William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) online

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Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 22 of 48)
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ferved, while they proftitute themfelves for hire where they
have no affection, are net without their, amorous intercourfes,
to which love, pure love, is the fole unadulterated motive.
Diogenes enjoyed this delightful envied happinefe. That
Cynic became fcnfible of the power of her charms, and found
her very kind ; me felt a particular relilh in his naftinefs, fo

[R] Xenophon, the Corinthian, m?fle crated twenty-five virgins to the fervice

feicli a promife in cafe he ihould be con- of Venus, and offered them during the

qneror at the Olympic games; and, hav- ceremony of the facrifice, which he

ing g.Vined the victory, performed his made to that goddefc, after his retena

very punilually. He confc- from the Olympic games.



that his poverty was no bar to his pleafure ; as ihe admitted
him, without a fee, for her own gratification. This was
repreiented to Aiiflippus by his fervant, who could not bear
to fee his matter fpend fuch lar^e fums as be did upon our har-
lot : but it was to no purpofe. Ariflippus anfwered, t% 1 pay her
well, not to prevent others from enjoying her, but that 1 may-
enjoy her ir.yfelf." Neither was this enjoyment at ail disturbed
bv being told, that Lais had no love for him : " I do not im.i-

* o

gine." replied he, [ that the wine 1 drink, or the iiih I eat,
love me, and yet I take a pleafure in living upon them."
t'ven Diogenes made fport with his brother philofopher en tb
occaficn : *' You lie wit!: a common whore," favs the Cynic ;
" either forfake her, or be a Cvnic like me.' 3 " Do you
think it ridiculous," replied Ariftippus, ** to embark in a,
fhip, which lias carried fever al other paffengers [s] ?' :

Taflbni gives us a very diverting description ot the drefs, in
which thefe two philofophers ufed to ramble about Lais's
honfe. What a pretty thing, favs that author, was it to fee
Diogenes the Cynic, with LI cloak of coarie cloth, all ragged
and patched, with a dirty face, without a ihirr, nafty and
louiy, fetting up for a lover, and walking- before the famous
Lais's door ; and, on the other hand, to fee his rival, Arif-
tippus, all perfumed, neatly clreifed, fpittiiig civet, looking;
with an evil eye upon the other, and climbing .upon the wall ;
while the lady ftands at her window, delighted not a litrle with
their walking in the dew |"T]. Ariftippus, however, was no
flave to this pajfoon ; he did not indeed efcape that reflexion
.among the gibers, but he anfwered very appolitelv, " I keep
Lais, am not kept by her; 1 go to Lais's houfe, I have a
right to do it ; but (he does not govern or rule over me ; J am
the mailer 'of this correfpondence. and can put a . ftop to
whenever } pleafe." The report of her afpiring at univerfal
monarchy, by the. force of her charms, is entirely in characVr ;
find greatly countenanced by the few exceptions to it, which',
meet with in ancient writers. Bayle, with all his diligence,
was able to find but one instance, in which iLe fuffered a
defeat :. which WHS in attempting; to fubdue the continency of
Xenocrates. It feems Ihe laid a wager, that (he would oblige
that philofopher to divert himfelf with her at the fport of
love : to which end, Ihe feigned to be frighted, and, with
that pretence, took fanftuary in his houfe, continuing there
ail night : but he did not touch her. When the wager \

[s] Athenseus ubt fupra. Bayle fays Bourdeanx.

there is, in Du Vernier's Kibliotheq. [T] TalToni's Fenfieri divcrfl, i. 7*

Franc, p. 980, a very pretty poem upon c. ir. p
Uiis fubjeft, by Pefer de Brach, of

190 LAIS.

demanded, " I did not pretend," faid (he, u to lay a wagef
about a mere block, but about a man."

