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William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) online

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Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 23 of 48)
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of Cleanora, an Athenian. Being bred to mufic, (lie followed
the buiinefs of a player on the flute, an occupation far from
reputable. She was at fir ft indeed efteemed for her fkill in it,
being no contemptible performer; but this trade foon led her
to that of a courtezan fadih dcfcenfus Avcrxi : the defcent from
one to the other is very prone and Cippery : however, fhe
managed her affairs very well in it, io that, after fcveral
proftitutions, fhe became the concubine of Ptolemy i, king of
Egypt. With him being taken prifoner in an engagement at
fca, near the iiland of Cyprus, where Demetrius Poliorcetes
gained the victory of Ptolemy, me changed her matter; for,
being brought to Demetrius, he was fo much captivated with
her, that though (lie was much older than he, and then in

O 3 the



198 LAMIA.

the decline of her beauty, he took her into his train, and /he
was ever after the moil beloved cf his miftrevTes. This was
the more remarkable, as he foon grew difgufted with his wife
and her declining age ; nor did his other miftrefles fpa^e their
railleries on this occafion. He once at dinner afked Demo,
one of thefe ladies, what fhe thought of Lamia, who was
playing on the flute while they were at table. " She is an
old woman," anfvvered Demo. When thedefert was brought,
* 4 Do you fee," faid he to Demo, " how many things Lamia
fends me?" " My mother," replied Demo, " would fend
you a great many more, if you would alfo lie with her."
The taith is, Lamia fupplied the decays of beauty by other
equally imprefllve charms.

What wonder, that a prince, fo fhamefully lafcivious,
became the fcorn and contempt of the graver part of his
court, and that all were not able to conceal their indignation?
We are fold, that, his ambaffadors coming from him to the
court of Lyfimachus, this prince, at his leifure hours, mewed
them the marks of a lion's claws in his arms and thighs, and
gave them an account of his fight with that wild beaft with
which he had been fhut up by king Alexander; whereon the
ambafTadors anfwered with a fmile, that " their king had alfo
been feverelv bit in the neck by a wild beaft caL'ed Lamia."
All this while, the miftrefs balked and revelled in the funfhine
of the royal bounty, which flowed fo liberally upon her, that
no kind of magnificence was fpared in her manner of living.
Did the miilreffes of kings ufe to take delight in immortalizing
their names by (lately buildings? Lamia copied the example;
and, among other edifices, built a very beautiful portico at
Lycone. To fupport her extravagances, the Athenians were
loaded with taxes ; and none vexed them more than the
order Demetrius gave them, to find him immediately two
hundred and fifty talents. The money was raifed with feverity
and hafte ; and, when it was ready, he commanded them to
fend it to Lamia, and to the other courtezans who waited
upon her: " It is for foap,' 7 faid he. This fpeech, and that
nfe of the money, chagrined the Athenians more than the lofs
of it. Yet Lamia was not fatisfied : over and above thefe
fums, fbe obliged feveral perfons to furnifh her with money
for an entertainment ihe was preparing for Demetrius; upon
which Ihe fpent fuch a prodigious ium, that a writer of
comedies not unjuftly flylcd her " Helepolis," i. e. The con-
queror of cities.

Not with ftanding thefe mo ft tyrannical oppreffions, the
enflaved Athenians adored the tyrant, and carried their adula-
tions to that extravagant height, as to build a temple to this
couitezan, under the name of Venus Lamia, Demetrius

himfelf



L A M P R I D I U S. 199

fiimfelf was furprifed at it, and declared publicly, that there
was not then one citizen at Athens who had any courage.
Thefe are the chief particulars recorded of this famous
courtezan ; but we have no account either of her birth or her
death. As to the reft of her character, it is faid, fhe excelled
in witty fayings and fmart repartees.

LAMPE (FREDERIC ADOLPHUS), profefTor of theology
at Bremen, where he died in 1729. He was author of
numerous works, the moft celebrated of which is a tract " De
Cymbalis Veterum."

