William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) online

. (page 36 of 48)
Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 36 of 48)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

been ftudied to affectation ; a fort of writing, where the thoughts
are not clofe, the fenie ftrong, or the phrafe genteel;
goes on thus: " Such are the productions of Sir Roger
L'Eftrange, not fit to be read by any who have tafte or good
breeding. They are full of technical terms, of phrafe s
picked up in the ftteet, from apprentices and porters ; and
nothing can be more low and naufeous. His fentences, be-
fides their groffnefs, are lively nothings ; which can never be
tranflated (a fure way to try language) and will hardly bear re-
petitions. 4 Between hawk and buzzard ;' 4 clawed him with
kindnefs ;' ' alert and frifky ;' ' guzzling down tipple ;' * would
not keep touch ;' ' a queer put / * lay curfed hard upon their
gizzard ;' ' cram his gut ;' ' conceited noddy ;' ' old chuff;*
and the like, arefome of Sir Roger's choice flowers. Yet this
man was reckoned a mailer; nay, a reformer of the Englifh,
language ; a man who writ no language, nor does it appear
that he underftood any ; witnefs his miferable tranflations of
Cicero's Offices and Jolephus : that of the latter is a verfion
full of mifhkes,- wretched and low, from an eafy and polite
one of Monf. D'Andilly. Sir Roger is among the feveral
hands who attempted Tacitus; 'and the third book of the
hiftory is faid to be done by him. He knew not a word of it
but what is taken from Sir Henry Saville ; and him he has
wretchedly perverted and mangled. Sir Roger had a genius
for buffoonery and a rabble, and higher he never went.

X 4 His



His ftyle and his thoughts are too vulgar for a fenfible artificer*
To put his books into the hands of youth or boys, for whom
^Sfop, by him burlefqued, was defigned, is to vitiate their
tafte, and to give them a poor low turn of thinking ; not to
mention the vile and flavifh principles of the man. He has
not only turned jEfop's plain beafts from the Simplicity of
nature into jefters and buffoons ; but out of the mouths of
animals, inured to the bonndlefs freedom of air and deferts, ,
has drawn doctrines of fervitude, and a defence of tyranny."

LETHIEULLIER (SMART), efq. gentleman-commoner
of Trinity-college Oxford, was the fecond ion of John
Lelhieullier, efq. of Alderfbrcok in EfTex, where he had
a noble collection of MSS. choice books, medals, and natural
curiofities, which he had collected in his travels through


France, Italy, and Germany. His father dying [an. i,
1736-7, and his elder brother being dead before, lie became
heir to the paternal eftates, which were very confiderable. He
married, Feb. 6, 1725-6, Margaret, daughter of William
Sloper, efq. of Woodhay in Berkshire ; but died Aug. 27,
1760, aet. 59, without iffue. He was fuccecded in his.eftates,
to which he had added the manor of Birch-hall in Theydon
Bois, by Mary, only daughter of his next brother Charles
Lethieullier, LL.D. fellow of All Souls-college, F. A. S.
and counfellor at law, who died the year before him. He was
an excellent fcholar, a polite gentleman, and univerfally
eileemed by all the learned men of his time. Some papers of
his are printed in Phil. Tranf. No. 497. and Archceologia,
I. p. 26, 57, 73, 75, II. 291. His library was fold by
auction 1760.

The following eloge was written by the late Mr. Collin-
fon immediately after the death of Mr. Lethieullier : " He
was defcended from an ancient family from France in time of
perfecution, and a gentleman every way eminent for his ex-
cellent endowments. His defire to improve in the civil and
natural hiflory of his country led him to vilit all parts of it ;
the itineraries in his library, and the difcoveries he made re-
lating to its antiquities, with drawings ot every thing remark-
able, are evidences of his great application to refcue fo many
ancient remains from mouldering into oblivion. His happy
turn of mind was not confined folely to antiquities, but in
thefe journeys he was indefatigable in collecting all the variety
of Englifh foffils, with a view to inveftigate their origin : this
great collection, which excels moft others, is depofited in two
large cabinets, difpofed under their proper claries. The moft
rare are elegantly drawn, and defcribed in a folio book, with
his obfervations on them. As the variety of ancient marbles
had engaged his attention, and he found fo little fajd of them

