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William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) online

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Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 24 of 48)
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ftudied under Annibale, who fet him to work in the church
of St. Jago, and found him' capable of being trufted with the
execution of his defigns; in which Lanfranco has left it a
doubt whether the work be his or his mailers. His genius
lay to painting in fiefco in fpacious places, as we may per-
ceive by his grand performances, eipecially the cupola of
Andrea de Laval, wherein he has fucceeded much better than
jn his pieces of a lefs fize. The gufl of his defigning ho,
took from Annibale Caracci; as long as he lived under the
difcipiine of that illuftrious mafter. he was always correct;
but, after his matter's death, he gave aloofeto the impetuofity
of genius, without minding the rules of art. He joined
Witti his countryman Sifto Badalocchi, in etching the

hiftories



L A N F R A N C O. 207

hlitcries of the Bible, after Raphael's painting in the Vatican ;
which work, in conjunct ion with Badalocchi, he dedicated to
his matter Annibale. Lanfranco painted the hiftory of St.
Peter for pope Urban VIII, which was engraved by Pietro
Santi. He did other things in St. Peter's church, and pleafed
the pope fo much, that he knighted him.

Lanfranco was happy in his family: his wife, who was
very handfome, brought him feveral children, who, being
grown up, and delighting in poetry and mufic, made a fort of
ParnafTus in his houfe. His eldeft daughter fang finely, and
played well on feveral inftrumems. He died in 1647, aged
66. His genius, heated by Studying Correggio's works, and,
above all, the cupola at Parma, carried him even to enthu-
fiafm. He eariieftly endeavoured to rind out the means of
producing the fame things ; and, that he was capable of great
enterprizes, one may fee by his performances at Rome and
Naples. Nothing was too great for him: he made figures of
above 20 feet high in the cupola of St. Andrea de Laval,
which have a very good effect, and look below as if they
were of a natural proportion. In his pictures one may
perceive, that he endeavoured to join Annibale's firmnefs of
clefign to Correggio's guft and fweetnefs. He aimed alfo at
giving the whole grace to his imitation; not considering, that
nature, who is the difpenfer of it, had given him but a fmall
portion. His ideas indeed are fometimes great enough for
the greateil performances; and his genius could not Sloop to
correct them, by which means they are often unfiriiihed.
His eafel pieces are not fo much efleemed as what he painted
in frefco ; vivacity of wit and freedom of hand being very
proper for that kind of painting. Lanfranco's guSt of defign-
ing refemb'ed his mailer's; that is, it was always firm and
grand: but he loll ground, at length, in point of corredtnefs.
His grand competitions are full of tumult: examine the
particulars, and you will find the exprefTions neither elegant
nor moving-. His colouring was not fo well Sludied as that

o % o_

of Annibaie; the tints of his carnations and his ihadows are
a little too black. He was ignorant of the claro ofcuro, as
well as his mailer; though, as his mailer did, he fometimes
practiced it by a good motion of his understanding, and not
by a principle of arc.

Lanfranco's works came from a vein quite oppofite to thofe
of Domenichirio ; the latter made himfelf a painter in fpite of
Minerva ; the former was born with a happy genius. Do*
menichino invented with pain, and afterwards digefled his
compositions with judgement : Lanfranco left all to his
genius, the fource whence flowed all his productions. Do-
menichino Studied to exprefs the particular paflions ; Lan*

franco



L A N G B A I N E.

franco contented himfelf with a general expreflion, and fol-
lowed Annibale's guft of defigning. Pomenichino, whofe
{Indies were always guided by reafon, increafed his capacity
to his death ; Lanfranco, who was fupported by an exterior
practice of Annibale's manner, dimmifhed his every day
after the death of his mafter. Domenichino executed his
works with a flow and heavy hand ; Lanfranco's hand was
ready and light. To.cloie all, it is hard to find two pupils,
born under the fame planet, and bred up in the fame fchool,
more oppofite one to the other, and of fo contrary tempers ;
yet this opposition does not hinder, but that they are both to
be admired for their beft productions.

