on to come into England, where his fkill and merit
foon made him known. He drew the picture of Charles JI.
bv the recommendation of the duke of Monmouth, more than


once; and his majefty was fo taken with his fkili in doing it,
that he ufed to come and fit to him at his houle in the piazza
of Covent Garden. He was fent by this prince into France,
to draw the French king's picture, where he had the honour
likewife of drawing moft of the royal family ; but this did not
influence him to ffay long in that kingdom, although it hap-
pened at the death of his great patron Charles II.


146 K N E L L E R.

At his return be was well received by king James and bis
queen, and conftantly employed by them until the revolution ;
after which, he continued principal painter to king William,
who dignified him w T ith the honour of knighthood. Neither
the king nor queen ever fat to. any other perfon : and, it is
verv remarkable of this painter, that he had the honour to
draw ten crowned heads ; four kings of England, arid three
queens; the czar of Mufcovy ; Charles III. king of Spain,
afterwards emperor, when he was in England ; and the French
king, Lewis XIV. befides feveral electors and princes. By
this means, his reputation became fo univerfal, that the em-
peror Leopold dignified him as a nobleman and knight of the
holy Roman empire, by a patent, which he generoufly fent
him by count Wrariftan, his ambaflador in England, in
1700; and in which there is acknowledgment made of the
fervices of his ancefiorsto the houfe of Auftria. King Wil-
liam fent him to draw the elector of Bavaria's picture at Bruf-
fels, and presented him with a rich gold chain and medal.
From feeing and ftudying many noble works of Rubens, he
began to change his ftyle and manner of colouring ; imitating
that great mailer, whom he judged to have come neareft to
nature of any other. Mod of the nobility and gentry of Eng-
land had their pictures drawn by him : from which a great
number of mezzotinto prints and engravings have been made,
which fpeak for him by the high efteem they are in all over
Europe. His draught is mod exact : no painter ever excelled
him in afure out-line and graceful difpofal of his figures, nor
took a better refemblance of a face, which he feldom failed to
exprefs in the moft handfome and agreeable turn of it; always
adding to it a mien and grace, fuitable to the character of the
perfon he reprefented. He always lived in great eileem and
reputation, abounding no lefs in wealth than fplendor, and in
both far furpaffing any of his predecefTors. He fpent the latter
part of his life at Whitton, near Hampton-court; where he
built a houfe, after a complete manner, and furnifhed it in all
refpects accordingly.

Befides the honours already mentioned, Sir. Godfrey Knel-
ler was, out of the great regard paid to him by the univerfity
of Oxford, prefented by that learned body with the degree of
doctor of the civil law. He was alio admitted gentleman of
the privy-chamber to king William, to queen Anne, and to
king George I. (who created him a baronet) ; and was
honoured in feveral reigns with being a deputy-lieutenant of
the county of Middlefex, and in the commimon of the peace
for that and other counties. He died October 27, 1723 ; and
was buried at Whitton ; but a monument by Ryfbrach was
erected for him in Weftminfler Abbey, with a Mattering epi-

K N O L L E S. 147

taph by Pope. Several curious inflances of his vanity are
produced by Mr. VV'alpole ; who very juftly afks, " Can one
wonder a man was vain, who had been flattered by Dryden,
Atidiibn, Prior, Pope, and Sfcclc ?"

KNIGHT (SAMUEL D. D.), a native of London, (where
his father was free of the Mercers company,) received the early
part of his education at St. Paul's fJiool ; and was thence
admitted of Trinity-college, Cambridge, where having taken
his degree ot M. A. he became chaplain to Edward earl of
Orford, who prefented him to the rectory of Borough-green,
in Cambridge/hire, to which he \yas inftituted Nov 3, 1707.
He afterwards was collated by Biihop Moore to a prebendal
frail in the church of Ely, June 8, 1714; and prefented by
him to the retory of Bhmtefham in Huntingdonfhire, June 22
following; was made chaplain to George II. in Feb. 1730-1 ;
and promoted by rifnop Sherlock to the archdeaconry of
Berks, 1735. He pubiilhed the lives of Erafmus and Dean
Colet, 1724, 1726, Svo ; died December 16, 1646, in the
72d year of his age; and was buried in the chancel of 1-lun-
tefham church, \\here a neat monument of white marble is
erected to his memory, with an infcripticn written by his
friend iMr. Caftle, dean of Hereford.