w ith

LETT. 313

with refpe& to their natural hiftory, it was one of his motives,
in viiiting Italy, to furnifh himfelf with fuch materials as he
was able to procure from books, and learned men, relating to
them. He collected fpecimens of the mofh curious, and had
drawings, finely painted, of the moft remarkable monuments
of the ancient marbles ; they are bound up in a folio volume,
with all the obfervations he could gather relating to their natural
hiftory and antiquity. His cabinet of medals, his collection of
antiquities of various kinds, and mofl elegant books of the
fineft engravings, are inftances of the fine tafte with which he
has enriched his library and cabinet with the fpoils of Italy.
This ihort but imperfect memoir is candidly offered as a tribute
due to a long friendfhip. It is wifhed it may excite an abler
pen to do more juftice to the memory of this great and good
man. But it is humbly hoped thatthefe hints will be accepted
not only as a teflimony of refpect, but may alfo informal! in-
quifitive genius in thcfe branches of fcience where he may be
aflifted with fuch valuable materials for the profecution of his
future ftudies."

His coufin Colonel William Lethieullier, who was alfo
F. A. S. travelled into Egypt, and brought over a very perfect:
mummy, now in the Britifh Mufeum, with moft of the
colonel's collections, the reft having been in Mr. Smart
Lethieullier's hands.

A committee of the truftees waited on the colonel's execu-
tors, Feb. 23, 1756, to return thanks for the valuable legacy
of a fine mummy, and a curious collection of Englifh anti-
quities. On this occalion Pitt Lethieullier, Efq. nephew to
the colonel, prefented them with feveral antiquities, which he
himfelf had collected during his refidence at Grand Cairo,

LET I (GREGORIO), author of feveral works in Italian,
was born at Milan in 1630, and educated among the Jefuits.
Then he travelled ; and, being of a lively fpirit and warm in
his temper, was curious to know what could be faid upon every
thing, and efpecially religion. He happened upon a Calvinifl
at Genoa, who made a ftrong impreflion upon him ; and pre-
pared him to embrace the reformed religion, which he did,,
and made a folemn profeilion of it at Lauianne. He married
a phylician's daughter here, and then went to Geneva, where
he lived twenty years, and was made a citizen gratis ; which
was reckoned a moft extraordinary favour, as having never
been conferred on any one before. From Geneva he went
to London, and received encouragement from Charles II;
neverthelefs, in fome time he left London, and finally fettled
at Amfterdam, where he died in 1701, with the title of
" Hiiloriographer" of that town. John le Cleic married his
daughter, who died in 1734.

6 Led

3 14


Let! was a writer of hiflory : he wrote the " Hiflory of
Lewis XIV," of " Philip II. of Spain," of " Charles V.' 1
of our " Queen Elizabeth," of " Oliver Cromwell," of
" Pope Sixtus V." a " Hiftory of Geneva," and other
fmaller things in a fimilar way. NeceiTity put him upon
fcribbling ; and he is faid to have offered his fervice to moft
of the potentates in Europe. His books are all in Italian,
many of them tranflated into French, and foine into Engliih.
He has been generally regarded as the Varillas of Italy ; yet,
though not altogether to be depended on, as having recorded
things upon flight foundations, many curious matters are to
be found in him, which are read no where elfe.

LEUC1PPUS, a famous phiiofopher of Abdera, who
flourimed 428 years before Chrift. He was adifciple of Zeno,
and the inventor of the fyfcem of atoms, and of a vacuum.
Many of his hypothefes have been adopted by the moderns.
His life has been written by Diogenes Laerrius.