It is not doubted but ihe had a monument raifed to her by
the Greeks : Tatian charges it upon them, and mentioned
the fculptor's name, Turnus [u]. Such an inftance of devo-
tion is agreeable enough to the debauched manners of the
Corinthians. It is much more remarkable, that a woman,
v.-ho had followed the trade of a prcftitute all her life, fhould
herfelf preferve full a heart fufceptible of real love; and to
that degree as to leave Corinth, where (he had always a
crowd of lovers, and pafs into Theflaly, to meet a young
man called Hippolochus, with whom me was paffionately
in love. In this Hep ihe departed notcriouily from her cha-
racter; and in this country Ihe fell a facrifice to the envy and
jealouiv railed by her beauty. Her rivals here, feeing them-
feives fo much eclipfed, became defperate, and refolved to get
rid of her at any rate: cruelty is the proper food of revenge :
thefe furies, having conducted her into the temple of Venus,
there ftoned her to death. The temple afterwards carried a
mark expreffive of that crime, being called " The temple of
Venus the manilayer ;" or, " Venus prophaned [x]." A
tomb was alfo built to Lais, on the banks of the. river Peneus,
where fhe was interred, on which an infcription was put, to
the following purport: " Proud Greece, invincible by her
courage, has been vanquifhed by the heavenly beauty of this
Lais, whom Love begot, and Corinth educated. Here (he
lies in the celebrated fields of Theflaly." The Corinthians


alfo, in the fuburbs of that city, creeled a monument to her,
on which was engraved the figure cf a iionefs, reding her
fore feet on a ram. This is the account of this courtezan's
death, which is given by Plutarch. However, this opinion
has not been univerfally embraced ; fome authors averting,
that fhe was choaked with an olive ftone, in which cafe, as
Bayle obferves, her death had happened much like that of
Anacreon. This was a glorious death, continues Bayle, for
a perfon who had con fee rated herfelf to the fervice of Venus ;
it was dying in the bed of honour, and when fhe was giving
gnal proofs of her loyalty. Lais, in her profefTion, did
what Vefpafian required from the emperors in theirs. There
are authors who differ from Plutarch alfo with regard to her
age when me died, and tells us that Lais lived to be old,
and turned bawd. This fhe is reproached with by Claudian :
" Thus the Corinthian Lais/' fays he, " grown rich by the

u] Whence Bayle infers, that Turnus him by Pliny, or any other writer.
ITHift have been a very famous matter in [x] The firft of thefe names is given
his art j and yet no mention is made of by Plutarch, the other by Athenseus.


L A M B E C I U S. 191

love of young men, and the fpoils of two feas, whfn old
age came upon her, when the c rowd of lovers foriuok her,
when Ihe was obliged to lie all night, and there was feldorn
any knocking at her door, when Hie was frightened at her
own face fecn in the glafs ; yet file could continue her an-
cient tra ie ; Ihe turned bawd, and, though a decrepit old
won "win, Hie could nut leave her beloved Itcw ; her inclina-
tions were ftill the fame, though fhe could not gratify them.
This .laft misery i-? the natural confequence, and therefore
furely a "moft providential pujiifhment of this vice." The
truth of this (lory mutt reft upon the author, and, perhaps,
may be nothing more than a poetical piece of: ry. The
circumftance of being frightened at the fight of her face in the
glafs was apparently borrowed fioin an epigram ot Plato,
t ran dated into Latin by Aufonius, wherein Ihe is reprefented
making the following Ipeech: " I Lais, now grown an old
woman, confecrate my looking-glafs to Venus. Let her,
whole beauty is everlalling, ufs it everlaftingly ; for my part,
I have no longer any occaiion for it, iince 1 do not care to fee
mvfelf in it as 1 am now, and 1 cannot fee myielf as I was

LALLI fJoHN BAPTIST), an Italian poet of Orfia in.
Italy, and who died in 1637, was author of many poeins.
His compofiiions prove, that he would have been an excellent
poet, if his more important avocations had allowed him leifure
and opportunity to cultivate tiis genius. His principal work
is on the deilruction of Jerusalem, the diction of which is
elevated. He wrote aifo " L'/Eneide traveliita," and various
other poems,

LALLY (THOMAS ARTHUR COURT), lieutenant-general
in the fervice of France, was an Iriihman, whole family had
followed the fortunes of James II. He was a gallant foldier,
but a ralh and precipitate man. Being appointed commander
in the Eait indies, he conducted himfelf with various fuccefs,
till finally bein^ compelled to furrender Poncicherry to the
Englith, he incurred the fufpicion ot treachery. For this he
was tried, condemned, and executed. His fon, count Lalli,
obtained a repeal of his fentence, and Was reftored to his
father's fortunes and eitares.

