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William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) online

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Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 26 of 48)
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they have long retained their original frefhnefs and beauty.
The n~ioft capital work of this mafter is a grand compofition,
reprefenting the crucifixion of Chrift. He was .appointed
director of the academy, as a public acknowledgement of his
merit.

LARREY (IsA AC DE), born at Lintol near Bolbec. He
was a Calvinift, and the rigour with which that feet was
perfecuted in France, obliged him to fly to Holland, where
he was made hiftonographer to the States. He wrote a
** Hiftory of England," in four volumes, folio. " A Hiftory
of Lewis XIV." in three volumes, quarto; and '-' A Hiftory
of Auguflus," in oclavo. Of thefe works the firfl is fuperior
to the reft, and, notwithstanding the various and better
editions which have fince appeared, is ftill fought after on
account of the portraits with which this edition is adorned.
Larrey alfo wrote " A Hiftory of the Seven Wife Men,"
in two volumes, 8vo, with feveral other works. He died
in 1719.

LARROGUE (MATTHEW DE), a celebrated French
proteftant minifter, was born at Leirac in Germany, in 1619.
He was eminent as a fcholar, philofopher, and divine. He
printed many works of confiderablc reputation. Three of

the



L A S K I. 225

the principal churches of *bs kingdom, viz. Montauban,
Bourdeaux, and Rouen, dc i ed to .Mvebim as their minif
He accepted the invitation of the latter place, where lie diod
in 1684, with the character of a learned man, and an excellent
pallor.

LARROGUE (DANIEL DE), fon of the above, born at
Vitre, equalled his father in learning. He was concerned in
a fatyrical epiStle againil Louis XIV. which occasioned his
confinement in the crntelet for the fpace of five years; but he
was afterwards releafed with a penfion. He translated Pri-
deaux's Life of Mahomet into French, and Echard's Roman
Hiftory ; and wrote various other works. He died in 1731.

LASCAR1S (CONSTANTINE), one of thofe learned
Greeks who quitted Constantinople upon its being taken by
the Turks in 1453, and took refuge in Italy. He taught the
Greek language and polite literature, SirSl at Milan, and after-
wards at MeSnna, whither many illuftrious perfons from.
Italy, and even from Venice, among whom was Peter Bern-
bus, reSorted, for the fake of being taught the Greek lan-
guage *by him. He died old at Meiiina, about the end of the
fifteenth century ; and left his library to the fenate, who erected
a marble monument over him. He was author of a " Greek
Grammar," which was printed by Aldus Manutlus; and
other finall works of a fimilar kind. Erafmus, in his piece
" De Ratione Studii," prefers him to all the grammarians
among thofe Greeks, excepting Theodorus Gaza. He had
a fon, lohn Andreas Lafcaris, distinguished afterwards
in his own way, and whom forne have confounded with
him.

LASCARIS (JOHN), furnamed Rhyndacenus, was of the
family of Lafcaris,. which produced fome emperors of Con-
stantinople. Laurence de Medicis, under whofe patronage
he took refuge, employed him to make a collection of books
from Greece. The grand iignior permitted him to exr.mine
all the libraries ; and thus he was enabled to tranfport to Italy
many valuable treafures. After this, Lafcaris went to France,
and again into Greece, and, though he did not write many
books, was etteemed an admirable fcholar. If he did not
difcover, he brought again into ufe, the capital letters of the
Greek alphabet, in which he printed fome moral fentences
and verfes.

LASKI, or LASKO, or LASCO (JoHN DE), was
defcended from a family of distinction in Poland, in which
country he was educated, and afterwards travelled abroad.
Coming to Zurich in Switzerland, he became acquainted with
Zuinglius, who brought him to be partial to the Reformation.
Upon his return home, he was made provoSl of Gnefna, and
VOL, IX. Q afterwards



15,6 L A S K L

afterwards bifhop of Vefprim in Hungary; but thefe
Dignities did not hinder him from declaring himfelf openly
of the reformed relieion. This charge foon brought upon
him the fentence of herefv, of which he complained to the
king of Poland, alleging that he had been condemned with-
out a fufficient hearing: but this appeal to his native prince
proved of no avail, and he was foon obliged to quit Hungary,
in this exigence he retired, 1542, to Embden in Eaft-Frief-
land, and was made minifterof a church in that town.