LAMPLUGH (THOMAS), archbifhop of York, after the
Revolution. He was of Queen's college, Oxford, and in
1676, made bifhop of Exeter. When the prince of Orange
landed, he exhorted the people of his diocefe, in a public
addrefs, to adhere to king James, but, on the approach of
the prince, fled with precipitation to London. He foon
afterwards placed the crown on the prince of Orange's head,
and was made archbifhop of York, A fermon of his is
extant from Luke ix, 55 6.

LAMPRID1US (JE.LIV9], a Latin hiftorian, who flourifli-
ed under the emperors Dioclefian and Conftantine, in the
fourth century. We have of his writing the lives of four
emperors, viz. Commodus, Antoninus, Diadumenus, He-
liogabalus; the two lafl of which he dedicated to Conftantinc
the Great. The firft edition of Lampridius, which was
printed at Milan, afcribes to him the life of Alexander Se-
verus ; though the manufcript in the Palatine library, and
Robert a Porta of Bologna give it to Spartian. As they
both had the fame furname, Jfelius, fome authors will have
them to be one and the fame perfon. Vopifcus declares, .that
Lampridius is one of the writers whom he imitated in his
"LifeofProbus.**

LAMPRID1US (BENEDICT), of Cremona, a celebrated
Latin poet in the fixteenth century. He followed John Laf-
cars to Rome, and there taught Greek and Latin. After
the <?eath of pope Leo X. in 1521, he went to Padua, where
he alfo inflrucied youth, more for the profit than the repu-
tation of that employ. Then he was invited to Mantua by
Frederic Gonzaga, who appointed him tutor to his fon.
Lampridius is faid to have been of fo timid a nature, that
his friends could never prevail on him to fpeak in public.
We have epigrams and lyric vcrfes of this authoi, both in
Greek and Latin, which were printed feparatelv, and alfo
among the " Delicict" of the Italian poets. His odes are
obferved to be grave and learned. In them he aimed
to imitate Pindar; but he wanted the force of that unrivalled
poet.

O 4



200 LANCELOT.

LANCASTER (NATHANIEL), D. D. was many years
rector of Stamford Rivers, near Ongar in Effex; and author
of the celebrated " EiFay on Delicacy, 1748." In fpeaking of
Dr. Lancafter, iVJr. Hull the comedian, who was his nephew,
(in a note on " Select Letters between the late Dutchefs of
Somerfet, Lady Luxborough, &c. &c. 1768," 2 vols 8vo.),
fays, " He was a man of flrong natural parts, great erudition,
refined tafte, and mailer of a nervous, and at the lame time,
elegant, ftyle, as is obvious to every one who has had the
happinefs to read the EfTay here fpoken of. His writings were
fewer in number than their author's genius feemed to promife
to his friends, and his publications lefs known tbnn their
irUrmfic excellence deserved. Had he been as felicitous, as he
was capable, to inftrucl and pieale the world, few profe-
\vrke; s vx.;r.kl have furpaffed him ; but, in his latter years, he
lived a reclule, and, whatever he compofed in the hours of
retired leifure, he (unhappily for the public) ordered to be
burned, which vvas religioufly (1 had almoft faid irreligioufly)
performed. He was a native ofChefhire; and, in his early
years, under the patronage and friendfhip of the late earl of
Choluiondely, mixed in ail the more exalted fcenes of polilhed
life, where his lively Ipirit, and brilliant conversation, ren-
dered him univerfaUy diftinguifhed and titremed; and even
till within a few month? of his deceafe (near 75 years of age)
thefe faculties could fcarce be laid to be impaired. The EiFay
on Delicacy (of which we are now fpeaking), the only material
work of his which the editor knows to have furvived him,
w as fi sit printed in the year 1748, and has been very judi-
ciouily and meritorioufly preferved by the late Mr Dodiley,
in his Fugitive Pieces." Notwithstanding Mr. Hull's affertion,
that his uncle wrote nothing; but the " EiTav," a fermon of