LANGALLER1E (PHILIP de GENTILS, &c. marquis
de), firft baron of Saintonge. This nobleman's title was
greater than his eftare, and his merit than his fortune.
Thirty-two campaigns in which he ferved, and the public
employments he fupported, for upward of twenty years, from
1680 to 1704, did .not prevent his difgrace at the French
court. Some trivial expreifion he let 'fall againfc the minifter
Chamillar, magnified by the daemon of party, almoft coft
him his head. He was then a prifoner in Holland, having
been taken with marihal Tallard, whom he ferved as'flrit
aide-de-camp at the battle of Hochftet ; but the ftates, upon'
his promile of not ferving agaim'r. the allies, gave him his
liberty. He ferved the emperor and the king of Poland fuc-
celTively, till fome dilcontent made him 'turn Calvinift in
1714, in hopes, as it is faid, to ingratiate himfelf with
protettant princes. After the Landgrave's death, he retired
into Holland, where his fecret traniactions with the Turkifh
Aga caufcd a fuipicion, among the continental princes, that
he meditated a descent into Italy, and that he intended to
command the troops : the emperor caufed him to be arrefted
as he was going to Hamburgh, and conducted to Vienna,
where he ftarved, or died of grief, in priion, in June 1717,
ared 61. We have fome memoirs fictitioufly attributed to
him from the French octavo, 1708.

LANGBAINE (GERARD), a learned Englifh writer, was
fon of^Mr. William Langbaine, and born at Bartonkirke in
Weflmorland about 1608. He had the fuft part of his
education in the free- fchool at Blencow in Cumberland, whence
he was removed to Queen's College in Oxford, in 1626 ;
where, being admitted a poor ferviror, he became afterwards
a icholar upon the foundation, and thence a fellow of
the college. He became B. A. in 1630, M. A. in 1633, and
D. D. in 1646. He had acquired a good reputation in the
univerfity, fome years before he appeared in the literary
republic ; when his edition of Longiuus was printed at

Oxford,



L A N G B A I N E. $09

Oxford, 1636, in Svo. This was followed by feveral other
publications, which were fo many proofs of his loyalty to
Charles I. after the breaking out of the civil wars, and of
his zeal for the church of England, in oppoiition to the
covenant. Thefe writinps, with his literary merit, made him

* * J

very popular in that univerfity ; fo that, in 1644, lie was
unanimoufly elecled keeper of their archives, and, in 1645,
provoil of Iris college; both which places he held till his
death, Feb. 10, 1657-8. He was interred about the middle
of the inner chapel of Queers college, having, a little before,
fettled 24!. per arm. on a free-fchool at the place of his
nativity.

Our author was much efleemed by feveral learned men of
his time, and held a literary correfpondence with Ufher and
Selden. He was fcreened fro a* the perfections of the then
prevailing powers, to whom he fo far fubmitted as to con-
tinue quiet without oppoiing them, employing himfelf in
promoting learning, and preferving the difcipline of the
nniverfity, as well as that of his own college. With what
ipirit he did this, is befl feen in the following paffages of two
letters,, one to Uilier, and the other to Selden. in the nrir.,
dated from Queen's college, Feb. 9, 164(3-7, he gives an
account of himfelf as follows: " For mvielf, I cannot tell
what account to make of my prefent employment. 1 have
many irons in the fire, but of no great confequence. I do
not know how foon I Ihall be called to give up, and am
therefore putting my houfe in order; digefting the confufed
notes and papers left me by feveral predecefTors, both in the
univerfiry and college, which I purpofe to leave in a better
method than 1 found them. At Mr. Patrick Young's requeft,
1 have undertaken the collation of Conftantine's Geoponics,
with two -JV1SS. in our public library, upon which 1 am
forced to bellow fome vacant hours. In our college I am
t-x cfficio to moderate divmity-difputations once a weejc. Mv
honoured friend Dr.. Duck has given me occafion to make
fome enquiry .after the law, and the opportunity of an
ingenious young man, come lately from. Paris, who has put
up a private courfe of anatomy, has prevailed with me to
engage myfelf for his auditor and fpeftator three days a week,
four hours each time. But this 1 do ut explore/tor, non ut
tranfoga. For, though I am no: iolicitou; to engage myfelf
in that great and weighty calling of t-he miniftry after this
new way, yet 1 would lothe to be XsTOTaxrK as to divinity.
Though 1 am very infufficient to make a mailer-builder, yet
1 could help to bring in materials from that public flore in our
library, to which I could willingly confecrate the remainder
of my davs, and count it no lofs to be deprived of ali otht'r
VOL. IX. P