After he had rciided almoil ten years in Eaft-Frieiland, not
caring to venture into Germany, by reafon of the war of
vSmalcaide, he refolved to go to England, having received an
invitation thither from archhifhpp Cranmer. He arrived
there at the time when the publication of the Interim drove
the Proteftants into fuch places as would grant them a tolera-
tion; and fuch they found in England, where they had
feveral privileges granted them by Edward VI. Three hun-
dred and eighty were naturalized, and ereclcd into a corporate
body, which was governed by its own laws, and allowed its
own form of religious worfhip, without being fubje& to the
Englifh liturgy. A church in London was allb granted to
them, with the revenues belonging to it, for the fubiiftenceof
their minifters, who were either exprefslv nominated, or at
leaft approved, by the king; his majffty, alfo fixing the
precife number of them. According to this regulation, there
were four minrfters, and a fuperintendant ; which pofr. was
held by Lafki, who, in the letters patent, is called a perfon
of illuftrious birth, of lingular probity, and great learning.
In the midir. of thefe favours, he was imprudent enough to
write a book aprainft the ceremonies of the Enolifh church.

fcj CJ *

and particularly againft the habits of the bifhops and prefby-
ters, and receiving the eucharift kneeling.

However, this bcok made no noife; and Lafki, with his
company, lived undifturbed till the death of king Edward;
but, upon the acceffion of queen Mary, in 1553, they were
all fent away. De Laiki embarked in September, with many
of his Ibciety, and all his colleagues, except two, who flayed
in England concealed, together with the reft of the German
Proteftants, who were ftripped of their churches, and had all
their privileges taken away. They arrived on the coaft of
Denmark, in the beginning of a levere winter; but, being
known to embrace the doclri'.ie of the reformed chuch of
Switzerland, they were not fufTered to difembark, or to be at
anchor more than two days, without daring to put their wives
and children on fhore. They were treated in the fame inhof-
pitable manner at Lubec, at Wifmar, and Hamburgh, fo that
at laft they reiblved to go for Embden, where they did not

arriv*



L A S E N A. 227

arrive till March 1554. Here they were kindiy received, and
permitted to fettle in the count; v. In 1^5^, Lafki went to
Frankfort upon the Maine, where he c- 1 ,ii:i'cl leave of the
fenate to build a church for the r-i'o; n^'-d ft rangers, and
pprticuhrly for thole of the Low Counties While- he was
at this citv, he wrote an apoL 1 1 letter to "Sigifmond kirv^

of Poland againft fome who h;id accufcd and treated him as
a vagabond. This letter was written in 1566; and the fame
year, with the confent of the duke of Wirtenberg, he main-
tained a deputation againft Brentius, upon the fubjeft of
the euchariil:. Brentius afterwards published an account
of this difpute, in which our author is charged with many
falfehoods.

Lafki, at Lift, after an abfence or* twenty years, returned
to his native country ; and, notwithilanding the bifhops and
other ecclefiaflics did their utmoft to drive him away, yet a! I
their efforts proved inefFeitual, hs being in great favour with
Sigifmond, who employed him in the ir;oi\ important affairs.
He died Jan. ij, 1560. The hiftorians of his time fpeak
greatly in his praife; and he was much efteemed by Erafmus,
\vho declares he had learned ibbriety, difcretion, and many
virtues, of him ; although, then being old, and Lafki yet a
young man, he ought to have been the mafler, and not the
fcholar. We have, of his writing, ** De Coena Domini
Liber ; Epiftola continens Summum Coijtrpverfiae de Ccena