O J *

his, under the title of '* Public Virtue, or the Love of our
Country,"' was printed in 1746, 4to. He was allo author of
a long anonymous rhapfoJical poem, called " The Old Ser-
pent, or Methodifai Triumphant," 4to. The doctor's
imprudence involved him fo deeply in debt, that he was fome
time confined for it, and left his pirfonage-houfe in fo ruinous
a condition, that his fucceiTor Dr Eeadon was forced entirely
to take it down. Ke died. June 20, 1775- leaving two
daughters, one of whom married to the Rev. Thomas Weten-
h:ill, of Cliefter, chaplain of a man of war, and vicar of
Walthamflow, Effex, from 1759 till his death J 77^'

LANCELOT (CLAUDE), born at Paris in ibig, had a
principal hand in fome very ufeful works, which the Solitaires
of Poit Royal projected for the education of youth. He
taught the belles lettre; and mathematics in their fchool at
Pans. He was afterwards charged with the education of the

prince



L A N C I S I; 201

prince of Conti ; but, being removed upon the deatb of tbe
princefs his mother, he took the habit of St Benedict in the
abbey of St Cyran. Certain inteftine troubles arifrng within
thefe walls, he became a viftim among other*?; and was
banimed to Ruimperhv, in Lower Britanny, where he died
in 1695, aged 79. His principal works are, i. " Nouvelle
Methode pour apprendre la Langue Latin*?, 1644," 8vo.
This has been looked upon as a judicious extraft, from what
Valla, Scaliger, Scioppius, and, above all, San&ius, have
written upon the fubjeK Lancelot is laid to have been the
firft who threw off the ridiculous cuftom of giving bovs rules
to learn Latin in the Latin language. 2. " Nouvelle Methods

C->

pour apprendre le Grec, 1656," in 8vo. Thefe two gram-
mars have been tr-.ivflu c<i into Englifh, under the title of
" Port -Royal Grammars." he was alfo author of, or at
lead affifVd in, other grammars, as " Grammaire Italienne,
Grammaire tfpagnole, Grammaire generate & raifonnee: 1 "
but thefe are upon a lefs extended plan than the Greek and
Latin.

LANCJEAN (RE MI), an eminent painter, born at
BrufTels, and the molt accomplished difciple of Vandyke's
fchool. He has not attained the delicacy of defign which
diftinguiihed' his mailer; but his manner greatly refembles
that of Vand- ke, and his colouring is not much inferior.
His principal fubjects were of a religious kind.

LANCiSl ( JOHN MARCA), was born at Rome, Ocl. 26,
1654. He went through his claffical ftudies early; after
which he completed his courfe in philofophy in the Roman
college, and ftudied divinity for fome time; but having, from
his earlier years, had a turn to natural hiftory, that tafte
engaged him to ftudy medicine, to which he applied with
great vigour. Anatomy, chemiftry, and botany, were equally
at fir ft the object of his attention j he alfo ftudied geometry,
which he thought might be of ufe. In 1672, he was created
doctor of philofophy and phvfic; and, in 1675, obtained the
place of phyfician in ordinary to the hofpital of the Holy
Ghoft in Saflia. Here .he made new improvements, by at-
tending the patients, and writing the hiftory of their feveral
cales. He quitted this poft in 1678, when he was admitted
a member of the college of St. Saviour in Lauro, where he
fpent five years in reading the beii authors upon phyiic. Jn
1684, ne was appointed profeflbr of anatomy in the college of
Sapientia, which office he difchargtx! for thirteen years with
great reputation. In 1668, pope Innocent XI. chofe him for
his phvfician and private chamberlain, though he was not
above thirty-four years of age. This pope aifo, fome tune
after, gave him a canon's ftaii in the church of St, Laurence

and



to* L A N C R I N G K.

and St. Damafcus; but this he held only during the life of
that pontiff, after whole death he refigned it. In 1699, pope
Innocent falling ilck, Lanciu was ordered, among others, to
attend him: accordingly, he never left the pontiff's bed-fide
during his whole illnefs. After Innocent's death, he was
chofen phyfician to the conclave; and Clement XI, fucceeding
to St. Peter's chair, made Lancili his fir ft phyfician and
private chamberlain.