LEUNCLAVIUS (JOHANNES), a learned German, was
defcended from a noble family, and born at Amelburn in
Weftphalia, 1533- He travelled through jti mod all the
countries in Europe. While he was in Turkey, he collected
very good materials for an " Hiftory of the Ottoman Empire;"
which he publifhed, and alfo feveral other pieces concerning
it, in Latin, He gave Latin tranilations alfo of *' Xenophon,"
* 6 Zofimus," &c. To a knowledge of the learned languages
lie added that of the civil law. He died at Vienna in 1593,
aged 60.

LEUSDEN (JOHN), very diftinguifhed for biblical learn-
ing and his knowledge of Oriental languages, was born at
Utrecht in 1624 ; became profeflbr of Hebrew, and died there
in 1699. He was the author of many uleful works ; as,
" Onqmafticon Sacrum ;" < Clavis Hebraica et Philologica
Veteris Teftamenti ;" " Novi Teflamenti Clavis Graeca ;"
*' Compendium Biblicum Veteris Teflamenti ;" " Compen-
dium Graecum Novi Teftamenti," &C.

LEVINGSTON (]AMES, Earl of Calendar), who
defcended from the houfe of Linlithgow, was formed as a
foJdier in the wars of Bohemia, Holland, Sweden, and
Germany, and acquired a great reputation in his military
character. He was a gentleman of the bed-chamber to
Charles I. who created him lord Levingllon of Almont, in
1633, ant ^ eai "l of Calendar, 1641. Upon the eruption of the
ciyil war, he took the fide of the parliament, but after attached
himfelf to the king. He marched into England foon atter the
battle of Marfton-moor, with tea thoufand men, -to atfiir. the
earl of Leven in reducing York. He was lieutenant-general
of the Scots army that attempted to refcue Charles from his


LEY. 315

confinement in the ifle of Wight. His moft fignal exploit
v;as the taking of Carlisle, in which he found a feafonable
fupplv of arms and ammunition. He died October 1672.

LEYDEiV (LucAS VAN), a Dutch painter, not only in
oil, hut in diftemper, and on glafs, and was full as eminent
for engraving as for painting. His genius exerted itfelf fo
early, that before he was 15 he painted the hiftory of St
Hubert, which procured him the greateft applaufe. He
painted the famous piftifre of the day of judgement, which is
now prelerved in one of the chambers of the Stadthoufe of
Leyden. His character of colouring is good : his attitudes
(allowing for the ftiff German tafte) aie well enough, his
figures have a considerable expreffion, 'and his pictures are
highly fi i ii(hed. He endeavoured to proportion the ilrength of
his colouring to the different decrees of diftance in which his

o o

objects were placed ; for, in that age. the true principles of
perfpeclive were but little known. As he had no inftru&or
in this branch, he was confequently incorrect with regard to
the proportional height of figures to their diftances, fo as to
appear a mannerifl. He died in 1533, aged ^9 years.

LEYBOURN (WILLIAM), who was originally a printer
in London, puhliihed feveral of the mathematical works of
Samuel Fofter, aftronomical profeflfcr in Grefham-college.
He afterwards became an eminent author hircfelf, and appears
to have been the mofb univerfal mathematician of his time.
His " Curfus Mathematicus" was efteenaed the belt fyfiem of
the kind extant. His *' Panarithmologia; or, Trader's furs
Guide," being tables ready caft up, is Hill much in ufe. It
was formed upon a plan of his own, and has been adopted by
Mr. Bareme in France. Birth and death uncertain.

LEUWENHOEK (ANTHONY DE), a very celebrated
phyiician, was born at Delft in Holland, 1632 ; and became
famous all over Europe by his experiments anddifcoveries with
microfcopes, His " Letters to the Royal Society of London,"
of which he was a member, and to others of the learned in
this way, were printed at Leyden, 1722, in ^to. They gave
an account of thefe difcoveries ; of ammals, particularly, iub-
jecled to the fenfes, which we cannot contemplate without
wonder and amazement. He died Aug. 26, 1723, aged 91.