LAMBi^ClUS (PETER), a learned German writer, was
born in 1628 at Hamburg, but went, while very young, into
Holland, by the direction of Lucas Holilenius, keeper of the
Vatican library, who was his maternal uncle, and defrayed
the expence of his education. From Holland he removed to
Paris ; and made fo quick a proficiency in literature, that at
nineteen he obtained a good reputation in the learned world,
by a work, intituled, " Lucubrationum Gallianarura Prodro-t


A M B E C I U S.

mus;" which is in faft, an ElTay on Aulus Gellius ; it was
printed at Paris in 1647. After this- he was retained by
Charles de Montchal, archbiihop of Thouloufe, in whofe
houfe he refided for eight months, and was two years in
Rome with cardinal Barberini. He had taken his degree of
doclor of law in France fome years before ; and being ap-
pointed profeflor of hiitory in 1652, at Hamburg, he re-
turned to his native place, fettled there, and was made rector
of the college in 1660. But in this {ration he met with a
thoufand vexations, being accufed of heterodoxy, and even of
atheifm ; and, while his labours and writings were bitterly
cenfured, his fcholars riotoufly refufed all obedience to him.
To provide a comfortable refource again ft thefe troubles, he
married a perfon with a large eftate ; but this match proved the
completion of his misfortunes. His wife was old, and fo
covetous, that fhe would not fuller her hufband to touch any
of her pelf. She declared her mind fo foon upon this fub-
jecl, that the nuptials had not been celebrated a fortnight,
when Lambecius, difgufled, and weary of his condition, left
his houfe and his native country, with a refolution never to
return. Herein he did no more than follow the advice of the
queen of Sweden, who fuggeiled this retreat to him. The
firft route he took was to the court of Vienna, where he had
the honour of paving his refpe&s to the emperor of Germany ;
but he battened thence to Rome, ancl there publicly profeffed
himfelf a roman catholic. It was this, at the bottom, that
had been the fource of all his perfecutions at Hamburg. The
truth is, that he had been many years a convert to the roman.
faith. The work was begun bv Nihufius, a famous' profelyte
to that religion, who had the direction of his fludies in Hol-
land ; after which Sirmond, the jeluit, completed the bufinefs
at Paris, fo early as 1647: and, though he kept his con-
verfion a fecrct, continuing outwardly to profefs Lutheranifm,
yet the courfe of his education abroad made it more than fuf-
peeled by his countrymen at home, who could not be im-
pofed upon by the mall: which he put on of conforming to
the eftablifhed religion. Returning towards the end of 1662
to Vienna, the emperor received him gracioully, and for a
prefent {ubiiilence made him his iublibrarian : and, May
1663, he fucceeded to the poft of principal library-keeper, to*
gether with the title of counfellor and imperial hiitoriogra*

He held this place as long as he lived, and acquired a great
reputation by the books he publifhed. He died in 1680, and
was fucceeded in the librarian's place by Daniel Nepelius,
who fays he died of a dropfy.