D* o } J
ommi, &c,

LASl'LNA or LASCENA (PETER), was born at Naples,
Sept. 25, 1590. In compliance with his father, lie firft
cultivated and practifed the law ; but afterwards followed the
bent of his inclination to polite literature; applying himfelf
diligently to acquire the Greek language, in which his educa-
tion had been ihort. He alfo learnt French and Spaniih.
From Naples he removed to Rome; where he was no fooner
fettled, than he obtained the protection of cardinal Francis
Barberini, befides other prelates; he alfo procured the friend-
ihip of Lucas Holftenius, Leo Allatiu, and other perfons of
rank in the republic of letters. He made ufe of the repofe he
enjoyed in this iituation to put the laft hsnd .to fome works
which he had begun at Naples; but his continual intenfe appli-
cation, and too great abftinence (for he made but one meal in
twenty-four hours), threw him into a fever, of which he
died, Sept. 50, 1636. At his death, he left to cardinal Bar-
berini two Latin difcourfes, which he had pronounced before
the .Greek academy of the monks of St. Baiil, " De Lingua
Helleniftica," wherein he difcuiTed, with great learning, a
point upon that fubjecl, which then divided tiie literary world.
He alfo left to cardinal Braucuccio his book, intituled,



"



228 L A T I M E R.

" Ginnafio Napolitano," which was afterwards publiflied by
that prelate : it contains a defcription of the fports, fhows,
fpe&acles, and combats, which were formerly exhibited to the
people of Naples.

LATIMER (HucH), bifhop of Worcefler, one of the
firft reformers of the church of England, was defcended of.
honcfr. parents at Thurcafton in Leicefterfliire ; where his
father, though he had no land of his own, yet, by frugality
and induftry, and the advantage of a good Take, brought up
a family of fix daughters befidcs this fon. In one of his court
ferrnons, in Edward's time, Latimer, inveighing againft the
no! : ' .- and gentry, and fpeaking of the moderation of land-
lords a few years before, and the plenty in which their tenants
Jived, tells his audience, in his familiar way, that, upon a farm
of four pounds a year, at the utmoit, his father tilled as much
ground as kept half a dozen men; that he had ititocked with
a hundred (heep and thirty cows ; that he found the king a man
and horfc, himfelf remembering to have buckled on his father's
harnefs, when he went to Black-heath ; that he gave his
daughters five pounds a-piece at marriage ; Lhat he lived hofpi-
tably among his neighbours, and was not backward in his alms
to the poor. He was born in the farrn-houfe- about 1470-
and, being put to a grammar-fchool, he took learning fo well,

it it was determined to breed him to the church. With this
view, he was fent to Cambridge, where, at the ufual time, he
took the degrees in arts ; and, entering into prieiVs orders, be-
haved with remarkable zeal and warmth in defence of popery,
the eflablifhed religion. He was violent againft the opinions,
which had lately difcovered themieives in England ; heard the
teachers of them with high indignation, and inveighed publicly
and privately againft the reformers. If any rtad lectures in the
fchools 1 , Latimer was fare to be there to drive out the fcholars ;
and, when he commenced bachelor of divinity, he gave an
open teftimony of his diilike to their proceedings in an
oration againft Meian6lhon, whom he treated moil fever el y
for his impious, as he called them, innovations in religion.
His zeal was fo much taken notice of in the univerfity, that
he was elected crofs-bearer in all public proceflions ; an em-
ployment which he accepted with reverence, and difcharged
with folernnity.