210 L A N G B A I N E.

accommodations, fo I might he permitted to enjoy the liberty
of my confcience, and fludy in that place. But if there be
fuch a price let upon the latter as I cannot reach without
pawning the former, I am refolved. The Lord's will "he done."
The other letter, to Selden, is dated Nov. 8, 1653: " I was
net fo much troubled to hear of that fellow, who lately, in
London, maintained in public that learning is a fin, as to fee
fome men, who would be accounted none of the meaneft
among ourfelves here at home, under pretence of piety, go
about to b.inifh it the univerfity. I cannot make any better
Conftnition of a late order made by thofe whom we call vifi-
tors, upon occafion of an election laft week at All-fouls col-
lege, to this effect, that, for the future, no fcholar be chofen
into any place in any college, unlefs he bring a teftimony, under
the hands of four perfons at leaft (not electors) known to thefe
vifitors to be truly godly men, that he who frauds for fueh a
place is himfeif truly gcdly ; and, by arrogating to themfelves
this power, they fit judges of all rnens confciences, and have
rejected fome, againft whom they had no other exceptions,
(being certified by fuch, to whom their conVerfations were
belt known, to be unblameable, and fiatutably elected; after
due examination and approbation of their fufficiency by that
fociety), merely upon this account, that the perfons who reft i-
fied in their behalf are not known to thefe vifitors to be re-
generate. I intend (God willing) ere long to have an election
in our college, and have not profefTed that I w r ill not fubmit
to this order. How I fnall fpeed in it, I do not pretend to
forefee; but, if 1 be baffled, 1 fhall hardly be illent." Dr.
Langbaine was married; his wife, who furvived him, brought
him, among other, children, a foil, an account of whom is
given in the fubfeqtfent article.

LANGBAINE (GERARD), fen of the former, was born
in Oxford, July 15, 1656; and, after being educated in.
grammar-learning, was bound apprentice to a bookfellerin St.
Paul's church-yard, London. But he was foon called thence
on the death of an elder brother, and entered a gentleman-com-
moner of Univerfity college in 1672 ; where, by his mother's
fondnefs, it feems lie became idle, a great jockey, married,
and ran out a good part of his property : hut, being a man of
parts, he afterwards took up, lived fome years a retired life
near Oxford, improved much the natural and gay genius he
had to dramatic poetry, and at nrft wrote little things, without
his name fet to then), arid which he would never own. Aug.
1690, he was elected inferior beadle of arts in the univerfity
of Oxford; and, foon after, fuperibr beadle of law. About
this time, he published " An Appendix to a catalogue of all
the graduates in divinity, law, and phyfic,' 3 &c. written by
&. Peers, fuperior beaclle of arts and phydc. Langbaine's
Q appendix



L A N G E L A N D E. 211

appendix contains the names of all who proceeded from the
1 4th of June 1688, where Peers left off, to the 6th of
Auguft 1^90. He did not furvive rhis long, fonie diforder
carrying him off in June 1692. Betides the pieces already
mentioned, he publiihed '* Momus triumphans, <Mc. i6h!8,"
4to ; and again with the title of " A new catalogue of Englifh
plays," &c. i683: and this is the ground-work of another
book, much better known, " An account of the Englifh
dramatic poets, &c. Oxford, 1691," 8vo.

LANGE (JOSEPH), Greek profeilbr at Fribourg, pub-
lifhed a compilation in 2 volumes, folio, called Polyanthea.
He alfo printed a Florilegium and Elements of the Mathematics,
cVc He lived about 1600.