KNOLLES (RICHARD) an Englishman, who has written
a\good hiflory of the Turks, was born in Northamptonshire,
and educated at Oxford, where he was admitted about 1560 ;
but we are not told of what college, though it is faid he was,
after taking his degrees, chofen fellow of Lincoln-college.
"When he had continued there fome time, Sir Peter Manhood,
of 6t Stephen's near Canterbury, *' minding to be a favourer
of his ftudies, " fays Wood, " called him from the univerfity,
and preferred him to be matter of the free fchool at Sandwich,
in Kent." It was an odd way of favouring a man's Studies, to

call him from an univerfity, and make him a fchool -mailer :

j ' __

but: no matter; he did much good in his profefiion, and fent
many well-grounded fcholars to the universities. He corn-
pofed 4i Grarnmaticae Latinse, Graecce, & Hebraicse, com-
pendium, cum radicibus. Lend, 1600:" but he did more:
he wrote hiitory, and wrote it well. His " Hiftcry of the
Turks," which was firSt printed in 16 10, folio, and which
he fpent twelve in corrfpofing, has immortalized his
name. In the latter editions of this book, for there have been
feveral, it has this title : " The general Hiftory of the Turks,
from the Firft Beginning of that nation, to the Rifmg of the
Ottoman Family,'" &c. Some have fuggefted, that Knolles
was not the fole author of this hiftory, becaufe there appear in
it feveral translations from Arabic hiftories, which language
fome have again aSHrmcd him not to have been converfant in :

L 2 but

148 K N O T T.

but this Is mere furmife, and infufficient to deprive him of the
leafi: mite of that credit, which iuftly attends the work. It
has been continued, fmce Knolles's death, by feveral hands.
One continuation was made from the year 1628, to the*end
of 1637, collected out of the difpatches of Sir Peter Wyche,
knight, ambafTador at Conitantinople. But the beft con-
tinuation of the Turkifli hiftory is made by Paul Ricaut, Efq.
conful of bmyrna, from 1623 to 1677, printed at London,
1680, in folio. Ricaut began his " Hiftory of the Turkifh
Empire," from a period earlier than Knolles had left off : for
he tells us, in his preface to the reader, that " the reign of
Sultan Amurat, being imperfectly written in Knolles's hiltory,
CohfHling, for the moft part, of abrupt collections, he had
thought fir, for the better completing the reign of the fultan,
and the whole body of our Turkiih hiftory, to deliver all the
particular tranfaclions thereof with his own pen. >J

Knolles wrote alfo, " The Lives and Conquefts of the
Ottoman Kings and Emperors, to the Year 1610," which
was not printed till after his death, in 1621; to which time
it was continued by another hand. And, laftly, he wrote
" A brief Difcourfe of the Greatnefs of the Turkifh Empire,
and wherein the greateft Strength thereof conlifteth, &c."
He died at Sandwich in 1610, and left behind him the cha-
racter of a learned and worthy man.

KNOLLES (Sir ROBERT), is celebrated for having been
the founder of Rochefter-bridge. He was diftinguifhed both
by his courage and military preferments, being raifed by de-
grees, from the rank of a common foldier, to that of a gene-
ral. He attended Edward III. in his fuccefsful campaigns in
France ; and when the king's affairs declined by the ill ftate of
health of Edward the Black Prince, Sir Robert was fent over
to the continent with an army of thirty thoufand men. He
advanced into the heart of France, and extended his conquefts
as far as the gates of Paris. In this, and many other expe-
ditions, he acquired great riches, and returned to his native
country laden with wealth and honours. Lambard fays, Sir
Robert built the above-mentioned bridge with the fpoils of
towns, caftles," churches, monaiteries, and cities, which he
burnt and deftroyed ; fo that the ruins of houfes, Sec. were
called " Knolles's Mitres."

KNOTT (EDWARD), a jefuit, whofe true name was
Matthias Willfon, and memorable for his having given occa-
fion to Chillingworth's famous book, called '* 'I he Religion
of Proteftants," was born at Pegfworth near Morpeth in
Northumberland, 1580. He was entered among the jefuits
in 1606, being already in priefts orders ; and is repre-
fented in the * Bibliotheca patruai focietatis Jefu," as a man


K N O X. 149

of low flature, but of great abilities : " vir magnis animi
dotibus humili in corpore praeditus." He taught divinity a
long time in the Englilh college at Rome, and was a rigid
obfrrver of that dilcipline himfelf which he has rigidly ex-
a&ed from others. He was then appointed fob-provincial of
the province of England ; and, after he had exercifed that
employment out of the kingdom, he was fent thither to per-
form the functions of provincial. He was twice honoured
with that employment. He was prelent, as provincial, at the
general affembly of the orders of the jefuits, held at Rome in
1646, and was elected one of the definitors. He died at
London, January 4, 1655-6, and was buried in the church
of St. Pancras, near that city.