Among thoie who favoured the reformation, the moft con-
fiderable was Thomas Bilney, a clergyman of a moii holy
life, who began to fee popery in a very difagreeable light, and
made no fcrnple to own it. Bilney was an intimate of Lati-
niers ; and, as opportunities offered, ufed to fuggeil to him
many things about corruptions in religion, till he gradually
diverted him of his prejudices, brought him to think with

moderation,



L A T I M E R. 229

moderation, and even to diftruft what he had fo earneftly
embraced. Laiimer no {boner cealed from hcin^ a .us

papift, than he became (fuch was his conliitutional warmth)
a zealous proteftant ; active in fupporting the reformed
trine, and afliduous to make conveits both in town and unj-
verfity. He preached in public, exhorted in private, and
every where preiTcd the neceffity of a holv li.'o, in c fition to
ritual observances. A behaviour of this kind was immediately
taken notice of; Cambridge, no lei's than the reft of the kis
dom, was entirely popiih ; everv new opinion was w?r
v.-ith jealoufy. Latimer foon perceived how obnoxious he had
made himfelf ; and, being a preacher of eminence, the ortho-
dox clergy thought it high time to cppofe him openly. This
talk was undertaken bv l)r Buckingham, prior of the BI .:-!:.-
Friers, who appeared in the pulpit a few Sundays alter ; a:
with great pomp and prolixity, (hewed the dangerous tendency
of -Larimer's opinions; particularly inveighing againft his
heretical notions of- having the icriptures in Englilh. The
proteftant party, nevertheless, of which Eilney and Latimer
v/ere the heads, continued to gain ground ; and great was
the alarm of the orthodox clergy, of which ibme were
the heads of colleges, and fenior part of the univcriity.
Frequent convocations were held, tutors were admonilhed to
have a drift eye over their pupils, and academical cenfures of
ail kinds were inflifted. But academical cenfures were found
insufficient. Latimer continued to preach, and herefy to
fpjread. The heads of the popifh party applied to the bilhop of
Ely* as their. diocefan ; but that prelate was not a man for their
purpofe ; he was a pr.pifc indeed, but moderate. He, how-
ever, came to. Cambridge, examined the flate of religion, and,
at their intreaty, preached againft the heretics ; but he would
do nothing farther ; only indeed he filenced Mr. Latimer.
But this gave no check to the reformers ; for there h; -d
at this time to be a proteitant prior in Cambridge, Dr.
Barnes, of the Auflin-fners, who, having a raonaftery ex-
empt from epifcopal juri(clition, and being a great admirer
of Latimer, boldly licenied him to preacli there. Hither hii
party followed him ; and, the late cppofition having; greatly ex-
cited the curiofity of the people, the friers chapel was looa
incapable of containing the crowds that attended. Among
others, it is remarkable, that my lord of Ely was often one of
his hearers, and had the ingenuity to declare, that Mr. Latimer
\Vas one of the beft preachers he had ever heard.

The principal perions at this time concerned in ecclefiafti-
cal affairs were cardinal Woifey, Warham archbiihop of
Canterbury, and Tunftal bifhop of London ; and as Henry
VIIL was now in the expectation of having the bulinefs of



sso L A T I M E Pw

J

his divorce ended in a regular way' at Rome, he was careful
to obferve all lorms of civility with the pope. The cardinal

refore erected a court, confrfting of bifhops and canonifts,
to put the jaws in execution againft lierefy : of this court
Tunilal was made prefident ; and Bilney, Latimer, and
others, were called before him. Bilney was considered as the
berefiarch, and againit him chiefly the rigour of the court
was levelled; and they fucceeded Ib far that he was prevailed
upon to recant : accordingly he bore his fagj^ot, and was dif-
miflfed. ' As for Mr. Latimer, and the reft, they had eaiier
terms: Tunftal omitted no opportunities of mewing m^rcy ;
and the heretics, upon their difmiffion, returned to Cam-
bridge, where they were received with open arms by their
friends. Arnidft this mutual joy, Bilney alone feemed un-
affected ; he fhunned the fight of his -acquaintance, and
received their congratulations with confufion and bluthes.
in fliort, he was ftruck with remorle for what he had done,
grew melancholy, and, after leading an aicetic life for three
years, refolved to expiate his abjuration by death. In this
rdblution he went to Norfolk, the place of his nativity; and,
preaching publicly againft popery, lie was apprehended by
order of the bilhoo of Nowich, and, after lyfhg a \vbile in thp
county gaol, was executed in that city.