Befldes the efTay on Gellius, he publifhed " OriginesHam-
burgenfes, five liber rerum Hamburgenf. primus ab ann.
808 ad ann. 122$, &c. Hamb. 1652,'* 410. He defigned to
brin2; down the hiilory to his own time ; but he publithed
only " Liber fecnndus Her. Hamb. ab A. C. 1225 ad A. C.
1292, 5cc. Hamb. 1661," 4to. To which is added, among
other curiofiries, " A differtation upon an afs playing on the
harp, which is engraved on a tomb-ftone in the caihrdral
church." He difplayed great learning in his " Animadver-
fiones ad Codini Ori^ines Conftantinopolitanas etad Anonymi
excerpta, et ad Leonis Imp. oracula, Paris, 1665," fol. He
alib publiihed fome oranons in 1660, and a catalogue of the
MSS in the emperor's library at Vienna. This was divided
into 8 volumes, folio ; but was left incomplete. It was done
in a critical and hiftorical manner, and contains many curious
particulars. In this he diilinguifhed himfelf from other com-
pilers of catalogues ; and has been copied lately among our-
felves, in the catalogue of the Harleian MSS in the Britifh
Mufeum, which treafure was firfl opened for public ufe in

LAMBERT (ANNE THERESE, Marquife de), a moft
ingenious French lady, was daughter of a mailer of the
accounts, and born at Paris in 1647. She loft her father at
three years old; and her mother re-married to the ingenious
Bachaumont, who took a fmgular pleafure in cultivating the
happy talents of his daughter-in-law. She was married to
Henry Lambert, marquis of S. Bris, in 1666, and loft him
in 1686. After this, Ihe had long and painful law-fuits,
where her All was at flake; but, fucceedin^ at length, fhe
fettled in Paris, and kept a houfe, where it was an honour to
be admitted. All the polite among the lettered tribe reforted
thither, for the fake of converfation; for, it feems, hers was
almoil the only houfe that was free from the malady of gaming ;
and Fontenelle has taken notice, that the delinquents in this
way would frequently glance a flroke at madame de Lam-
bert's. This lady died in 1733, aged -86; having been the
autborefs of fome very pleafing productions, which have been
collected and printed in 2 vols. I2mo. The principal are,

1. " Avis d'une mere a fon fils, & d'une mere a fa fille."
Thefe are not dry precepts, in a didactic wav, but the eafy
and elegant effufions of a noble and delicate fpirit. 2. " Nou-
veHes Reflexions lur les femmcs." 3. " '1 raite de 1'Ami-
tie." " Her treatife upon Frierdfhip," lavs Voltaire, lt fbews
that ilie defer ved to have friends." 4. " Traite de la Veillefle."

2. 4i La Femme Hermitc;" and feveral imall pieces cf
morality and literature. Fine fenfe, fine taile, and a fine
fpirit, run through ail her works.


L A M B I N.

LAMBERT (JOHN), major-general in the parliament-
army, was originally a lawyer. On the commencement of
the civil war, he entered into the army of the parliament,
and was eminently diftinguifhed in the battles of Nafeby and
Fife. It was principally through Lambert's means that
Cromwell was declared Protector ; but he ileadily oppofed his
being made king. Cromwell is fuppofed not to have for-
given this, and contrived to have Lambert degraded. On the
Reiteration he was excepted from the at of indemnity, but,
being taken, was tried and condemned. His fentence, how-
ever, was not executed, for he was reprieved, and baniihed
to Guernfey, where he fpent the remainder of his life.

LAMBERT (CLAUDE FRANCIS), a French writer, and
author of numerous compilations and romances, the principal
of which is a " Literary Hiftory of Louis XIV." for which
he had a penfion given him. He died in 1764.

LAMBERT (GEORGE), a landfcape-painter, at firft
imitated Wooton, was a very good mafter in the Italian ftyle,
and followed the manner of Gafper, but with more richnefs
in his compofitions. His trees were in great taite, and
grouped nobly. He executed fome fcenes for the play-houfe,
which were much admired; and, in concert with Scott,
painted fix large pictures of their fettlements for the Eafl-
India company, which are denofited at their houfe in Leaden-
hall-flreet. Died Feb. I, 1765,

LAMBERT (JoiiN HENRY), one of the mofl profound
mathematicians of the eighteenth century, born at Mul-
hauzen, in Alface, in 1728. He was author of various in-
genious and learned treatifes, particularly one on the orbits of
comets. He alfo wrote various tracts in the " Memoirs of
Berlin, Munich, &c." His great character was perfpicuity
and originality. He was admired by Gefner, and has been
extolled by Wyttenbach. He died of a confumption at Berlin
in 1777-