LANGE (CHARLES NJGOI.AS), an'accompliflied Svvedifh
naturalift, publifhed " Hiftoria lapidum figuratorum Hel-
vetia?," i; Origo eorundem & Methodus teftacece marinse
dirtribuendi," works much fought after by the lovers of
natural hiftory.

LANTGE (RoDOLpHus), a gentleman of Weftphalia, and
author ot various Latin poems.

LANGELANDE (ROBERT), author of " The Vifions
of Pierce Plowman," of whofe family we have no account,
was one of our moil ancient Engliih poet?, and one of the
firft 4ifciples of WicklifF. According to Bayle, he completed
his work in 1369, when John Chichefler was mayor of
London : fo that feveral of Gower's and Chaucer's pieces
made their appearance before it. It is divided into twenty
parts (pajfus^ ?.s he ft vies them), and confiiis of many diftinct
vilions, which have no mutual dependance upon each o'her ;
fo that the poem is not a regular and uniform whole, conlift-
ins of one action or defisrn. The author feems to have in-

o

tended it as a iatire on almoft every occupation of life, but
more particularly on the clergy, in cenfuring whom his m after
Wickliffhad led the way. "i'he piece abounds with humour,
fpint, and imagination; i:il which are clreft to great difad van-
tage in a very uncouth verfification and obfolste language, It
is written without rhyme, an oinament \vhich the poet has
endeavoured to fupply, by making every verfe to confift of
worus. beginning with the fame fetter. This practice has con-
tributed not a little to render his poem obfcure and perplexed,
exclusive of its obio'ete ftyle ; for, to introduce his alliteration,
he mull have been often neceflarily compelled to depart from
t!ie n-.itnral and obvious wav of e-xoreiTiiv himfcif. Dr.

v - "

Hickes obferves, that his alliterative verfification . 3 .-.vn
by Langelande from the practice of the Saxon poets, and that
thtrie vitions abound with many Saxonifms. 4i Haec obiter ex
Satyrographu noilro ( Langelande ) cui Anglo-Saxonum poetae

P 2 acee



ax* LANGELANDE.

adeo familiares fucrunt, ut non folum eorum verbis verfus
fcripfit, fed tinnitum ilium confonantem initialium apud eos
literarum imitatus eft, & nonnunquam etiam verfus tantum
non Saxonice condidit." From this it appears, that the exam-
ple of Gower and Chaucer, who fought to reform the rough-
ncfs of their native tongue, by naturalizing many new words
from the Latin, French, and Italian, and who introduced the
feven-Iined ftanza from Petrarch and Dante into our poetry,
had little influence upon Langelande, who chofe rather to go
back to our Saxon models both for language and form of
verfe.

The curious reader may perhaps not be difpleafed with a
fpecimeri of the introduction to the viiion. " The poet
(fhadowed by the name and character of Peter or Pierie, a
plowman) reprefents himfelf as weary of wandering, on a
May-morning, and at laft laid down to fleep by the fide of a
brook ; where, in a viiiort, he fees a {lately tower upon a hill,
with a dungeon, and dark difmal ditches belonging to it, and a
very deep dale under the hill. Before the tower a large field
or plain is fuppofed, filled with men of every rank or occupa-
tion, all being refpe&iveiy engaged in their feveral p'jrfuits - T
when fuddenly a beautiful lady appears to him, and unravels
to him the myitery of what he had feen :

et In a fummer feafon, when hotte was the fun,

< I fhoupe me into the fhroubes as 1 a fhepe were;-

*' In habit as a hermit, iinholie of werkes,

* e Went wide into the world wonders to hear,

tc And on a May-morning, on Malvern-hylles,

*' Me befell a ferly, a fairy methought

*' I was vvery of wandring, &c."