LEVER, (Sir ASHTON), deferves a place in our volumes
from his furprizing and ufeful collection of natural curioiities.
He expended his whole fortune on a moil valuable mufeum,
which he was permitted to difpofe of by lottery. He died in "

LEY (Sir JAMES}, fixth fon of Henry Ley, of JefTont,
Wiitfhire, was, for his great merit, made lord chief juftice ia
Ireland, and aiterwards in England, by James I. He was

after vvaids

3i<> L H U Y D.


afterwards made baron Ley, lord-high-treafurer, and finally,
carl of Marlborough. He was alfo eminent both as an antiquary
and a lawyer. Many of his pieces on antiquity were printed by
Hearne, and his Reports, in 1659.

LHUYD (EDWARD) was a native of South Wales, the
fon of Charles Lhuyd, efq. of Lhanvorde. He was educated
at Jefus-college, -Oxford, where he was created M. A. July
21, 1701. He was bred under Dr. Plot, whom he fucceeded
as keeper of the Airmiolean mufeum, had the ufe of all
Vaughan's collections, and, with inceffant labour and great
exa6tnefs, employed a considerable part of his life in fearching
into the WeJih antiquities, had perufed or collected a great
deal of ancient and valuable matter from their MSS. tranfcribed
all the old charters of their monafteries that he could meet
with, travelled feveral times over Wales, Cornwall, Scotland,
Ireland, Armoric Bretagne, countries inhabited by the fame
people, compared their antiquities, and made obfervations on
the whole; but died in July, 1709, before he had digefted
them into the form of a diicourfe on the ancient inhabitants
of this iiland. The untimely death of this excellent antiquary
prevented the completing of many admirable deiigns. For
want of proper encouragement, he' did very little towards
tmderflanding the Britilli bards, having feen but one of thofe
of the fixth century, and not being able to procure accefs to
two of the principal libraries in the country. He communi-
cated many obfervations to bifhop Gibfon, whofe edition of
the Britannia he revifed; and published " Archaeologia
Britannica, giving lome Account additional to what has
been hitherto pnblifhed of the Languages, Hiftories, and
Cuftoms, of the original Inhabitants of Great Britain, from
Collections and Obfervations in Travels through Wales,
Cornwall, Bas Bretagne, Ireland, and Scotland. Vol. I.
Gloffography [T]. Oxford, 1/07," fol. He left in MS.
a Scottiih or Irim-Englilh dictionary, propofed to be pub-
lilhed in 1732, by fubicription, by Mr. David Malcolme, a
minifter of the church of Scotland, with additions; as alfo
the elements of the faid language, with neceffary and ufefui

[T] His "Gloffography'* is divided Davies's Diftionary." 6. A Cornifh

into ten titles: i. " The Comparative Grammar." 7. " MSS. Britanm'corum

Etymology." 2. " The Comparative Catalogus." 8 " A Britifh Etymo-

Vocabulary of the Original Languages logicon, by Mr. Parry, with an Ap-

of Britain and Ireland." 3. "An Ar- pendix." 9. " A brief Introduftion to

monck Grammar, tranflated out of the Infli or ancient Scottifh Languages."

JFrench by Mr. Williams, the fub-li- 10. " An Irilh Englifh Dictionary.'''

brarian of . the Mufeum." 4. "An Aid laftly, " A Cat^lo^ue of Iiilh

Armorick Englifh Vocabulary." 5. JManufcriptS,,''
* Some Wellh Words omiued in Dr.