LAMBIN (DENYS), a noted commentator upon the
daffies, was born in 1516 at Montrevil inPicardy, a province
of France. Applying himfelf with indefatigable induftry to
polite literature, he made an extraordinary progrefs, efpecially
in the critical knowledge of the clailic authors. After fomc '
time he was taken into the retinue of cardinal Francis de
Tournon, whom he attended into itsly, where he continued
feveral years. On his return to Paris, he was made king's
profeffor of the belles Jettres, which he had taught before at
Amiens. He published commentaries upon Plautus, I ucre-
tius, Cicero, and Horace; he translated, into Latin, Ariilotle's
morals and politics, and feveral pieces of Demofthenes and
^Efchines. He died, in 1572, of grief* for the lofs of his


L A M B I N.

friend Peter Ramus, who had his throat cut in the grand
marTacre of the proteftants on the infamous vefpers of St.
Bartholomew. Lambin was not without apprehenfions of
fuffering the fame fate, notwithstanding he was othervvife a
good catholic. He was married to a gentlewoman of the
Urvin family, by whom he had a fon, who furvived him, and
publimed fome of his poithumous works.

The character of his genius is feen in his writings, by
which he acquired the reputation of a great fcholar; but the
prodigious heap of various readings, with which he loaded his
commentaries, render them very tedious. That upon Horace
is generally moft efleemed; and that upon Cicero the leaft,
on account of the liberty he has taken to change the text,
without any authority from the manufcripts, and againft all
the printed editions of that author. Thefe are his principal
works: " Commentarii in -/Emilium Probum feu Corneliurn
Nepotem; in Horatium; in Plautum; in Lucretium ; in
Ciceronem." " De Utilitate Linguae Grascae & recta Grse-
corum Latine interpretandorum Ratione." " Oratio de Ra-
tionis Principatu & recta Inftitutione." " Oratio habita
pridie quam Lib. tert. Ariftotelis de Republica explicaret."
" De Philofophia cum Arte dicendi conjungenda Oratio*"
f( Annotationes in Akinoum de Dodrina Platonis." "Vita
Ciceronis etf ejus Operibus collecta." " Epiflobe praefatorise."
** Epiftolse familiares." " Ariftotelis politica 6c Libri de
Moribus, Lambino Interpreted' " Adverfariae Demoflhenis
&^fchinis Oraticnes in Linguam Latinam tranflat^e, &c."

LA MB RUN (MARGARET), deferves to be recorded for
her courage, as much as any of the heroines of ancient Rome.
She was a Scotch woman, one of the retinue of Mary queen
of Scots, as was alfo her hufband, who dying of grief for
the tragical end of that princefs, his wife took up a refolution
of revenging the death of both upon queen Elizabeth. For
that purpofe, (he put on a man's habit; and, affuming the
name of Anthony Sparke, repaired to the court of the queen
of England; carrying always with her a brace of piftols, one
to kill Elizabeth, and the other to moot herfelf, in order to
avoid the hands of juftice ; but her deiign happened to mil"
carry by an accident which faved the queen's life. One day,
as fhe was puihing through the crowd to come up to het
majefty, who was then walking in her garden, fhe chanced to
drop one of her piftols. This beiijg feen by the guards, fhe
was feized, in order to be Cent immediately to prifon ; but the
queen, not fufpecting her to be one of her own fex, had a
mind firft to examine her. Accordingly, demanding her
name, country, and quality, Margaret replied with an un-
moved ileadinefs, " Madam, though I appear in this habit,