His fufterings, far from (hocking the reformation at Cam-
bridge, infpired the leaders of it with new courage. Latimer
began now to exert himfclf more than he had yet done ;
and fucceeded to that credit with his party, which Bilney had.
fo long fupported. Among other in fiances of his zeal and
veiblution in this caufc, he gave one very remarkable : he had
the courage to write to the king againft a proclamation then
jufl publilhed, forbidding the ufe of the Bible in Engliih. He
had preached before his majefty once or twice at Windfor, and
had been noticed by him in a more affable manner than that
monarch ufnally indulged towards his fubjecls. But, what-
ever hopes of preferment his ibvereign's favour might have
railed in him, he chofe to put all to the hazard rather th<m
omit what he thought his dutv. He was generally coniidered
as one of the mod eminent who favoured proteilantifm, and
therefore thought it became him to be one of the moft forward
in oppofing popery. His letter is the picture of an honeir. and
iincere heart: it was chiefly intended to point out to the king
the bad intention of the bifhops in procuring the proclamation,
2nd concludes in thcfe terms : " Accept, gracious fovereign,
Withoui difpleafure, what I have written ; J thought it my
duty to mention thefe things to your majeily. No perfonal
jquarrel, as God mall judge me, have 1 with any man; I
wanted only to indues your majefiy to confider well what kind

of



L A T I M E R. 231

of pcrfons you have about you, and the ends for which they
counfrl. Indeed, great prince, many of them, or they arc
much ilandercd, have very private ends. God grant, \our
majeily may fee through all the defigns of evil men, and he in
all things equal to the high cilice with which vou are intruded.
Wherefore, gracious king, remember yoMnelf, have pity upon
your own foul, and think that the day is at hand, when YOU
ihall give account of your office, and ot the blood that hath
been fhed by your iword : in the which dav, that your grace
may {land ftedfaftly, and nut be afhamed, but be clear and
ready in your reckoning, and have your pardon fealed w.tli
the blood of our Saviour Chrift, which alone leiveth at that
day, is my daily prayer to him who fuffered death for our lins.
The fpirit of God preferve vou !' :

Though the influence of the popifh party then prevailed fo
far, that this letter produced no effect; yet the king, no way
difpleafed, received it not only with temper, but with t
defceniion, graciouily thanking him for his well-intended
advice. The king loved imcerity and opennefs ; and Lari-
mer's plain and fimple manner had before made a favourable
impreflion upon him, which this letter contributed not a Jitrle
to ftrengthen ; and the part he afted in promoting the eita-
blifhment of the king's fupremacy, in 1535, riveted him in
the royal favour. Dr. Butts, the kino's phyiician, bein^
fent to Cambridge on that occalion, began immediately to
pay his court to the proteftant party, from whom the king
expected moil unanimity in his favour. Among the firil, he
made his application to Latimer, as a perlon moil likely to
ferve him ; begging that he would collect the opinions ot his
friends in the cafe, and do his utmoft to bring over thofe of
mofl eminence, who were frill inclined to the papacy. Lati-
nier, being a thorough friend to the caufe he was to folicit,
undertook it with his utual zeal, and difcharged himiclf to
much to the fatisfadtion of the doctor, that, when that
gentleman returned to court, he took Latimer along witli
him.