Before every vifion the manner and circumflances of his
falling afleep are diftinclly defcribed ; before one of them in
particular, P. Plowman is fuppofed, with equal humour and
fatire, to fall afleep while he is bidding his beads. In the courfe
of the poem, the fatire is carried on by meaws of feveral alle-
gorical perfonages, fuch as Mede, Simony, Confcience, Sloth,
&c. Selden mentions this author with honour ; and by
Hickes he is frequently ftyled, " Celeberrimus ille Satyrogra-
phus, morum vindex acerrimus," &c. Chaucer, in the " Plow-
man's Tale," feems to have copied from our author. And
Spenfer, in his Paiiorals, feems to have attempted an imita-
tion of his vifions ; for, after exhorting his Mule not to con-
tend with Chaucer, he adds,

" Nor with the plowman that the pilgrim playde awhile."

LANGHORNE



L A N G L A N D. 2

LANGHORNE (JOHN), D. D. was born at Kirby Ste-
phen, in Weftmorland. His father was the Rev. Jofeph
Langhorne, of Winfton, who died when his fbn was
young. After entering into holy orders, he became tutor to
the Ions of Mr. Cracroft, a Lincolnshire gentleman, whole
daughter he married. This lady in a Ihort time died; and
The lofs of her was very pathetically lamented by her hulband
in a monody, and by another gentleman, Mr. Cartwright, in
a poem, intituled, li Conllantia." Dr. Langhorne held the
living of Blagden, in Someifetlhire, at the time of his death,
which happened April i, 1779. He was the author of feveral
literary productions ; amongft others, of " Poems" in 2 vols.
1776 ; u Sermons" in 2 vols. 1773; " Effuiions of Fancy,"
2 vols ; " Fables of Flora ;" " Theodofius and Conftantia,"
2 vols ; 4< Solyman and Almena ;" 4< Frederic and Phara-
mond, or the Confolations of Human Life, 1769;" a diiTer-
tation " on the Eloquence of the Pulpit," arid another, " on
Religious Retirement;" and editor of the " Works of St.
Evremond," of the " Poems of Collins ;" a tranilation of
Plutarch's lives, and fome other articles.

LANGLUS JOHN), of Lawenburg, in Silefia, was born in
the year 1585 ; and itudied phyfic at Pifa in Tufcany, where
he had his doctor's degree. After this he prac~r.ifed at Heidel-
berg, .and was fucceffively prime phyilcian to four feveral
ele&ors palatine ; among whom he attended Frederic the
Second above thirty-feven years through Spain, Italy, France,
and the greateft part of Europe ; and died at Heidelberg in the
year 1565, aged 80. He publiihed at Bafil, 1554, in 4to,
certain mifcellaneous medical Epiftles ; which a very able
judge declares " to be penned with creat erudition, to contain
many curious matters, and to be well worth the perufal."

LANGLAND (JoHN), was born at Henley in Oxford-
fordihire, and educated in Magdalen-college. In 150$ he
was admitted principal of Magdalen- hall, and in 1515 dean
of Salisbury. In 1519 he was appointed one of the canons of
Windfor, at which time, for his excellent way of preaching,
the king made him his corifeflbr, bilhop of Lincoln, and lord
Almoner. In 1528 he propofed to the king the divorce be-
tween him arid his queen Catharine, and became a ftrong
Itickler for it ever afterwards. In 1532 he \vas elected chan-
cellor of the univerfity of Oxford, and was held in much
efteem by all the members of that learned body. He wrote
many pieces, which were publiihed in one volume, folio, by
Redman, at London, 1532. He died May 7, 1547. His
bowels were interred at Wooburn in Bedfordlhire, where he
dkd ; his heart in the cathedral of Lincoln ; and his body in

P 3 the



2i4 L A N G T O N.

the chapel of Eaton-college. He was a perfon of univerfal
benevolence, and eftahlifhed feveral charitable foundations.

LANGLEY (BATTY), an Engliih architect, author of a
very nfeful book on the prices of \v rk and materials for build-
ing, called 1th e " Builder's Jewel,' 1 belides fome other books
ufeful to Carpenters, Mafoiis, Bricklayers, &c. Died 1751.