O2 I am

196 LAM I.

I am a woman ; my name is Margaret Lambrun ; I was
feveral years in the fervice of queen Mary, my miftrefs, whom
you have fo unjuflly put to death, and, by her death, you
have alfo caufed that of my hufband, who died of grief to fee
fo innocent a queen perifh fo iniquitoufly. Now, as I had
the greateft Jove and affe&icn for both thefe perfonages, I
refolved, at the peril of my life, to revenge their death by
killing yon, who are the caufe of both. I confefs to you,
that i fufRred many ftniggles within my breaft, and have
made all poffible efforts to divert my refolution from under-
taking fo pernicious a defign, but all in vain: I found myfelf
uecemtated to prove by experience the certain truth of that
maxim, that neither reafon nor force can hinder a woman
from vengeance, when me is impelled thereto by love." As
much reafon as the queen had to be enraged with this dif-
courfe, Ihe heard it with coolnefs, and anfwered it calmly :
" You are then perfuadcd, that, in this action, you have
done your duty, and fatisfied the demands which your love for
your miflrefs and for your fpouie indiipenfably required from
you; but what think you now is it my duty to do to you?"
This woman replied, with the fame unmoved hardinefs : " I
will tell you frankly my opinion, provided you will pleafe to
let me know, whether you put this queftion in the quality of
a queen, or in that of a judge? ' To which her majefty
profefling that of a queen; " Then,*' faid Margaret, " your
majefty ought to grant me a pardon." " But what affurance
or fecurity can you give me," fays the queen, " that you will
not make the like attempt upon fome other occafion?"
Lambrun replied ; " Madam, a favour which is given under
fuch reftraint is no more a favour; and, in fo doing, your
majefty would aft againft me as a judge." The queen,
turning to fome of her council, fays, " 1 have been thirty
years a queen, but do not remember to have had fuch a Ie6ture
ever read to me before:" and immediately granted the pardon
entire and unconditional, againft the opinion of the president
of her council, who thought her majefty obliged to punifh
fo daring an offender. And, this considered, Lambrun gave
an excellent proof of her prudence, in begging the queen to
extend her generosity one degree farther, and grant her a fafe
conduct till me fhould be fet upon the coaft of France; with
which Elizabeth complied.

. LAiVil (BERNARD), born at Mons, of a noble family. He
was a great favourer of the opinions of Defcartes, which in-
volved him in various perfecutions and difficulties. He was
a good and amiable man, and author of various works, which
were generally well received. Of thefe the philofophical are
the belt, and, in particular, his " DifTemtion on the Sciences,


LAMIA. 197

and the Manner of ftudying them." In this he quotes the
principal authors who deferve mention. Rewrote allo " The
Art of Speaking; with Reflections on the Art of Poetry."
When this was prefented to cardinal Camus, " this," fays
he, " is doubtlefs an excellent art ; hut who fhall teach us the
art of holding ones peace?' The vivacity of his temper was
the occaiio'n of many fingularities in his compofiuons; but
he was on the whole %-ery efti triable, both as a man and a
writer. He d'.<d at Rouen in 1715.

LAM1 (1 n-\i. FRANCIS), of a noble family of Mont-
grean, a village in the diocefe of Chartres, at firil bore arms,
but afterwards became an ccclefialtic He was a man of
amiabie manners, excellent heart, and exemplary piety, of
all which his writings bear ample t ftimony. His tract on
knowledae of ourfclves has pavTed through ieveral editions ;
and his anhver to the atheiftical publications of Spinoza is
remarkable for the precifion of its ftyle and force of its argu-
ment. He apoeared to have a perfect knowledge of the
human heart, was a pare and elegant writer, though fome-
times feeble and difFuie, and not always without affectation.
He died at St. Denys, very much regretted, and in great re-
putation, in 171

[.AM I .(JOHN'), profefibr of ecclefiaftical hiftory in the
tmiverfitv of Florence, is well known in the literary world by
various publications. He is principally to be eileemed for
the edition of the works of Meurfius, in 12 vols. folio, which
he fuperintended with equal diligence and fkill. He was re-
markable foi his facetioufnefs and wit. One day at Florence,
fhewing fome Swedifh gentlemen the ancient palace of the
dukes of Medicis, " There" faicl he " behold the cradle of
literature;'' then, turning to the college of the univerfity,
" and there behold its tomb." He had many peculiarities,
but much learning. He died at Florence in 1774-

LAMIA, a celebrated Grecian courtezan, was daughter

Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 22 of 48)