About this time a perfon was rifing into power, who be-
came his chief friend and patron: I he lord Cromwell, who,
being a friend to the Reformation, encouraged of courfc
fuch churchmen as inclined towards it. Among thcfe was
Latimer, for whom his patron very loon obtained a benefice
in Wiltfhire, thither he refoived, as loon as poflible, to repair,
and keep a conftant reiidencc. His hiend, Dr. Butts, lur-
prized at this rtfolution, did what he could to diiiuade him
from it : " You are deferring," laid he, " the aireil opportu-
nities of making your fortune: the prime miniiter intends
this only as an earneil of his future favours, and will certainly

0-4 ia



L A T I M E R.

in time do great things for you. But it is the manner of
courts to confider them as provided for, who feera to be fatis-
iied ; and, take my word for it, an abfent claimant Hands
but a poor chance among rivals who have the advantage of
being prefent." Thus the old courtier advifed. But thefe
arguments had no weight. He was heartily tired of the
court ; and, leaving the palace therefore, entered immediately
up&ri the" duties of his parim. Nor was he fatisned within
thofe limits ; he extended his labours throughout the county,
where he obferved the pafcoral care moft neglected, having
for that pnrpofe obtained a general licence from the univerfity
of Cambridge. As his manner of preaching was very popu-
lar in thofe times, the pulpits every where were gladly opened
for him ; and at Briftol, where he often preached, he was
countenanced by the magiftrates. But this reputation was too
much for the orthodox clergy to fufFer, and their oppofition
fir ft broke out at Briftoi, The mayor had appointed him to
preach there on Eafter-day. Public notice had been given,
and all people were pieafed ; when, fuddenly, there came out
an order from the bifhop, prohibiting any one to preach there
without licence. The clergy of the place waited upon
Latimer, informed him of the bilhop's order; and, knowing
he had no fuch licence, were extremely forry that they were
thus deprived of the pleafure of hearing him. Latimer re-
ceived their compliment with a fmile; for he had been ap-
prized of the affair, and knew that thefe very perfons had
vritten to the biftipp agamfl: him. Their oppofition became
more public and avowed ; the pulpits were uf d to fpread their
invectives againft him ; and fuch liberties were taken with his
character, thut he thought it neceiTiry to juftify himfelf. Ac-
cordingly, he called upon his maligners to accufe him before
the mayor of Briftol ; and, with ail men of candour, he was
juftified ; for, when the parties were convened, and the ac-
cufers produced, nothing appeared againft him ; but the
whole accufatioh was left to reft upon the uncertain evidence
of hearfay information.

His enemies, however, were not thus filenced. The party
againft him became daily ftronger, and more inflamed. It
confifted in general of the country priefts in thole parts,
headed by (ome divines of more eminence. Thefe perfons,
after mature deliberation, drew up articles againft him, ex-
tracted chiefly from his fermons ; in which he was charged
with fpeaking lightly of the worlhip of faints ; with faying
there was no material fire in hell ; and that he wcukl rather
be in purgatory than in Lollard's tower. This charge being
laid before Stokefley bifhop of London, that prelate cited
Latimer to appear before him j and, when he appealed to his

own



LATIMER. 233

own ordinary, a citation was obtained out of the archbifhop's
court, where Stokefley and other bifhops were commiffioned
to examine him. An archiepifcopal citation brought him at
once to a compliance. His friends would have Lad him fly for
it; but their perfuaflons were in vain. He let out for Lon-
don in the depth of winter, and under a fevere fit of the ftone
and cholic ; but he was more diftreffed at the thoughts of
leaving his parifh expoicd to the popiih clergy, who would not
fail to undo in his abience what he had hitherto done. On his
arrival a,t London, he found a court of bifhops and cancmits
ready to receive him ; where, infteacl of being examined, as
he expected, about his fermons, a paper was put into his
lianas, which he was ordered to fubfcribe, declaring his be-
lief in the efficacy of maiTes for the fouls in purgatory, of
prayers to the dead faints, of pilgrimages to their fepulchres
and reliques, the pope's power to forgive fins, the doctrine
of merit, the feven facraments, and the wcrfhip of images;
and, when he refufed to fign it, the archbifhop with a frown
begged he would coniider what he did. '* We intend not,"
fays he, ' Mr. Latimer, to be hard upon you ; we difmifs you



Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 26 of 48)