This jefuit was the author of feveral works, in all which
he has fhewn great acutenefs and learning.

KNOWLER (WILLIAM), an Englifh divine of con-
fiderable reputation in his day. He tranilated Chryfoltom's
" Comment on St. PauPs Epiftle to the Galatians ;" his
preface to which contains fome judicious obfervations on the
Fathers. He was born in 1699* and died in 1767.

KNOX (JOHN), an eminent Scottilh minifter, and a
chief iriftrumerit and promoter of the reformation in his
country, was defcended of an ancient and honourable family,
and born 1505, at Giffard, in the county of Eafl Lothian,
Scotland. After paffing through a grammar-fchool, he was
fent ro the univerfity of St. Andrew, and placed under Mr.
John Major ; who, though a very acute fchoolman, and deep
m theology, was,' in time, out-done by his pupil. Knox,
however, examining the works of Jerom and Auftin, began
to relifh this fubtilizing method, altered his tafie, and applied
himfelf to plain and folid divinity, At his entrance upon this
new courfe of fludy, he attended the preaching of Thomas
Guilliam, a black frier, whofe fermons were of extraordinary
fervice to him ; and Mr. George Wifhart, fo much celebrated
in the hiftory of this time, coming from England in 1554,
with commiffioners from king Henry VIII. Knox, being of
an inq'-iiitive nature, learned from him the principles of the
reformation ; with which he was fo well pleafed, that he re-
nounced the Romilb religion, and became a zealous Proteftant.
He had taken his degrees long ago, and was in prieil's orders ;
fo that his renouncing of popery made him particularly ob-
noxious to the clergy'; and the biihcp of St. Andrew's pro-
fecuted him with fuch feverity, that he was obliged to abfcond,
and fly from place to place. This made him refolute to retire
to Germany, where the reformation was gaining ground;
knowing that, in England, though the pope's authority was
fupjfrsffed, yet the greater part of his doclrine remained in full

L 3 vigour.

i5o K N O X.

vigour. He was however diverted from his purpofe, and
prevailed on to return to St. Andrew's, January 1547 ; where
he foon after accepted a preacher's place, though forely
againf, his will.

He uov/ fet openly, and in good earned, about the bufinefs
of the reformation His firfl fermon was upon Dan. vii.
27 28 ; from which text he proved, to the fatisfacYion of his
auditors, that the pope was Antichrift, and that the do&rine of
the Romifh church was contrary to the doctrine of Chrift and
his : and he likewife gave the notes both of the true
church, and of the aritichrHtian church. Hence he was con-
vened by his fuperiors ; he was alio engaged in difputes ; but
things went profperouflv on, and Knox continued diligent in
the difcharge of his miniucrial funclion till July 1547, when
the cattle of St. Andrew's, in which he was, was furrendered
to the French ; and then he was carried with the p-arrifon into


France. He remained a prifoner on board the galleys, till the
latter end of 1549, when, being let at liberty, he pafT . d into
England; and, going to London, was there licenf'd, and
appointed preacher, fail at Berwick, and next at Newcaftle.
During this employ, he received a fummons, in 1551, to ap-
pear before Cuthbert Tonftall, bifhop of Durham, for preach-
ing againft the mafs. In 1552, he was appointed chaplain
to Kdward Vi ; it being thought fit, as Strype relate?, that
the king mould retain fix chaplains in ordinary, who lliould
not only wait on him, but be itineraries, and preach the gofpel
all the nation over. The fame year he came into fome
trouble, on account of a bold fermon preached upon Chriftmas-
day, at Newcaftle, againft the obfcinacy of the papitts. In
15^2-3, he returned to London, and was appointed to preach
before the king and council at Weflminfter ; who put Cran-
mer archbiihop of Canterbury upon giving him the living of
Allhallows in London, which was accordingly offered him ;
but he refuted it, not caring to conform to the Englifh liturgy,
as it then flood. Some fay, that king Edward would have
promoted him to a biihopric ; but that he even fell into a
pailion when it \vas offered him, and rejected it as favouring
too much of Antichriflianifm.