LANGTON (STEPHEN) was born in England but edu-
cated in the univerfity of Paris, and eftcenied by the king and
all the nobility of France for his great learning. He was chan-
cellor of Paris, a cardinal of Rome, and made archbifhop of
Canterbury, by the pope, in the icign of king folia. The
monks of Canterbury, according to cuftom, choie a prelate,
and fent him to tiie pope ior his approbation. Some di'putes
arofe among them upon the occafion, which the pope artfully
laid hold of to difannul the election ; fubftituted fctcphea
Langton, and with his own hands gave him coniecration at
Viterbium. He immediately wrote letters to the king;, to in-
duce him to confirm what he had done. But the king, in
great indignation, baniilied all the monks of Canterbury,
feized their effects, and forbad Stephen Langton entrance
into this realm. The pope, hearing of this, lent his man-
date to three biihops, viz. London, Ely, and Worceiltr,
to admonifh and perfuade the king to reilore the monks,
and give the archbi |'iop pofTerhon of his temporalities ; which
if he refilled to do in a limited time, they had orders
to interdil the whole realm. Finding the kins; refolute in his

iT? O

determination, they publilhed the pope's interdiction at the
time appointed. This being ineffectual, the pope proceeded
to. a particular excommunication of the king, deprived him of
all regal authority, and abfolvecl his fubjects from their alle-
giance. But all this fpiritual artillery would have been to no
purpofe, if the king had not perceived a defection among Ir.s
own fubjec?cs, and the French making great preparations to
invade his dominions. Upon this account, he found it necef-
iary to fubmit to the fee of Rome, to receive the archbifhop,
and rsftore the monks. Soon afterwards Stephen went to
Italy to attend a general council, and in the time of his ab-
fence king John died. At his return, he made Life of all arts
to ingratiate hiir.felf with his fuccefTor Kenry 111. He removed
the corpie of Thomas a Becket from, the place of his inter-
ment, and inclofed it in a fhrine of gold, fet with precious
ftones. At this ceremony the kinp\ the pope's legate, and all
the nobility, attended, and were entertained at the archbifhop's
expence, in a moft magnificent manner, exceeding, it is laid,
a royal feilival. He railed a convocation at .Ofney near Ox-
ford, v> herein many things v/cie decreed, which are, for the

moil



L A N G U E T. 215

mod part, to be feen among the principal conftitutions. Here
an impoftor appeared, who pretended to be Jefus Chriftf and
(hewed marks in his hands, feet, and fide ; a woman alfo
perfonatcd the Virgin Alary ; and both of them were con-
demned by this fynod to be immured between four Walls till
they died.

He was archbifhop 22 years, died July 9, 1228, ?nd was
buried in the chapel of St. Michael at Canterbu . was

one of the moil illuftrious men of the age in which he lived
for his learning and his writings ; a catalogue of which is given
by Bayle and Tanner.

LANGUET (HUBERT), an eminent ftatefman, was a
native of France, ininitfer of ftate to Auejutlus elector of
Saxonv, and gained a great reputation by his uncommon parts
and learning. He was born at Viteaux in 1518; and, having
pa{Ted through his iludies at home, went to Italy in 1547, to
complete his knowledge in tlie civil lav/, and commenced dofr
in that faculty at Padua, Thence going to Bologna, he
met with a book of Philip ?,!e!anttion ; which railed in him
fo ftrong a delire to be acquainted \virh ihe author, that he
made a tear into Germany, on purpoie to viiit him at Wir-
tenberg in Saxonv. He arrived there in 1549, and ihorfly
after embraced the proteftant religion. From this time there
commenced a firicr frlendfhip between him and Melanthon,
io that they became infeparable companions. Languet could
not leave MeJan6lhon, and Melanclhon was equally charmed
with Languet. He found in Languet a psrion who difcouried
pertinently upon the intereil of princes, and was perfectly ac-
quainted with the hiftory of iiluftrrous men. He was wonder-
fully delighted \vith his converfation, wherein he gave hm an
account cf feveral important affair-, which he remembered
very exactly; and with his difcourfes concerning kings and
princes, and other men of thefe times, eminent for their wif-



Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 24 of 48)