The reft of his life was employed in the practice of his
profeffion, and in writing books. He died Jan. 21, 1720,
aged 65. He had collated a library of more than twenty
thoufand volumes, which he gave in his life-time to the
hofpital of the Holy Gheft, for the ufe of the public, par-
ticularly of the young furgeons and phyficians, who attended
the patients in that hofpital. This noble benefaction was
opened in 1716; the pope, attended by a great number of
cardinals, being prefent. We {hall give a catalogue of his
principal works below [Y].

LANCRET (NICHOLAS), a French painter, was born
at Paris, in 1690, and had great part of his education
under jillot, which was completed by Watteau. He
always propofed nature for his object, applied ftrongly to
his profeflion, and tried to follow Watteau's tafte ; but
could never attain to the neatnefs of that mailer's pencil,
nor to the delicacy of his defign : yet his compolitions are
agreeable. He was of the academy of Paris, and died there
in his 5$d year : there are a great many prints after his
paintings.

LANCRINCK (PROSPER HENRICUS), an excellent
painter in the Englifh fchool, though of German extraction,
was probably born about 1628. His father, being a foldier
of fortune, came with his wife and this only fon into the
Netherlands ; and, that country being then embroiled in a
war, procured a colonel's command, which he enjoyed not
many years, dying a natural death at Antwerp. His widow,
being a difcreet woman, fo managed her fmall fortune, as to
maintain herfelf fuitably to .her hufband's quality, and give



L Y 1 " Joha"' Mar. Lancifi archiatri fertatio de refta medicorurfl ftudiorum

pontificii Opera, quae hadlenus pro- inflituencb ;" " Human! corporis ana-*

dieruftt omnia, &c. Genevse, 1718," tomica fynopfis;" " Epiftola ad J.

2 vol. 410. The firfl volume contains Baptift. Bianchi de humorum fecretioni-

the following pieces: li De fubitaneis bus et genere ac praecipue bilis in

mortibus; D.lTerratio de nauvis dcqae hepate feparatione j" " Amacidum ex

a'lventitiis Rormni coe'i qnalitatibns; fanr.ume cxT^hi q'.'ea!: ;" (ths negative

De noxiis Paludum effluviis." The had been maintained by "yylt.) Epiftn-

contents of the fecom! volume are, lac duae de triplici intefliuorum polypo;

*' DifTenatio hiftovica de Bovilla Peite de phyfiognomia, 1 * and many fmall

ex Campaniae finibus, an. 171^;" pieces, in Icalian as well as Latin.
" Latto importata, &c, 1715)" " Dif-

hcr



LANCRINCK. 203

her fon a liberal education, defigning him for amcnaftery;
but, early difcovering a natural genius to painting, by his
continually {crawling on paper, fhe was obliged to comply,
though with the greateft reluctance. She put him to a
painter, from whom, it i? likely, he learned the rudiments of
his art; but his chief preceptor was the city-academy of
Antwerp. His advances in the fcience were prodigious, and
his natural genius, being for liberty, Jed him to landfcape;
wherein he had the advantage of Mr. Van Lyan's collection,
which was very large, and full of curious pieces of all the
eminent matters of Europe. Lancrmck made his principal
fhidy after Titian and Salvator Rofa, and was foon dif-
tinguifhed.