He continued, however, his place of itinerary preacher till
1553-4, when queen jVl:;ry came to the throne; but then,
leaving England, he cr oiled over to Dieppe in Fiance, and
went thence to Geneva. He had not been long there, when
he was called by the congregation of Englifh refugees, then


eftablifhed at Frahckfort, to be preacher to them ; which
vocation he obeyed, though unwillingly, at the command of
John Calvin. He left Fran', fort in 1755; and, after a few
months flay at Geneva, refolved to vifit his native country,


K N O X. 151

and went to Scotland. Upon his arrival there, he found the
profeffors of the reformed religion much increafed in number,
and formed into afociety under the infpeclion of fome teachers ;
and he aflbciated with them, and preached to them. He con-
verfed familiarly with feveral noble perfonages, and confirmed
them in the truth of the proteftant dodtrine. In the winter of
1^55, he taught for the moil part in Edinburgh. About
Chriftmas he went to the weft of Scotland, at the defire of fome
protefbnt gentlemen ; but returned to the eait foon after.
The popifh clergy, being greatly alarmed at the fuccefs of
Knox in promoting the proteflant caufe, fummoned him to
appear before them at Edinburgh, May 15, 1556 ; but, feveral
noblemen and gentlemen of diftindtion fupporting him, the
profecution was dropped. 1 his verv month he was advifedto
write to the queen-regent ar. earneft letter, to perfuade her, if
pojQible, to bear the proteflant doctrine; which, when the
queen had read, (he gave to James Beaton, archbifhop of
Glafgow, with this farcafm : " Pleafe you, my lord, to read
a pafquil."

While our Reformer was thus occupied in Scotland, he
received letters from the Kno;lim con^reo-ation at Geneva,

^^ i_3 f

earneilly intreating him to come thither ; accordingly, July
1556, he left Scotland, went firft to Dieppe in France, and
\thence to Geneva. He had no fooner turned his back than
the biihops fummoned him to appear before them ; and, upon
his non-appearance, puffed a ientence of death upon him for
herefy, and burnt him in effigy at the Crofs at Edinburgh.
Againft this fentence, he drew up, and afterwards printed at
Geneva, in 1558, " An Appellation from the cruel and
unjuft Sentence pronounced againft him by the falfe Biihops
and Clergy of Scotland," &c. He ha-i a call to Scotland in
1556-7 ; and it was Calvin's judgement that he fhould obey
it ; upon which, he proceeded in his way thither as far as to
Dieppe, aud there received letters to Hop his progrefs. It
feems there was much inconstancy among the Protdlarits in
Scotland ; at which Knox, being offended, fent them letters
ot admonition, and then returned to Geneva. There, in 1558,
he printed his treatife, intituled, " The Firil Biafc of the
Trumpet ngainft the monftrous Regiment of Women." His
chief motives to write this, were the cruel and bloody go-
vernment of queen Mary of England, and the endeavours of
iVJary of Lorrain, queen-regent of Scotland, to break through
the laws, and introduce tyrannical government. He deligned
to have written a fubfequent piece, which was to have been
called, " The Second Blaft:" but queen Mary .dying, and he
having a great opinion of queen Elizabeth, and gieat expecta-
tions to the proteilant caufe from her, went no farther.

L 4 April

* K N O X.

April, it;59, he determined to return to his native country,
and would have vifited England in his way, but queen Eliza-
beth's miniflers would not fuffer him. He arrived at Scot-
land in May, and applied himfelf with great aftirity to pro-
mote the reformation there. In order to have the reformed
doctrine preached throughout the kingdom, a divilion was made
thereof into twelve ciiftricts; and the diftricl of Edinburgh w r as
afligned to Knox Thefe twelve miniflers, one affigned to
each diftricl, compofed a confeffion of faith, which was after-
wards ratified by parliament : they alfo compiled the firft
books of difcipline for that church. Auguft, 1561, the queen
arrived from France, and immediately fet up a private mafs in
her own chapel ; which afterwards, by her protection and
countenance, was much frequented. This excited the zeal of
Knox, who exprefTed great warmth agairrft allowing it : and,
an aft of the privy-council being proclaimed at Edinburgh the
2$th of that month, forbidding any di ft urban ce to be given to
this practice, under pain of death. Knox openly, in his fer-
mon the Sunday following, declared, that ' one mafs was
more frightful to him than ten thoufand armed enemies,
landed in any part of the realm." This freedom gave great
ofience to the court, and the queen herfelf had a Jong con-
ference with him upon that and other fubjects. In 156?, he
preached a fermon, in which he exprefFed his abhorrence of
the queen's marrying a papift ; and her majefty, lending for
him, expreiTed much pafiion, and thought to have punilhed
him ; but was prevailed on to defift at that time. Theenfuing
year, lord Darnley, being married to the queen, was advifed
by the proteftants about the court, to hear Mr. Knox preach,
as thinking it would contribute much to procure the good-will
of the people : he accordingly did fo ; but was fo much of-
fended at his fermon, that he complained to the council, who
fiienced Knox for fome time. His text was Ifaiah xxiv. 13
and 17 : " O Lord, our God, other lords than Thou have

Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 17 of 48)