informations for propagating more effectually the Englifli
language, and for promoting the knowledge of the ancient
Scottilli or Irilh, and very many branches of ufeful and
curious learning. Lhuyd, at the end of his preface to the
Archasologia, promifes an hiftorical dictionary of Britifli
perfons and places mentioned in ancient records. It feems
to have been ready for prefs, though he could not fet the
time of publication. His collections for a fecond volume,
which was to give an account of the antiquities, monuments,
&c. in the principality of Wales, were numerous and well-
chofen ; but, on account of a quarrel between him and Dr.
Wvnne, then fellow, afterwards principal of the college,
and bifhop of St. Afaph, he refufed to buy them, and they
were purchafed by Sir Thomas Seabright, of Beachwood, in
Hertfordlhire, in whofe library the greateft part {till remain,
but fo indigefted, and written with fo many abbreviations,
that nobody can undertake to publifh them. They conilft of
above 40 volumes in folio, 10 in quarto, and above 100
{mailer, and all relate to Irilh or Welfh antiquities, and
chiefly in thofe languages. Carte made extracts from them
about or before 1736; but thefe were chiefly hiftorical. Sir
John Seabright has given Mr. Pennant 23 of Lhuyd's MSS.
Latin and Engliih. Many of his letters to Lifter, and other
learned contemporaries, were given by Dr. Fothergill to the
univerlity of Oxford, and are now in the Ammolean mufeum.
Lhuyd undertook more for illuftrating this part of the king-
dom than any one man beildes ever did, or than any one man
can be equal to.

To this account of fo eminent an antiquary we (hall
fubjoin fome loofe memoranda by the rev. Mr. Jones, a
curious collector of anecdotes, and curate to Dr. Young at

" He was certainly a very extraordinary man, both for na-
tural abilities, and fedulous and fuccefsful application. He
deferved more encouragement.

"This little {lory of him was told me lately by a very
knowing perfon, who had it from good hands; viz. ' That
during his travels in Bretagny, in the time of our wars with
France, Jie was taken up for a fpy, confined for a few days
to prifon, and all his papers feized. The papers being exa-
mined by the priefts and jefuits, and found to be to them
unintelligible, raifed the greater lufpicion. But the principal
managers againft him, receiving aflurances, by letters from
learned and refpedtable men in England, that he was onlv
purfuing inquiries relating to the antiquities of Britain, and
had not the leaft concern with {tare-affairs, honourably dif-
snifled him. 7 I wifli 1 had more little anecdotes of this kind

L K U Y D.

to add, relating to that truly great man. He would have done
v/onders if he had lived to complete his dcfigns; and poflerity
would have wondered? and thanked him.

" I remember I was .told formerly at Oxford, by a gen-
tleman that knew and honoured him, " that his death was
In all probability haflened, partly by his immoderate applica-
tion co refearches into antiquity, and more fo by. his chufing,
for fome time before his deceafe, to lie in a room at the
Mufeum, which, if not very damp, was at lead not well-
aired, nor could be. >: This, it feems, was then the current
opinion; for he was naturally, as I have heard, of a very
robufl confutation. It would probably have been better, if
lie could have contented himfelf with a chamber or two in his
college, though only a fojourner there, raid paying rent. He
well deferred to have lived rent-free in any part of Great
Britain; though I do not know that his coHege denied
him this piece of fmali refpedt fo evidently due to his great

" The ingenious and learned Mr. Thomas Richards (for-
merly a member of that college, and afterwards the moil
worthy reclor of Lhanvyllin in North Wales) told me, in
the year 1756, " that, in a year or two after his admiffion
into the univerfity, a confutation was held by the felows
of Jefus-college, about a proper perfon of that college, or any
other native of Wales, (though of another college.) to
anfwer the celebrated * Mufcipula,* then lately publifhed
by the ingenious Mr, Holdfvvorth, of Magdalen-college, at
the requeit, and by the direction, of Dr. Sacheverell. Thofe
who knew, and had often obferved, the coUegiare exercifes
of Mr. Richards, were pleafed to propoie him, though of fo
low ftatiding, as the fittelt perfon that they couid think of for
fbch an undertaking. Mr. Lhuyd, being prefent, afked,
* Has he the caput poeticum?* They afTur ing him that he ufnally
wrote in aflrong Virgilian verfe, ' Then,' laid Mr. Lhuvcl, 6 I
will give him a plan,' which was that of the ' Hogbndia,'
imce publifhed and well known. Mr. Richards, as he told
me (and a friend of his faid the lame), retired with leave, for
about a week, out of college, taking lodgings ar St. Thomas's,
and completed the poem. When finished, and corrected by
Mr. Lhuyd, and Mr. Anthony Alfop, of Chr ill-church,
Mr. Lhuyd drew up a preface, or dedication, in very elegant
Latin, but in terms by much too fevere, which made Mr.
Richards very uneaiy, for he inuft obey. Before the poem
was fent to the prei's, Mr. Lhuyd died; Richards was then
at liberty. He conflicted with his friend Mr. Alfop (who was
greatly offended with Dr. S's haughty carriage), and both
together ikew up the dedication as it now flancls.