His mother dying, he came to his fortune young; and,
being admired for his performances, patted over to England,
where he met with a reception fuitable to his great merit.
Admiral Sir Edward Sprag, being a great lover of painting,
became his patron; and recommended him to feveral perfons
of quality, and virtuofi of that time. Among thefe was Sir
William Williams, whofe houfe was finely adorned with this
mailer's pictures, but not long after unfortunately burnt; fo
that, of this great painter, there are but very few finifhed
pieces remaining, he having beftowed the greateft part of his
time, while in England, on that gentleman's houfe. He was
alfo much courted by Sir Peter Lely, who employed him in
painting the grounds, landfcapes, flowers, ornaments, and
fometimes the draperies, of thofe piftures, by which he in-
tended to gain efteem. As to his performances in landfcape
only, they wera wonderful, both for the invention, harmony,
colouring, and warmth; but, above all, furprizi"gly beautiful
and free in their ikies, which, by general confent, excelled all
the works of the moft eminent painters in this kind. This
may appear by fome pieces of his, yet to be feen in thecuflody
of Mr. Henly, Mr. Trevox, and "Mr. Auften, the father of
which laft was his great friend and patron. His views are
generally broken, rude, and uncommon, having in them
fome glarings of light well underftood, and warmly painted.
He painted a cieling at the houfe of Richard Lent, efq. at
Caufham in Wiltfbire, near Bath, which is worth feeing.
He practifed alfo drawing after the life, and fucceeded well in
fmall figures, which were a great ornament in his iandicapes,
and wherein he imitated the manner of Titian. Lancrinck
was of a debonnaire temper; but was thought to ihorten his
clays by a too free indulgence in the pleafures of Bacchus and
Venus; for he died in Auguft 1692. No one of his time
fhe wed greater love, and a greater knowledge, of painting,
than Lincrinck ; wicnefs a noble and weil-caofen collection

2 Of



204 LANFRANC.

of pictures, drawings, prints, antique heads, and models,
that he left behind him: moft of which he brought from
abroad.

LANDA (CATHARINE), deferves to be reckoned among
the learned ladies, on account of a letter which {he wrote in
Latin to Peter Eembus, which, with his anfwer, is printed
in that author's works. She was eminent for her beauty no
lefs than for her literary accomplilhments.

LANDINI (CHRISTOPHER), a learned Venetian of the
fifteenth century. He was author of a tranflation of Pliny's
Natural Hiflory, which was publifhed by Jenfen, at Venice,
in 1476. He printed alfo " Commentaries on Horace," in
Latin, which have often been reprinted, though the firft
edition is moftly efleemed. Landiai was author too of fome
notes on Dante, though all his works are fought rather as
objects of curiofity, from the time in which they appeared,
than from their real excellence.

LAN DO (HORTENSIO), a phyflcian, born at Milan,
lived in the fixteenth century. He was author of feveral
works, which he publifhed under fictitious names. He was
in particular fuppofed to be the writer of a dialogue under the
name of rhiloctetes, which reflected on the memory of
Erafmus. Lando alfo wrote two other dialogues, one of
which was called "Cicero Relegatus/' the other "Cicero
Revocatus ;" which have been falfely attributed to cardinal
Alcander. He was alfo author of a volume of letters, which
were publifhcd at Venice.

LANDRI, bifhop of Paris, deferves mention for his
eminent piety as well as charity during the great famine which
diftreffed that city in 651. He alfo founded the hofpitai,
which, in fucceeding times, has been called the Hotel-
Dieu.

LANE (JANE), a female of extraordinary fagacity, as well
as fpirit, and merits a piace in Britifh hiftory for being ac-
ceffary to the efcape and prefervation of Charles II. after tbe
famous battle of Worcefter. The royal fugitive, difguifed
in her father's livery, rode before her on horfe-back from
Behtley-hall, in Stafford ill ire, to Mr. Norton's., near Briflol.
Her fervices were amply rewarded at the Reiteration, and
ihe was afterwards married to Sir Clement Liller, bart. of
Packington-hall, in Warwickshire-.

LAN FRANC, an archbilhop in the eleventh century,
was by birth an Italian, and a native of Pavia, being fon of a
counfellor to the fenate of that town; but, lofing his father
in his infancv, he went to Bologna. Hence, having pro-
lecuted his fluclies for fome time, he removed into France in
the reign of Henry I, and taught fome time at Avranches;

but,



L A N F R A N C.

but, being robbed, and tied to a tree on the road, in a journey
which he made to Rouen, he continued in that condition till
next day ; when being releafed by Come paiTcngers, he retired
to the abbey of Bee, lately founded, and there took the monk's
habit. He was elected prior of this religious houfe in 1044;
and, in 1049, ma< ^ e a journey to Rome, where he declared
his fentiments to pope Leo IX. againfl the doctrine of Be-
renger; for Berenger had written him a letter, which gave
room to fufpedt Lanfranc to be of his opinion. Soon after,
he aflifled in the council of Verceil, where he exprcfTly op-
pofed Berenger's notions. He returned a fecond time to
.Rome in 1059, andatfi'ied in the council held at the Laterati
by pope Nicholas II, in which Berenger abjured the doctrine
that he had till then maintained. Lanfranc now obtained a
difpenfation from the holy father, for the marriage of Wil-
liam duke of Normandy with a daughter of the earl of
Flanders his couim. On his return to France, he rebuilt his
abbey at Bee; but was foon taken from it by the duke of
Normandy, who made him abbot of St. Stephen's at Caen in
that province. This duke, coming to the crown of England,
lent tor Lanfranc, who was elected archbifhop of Canterbury
in 1070, in the room of Stigand, who had been depoied by the
pope's legate. ' He was no fooner confecrated to this fee, than
he wrote to pope Alexander II, begging leave to refign it ;
which not being conplied with, he afterwards fent ambaffa-
dors to Rome to beg the pall; but Hilclebrand anfwering,
in the pope's name, that the pall was not granted to any
perfon in his ab fence [z], he went thither to receive that
honour in 1071. Alexander paid him a particular. refpe6l,
in riling to give him audiencs : this pontiff had a fpecial
regard for him, having ftudied under him in the abbey of
Bee: and kiffed him, inftead of prefenting his flipper for that
obeyfance. Then Alexander, not fatisried with giving him
the ufual ordinary pall, implied him with that pall of which,
he himlelf had made ufe in celebratine; mafs. Before his

o

departure, Lanfranc defended the metropolitical rights of his
fee againft the claims of the archbifhop of York, and procured
them to be confirmed by a national council in 1075, wherein
feveral rules of difcipline were eftablilhed. At length, pre-
luming to make remonftrances to the Conqueror upon fome
oppreiiions of the fubjccts, though he offered them' with
a becoming refpecl:, the monarch received them with difdain ;
and afked him, with an oath, if he thought it poffible for a
king to keep all his promifes. From thi> time, our archbifhop

[z] Rapin, in his " Hiftory of England both to Auftin, "Juftu?, and
En^hnd," obferves, that Hildebrand Honoring aichbilhops of ch;s fee.
had forgot that the pall was fent to

loft



LAN FRANCO.

loft his majefty's favour, and was obferved afterwards with a
jealous eye.

Some years before this, Gregory VII. having fvimjmoned
him feveral times to come to Rome, to give an account of his
faith, at length fent him a citation to appear there in four
months, on pain of fufpenfion : Lan franc, however, did not
think proper to obey the fumnions. He died May 28*. 1089.
He has the character of a great ftatefman, as well as that
of a learned prelate. He rebuilt the cathedral of Canterbury,
re-eftablifhed the chapter there, founded the hofpitals of St.
Nicholas atHerbaldown and St. John at Canterbury, repaired
feveral churches and monafteries in his diocefe, obtained a
reftoration of the eflates of the church which had been
alienated, and maintained the ecclefiaftical immunities. A
remarkable fuit, which he carried againft Odo, bilhop of
Bayeux and earl of Kent, put him in pofTefTion of five and
twenty eftates, which had been ufurped by that prelate.
Lanfranc, befides his piece againft Berenger already mentioned,
wrote feveral others, which were piibliihed in one volume, in
1647, by father Dom. Lac D'Acrie, a Benedidline monk, of
the congregation of St. Maur.

LANFRANC QOHN), an Italian painter, born at Parma,
1581, died at Rome, aged 66. Studied under Annibal Car-i-
racci. No one came nearer than he to the fore fhorten-
ings of Correggio. In fhort, he was one of the I|alian fchool
in its beft time.

LANFRANCQ (GIOVANNI), an eminent Italian painter,
was born at Parma, on the lame day with Domenichino, in
1581. His parents, being poor, carried him to Placenza^
to enter him into the fervice cf the count Horatio Scotte.
While he was there, he was alwavs drawing with coal upon
the walls, paper being too fmail for him to fcrawl his ideas
on. The count, obferving his difpofition, put him to
Auguftus Caracci ; after whole death he went to Rome, and



Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 23 of 48)