L II U Y D S i 9


" A friend of Mr. Richards informed me, * that, upon the
publication of the * Mufcipula,' Dr. S. gave a copy of it to
Mr. Lhuyd, with thefe haughty words : * Here, Mr. Lhuyd,
I give you a poem of banter upon your country ; and I defy
all your countrymen to anfwer it. 11 This provoked the old
Cambrian, &c.

" He had prepared many other valuable materials, but
did not live to finifli and publifh them. His apparatus, in
rough draughts, are now in the pofleffion of the family of the
Seabrights at Beach-wood, in the county of Hertford. I wilh
they were bellowed upon the Biitifh Mufeum in London, or
the Alhmolean Mufeum in Oxford, of which latter the faid
Mr. Lhuyd was keeper.

" In fome blank leaves of my printed copy of the aforefaid
Archsologia, I have minuted down fome particular anecdotes
relating to this extraordinary perfon. The faid copy I intend
to bellow for the ufe of the public academy at Caermathen,
in South Wales, to be preferved in the library there, amongfl
my other poor donations to that feminary of ufeful learning
and religion.

" The ftory of Sacheverell's indecent affront to Mr.
Lhuyd is there fet forth more at length, from an authentic
account, which I had from a perfon who well knew the

" At evenings, after his hard ftudy in the day-time^ he
ufed to refrelh himfelf among men of learning and inquiry,
and more particularly Cambro-Britons, in friendly cc i-
veriations upon fubjecls of Britilh antiquity; commu-
nicating his extennve knowledge therein, with much good
humour, freedom, and chearfulnefs, and, at the fame time,
receiving from them farther and more particular informa-
tions, fubfervient to his great and laudable defigns. This,
I have been informed by good hands, was his general
manner. His travels furnifhed him with many more ma-
terials for his work, and he knew how to make the befl ufe
of them all.

" In the Afhmolean Mufeum at Oxford, is a Latin cata-
logue of the curioiities there, in his own hand-writing; and
the ftarutes of that place were drawn up by him under the
directions of the trurtees thereof.

" There are many valuable MSS. of his ilili remaining irji
private hands. See the anecdotes before mentioned, prefixed
to my printed copy of the Archaeologia.

" The remaining printed copies of the fame book lay
mouldering in the aforefaid Mufeum at Oxford. I wifli
they were purchafed by fome worthy antiquary, and dif-


323 L H W Y D.

LHWYD or LHUYD (HUMPHREY), a learned anti-
quary, was the foil of Robert Lhuyd, of Denbigh. He
was educated at Oxford, but in what hotife doth not appear,
till 1547* when he is found a graduate in Brazen-nofe College.
He applied himfelf to phyfic; and retiring afterwards to his
native place, lived moftly within the walls of Denbigh-caftle,
and pra&ifedas phyfician. He died about the year 1570. He
was a perfou of great eloquence, an excellent rhetorician,
a found philofopher; and, in Camden's judgement, one of
the befl antiquaries of his time ; and we have the authority
of a living ornament to literature to affert that Lhuyd is
generally very accurate in what relates to the Hiitory of

His writings are, i. " An Almanack and Kalendar;
containing the Day, Hour, and Minute, of the Change of
the Moon for ever, &c." 8vo. 2. " Commentarioli Bri-
tannicae Defcriptionis Fragmentum. Colon. Agrip. 1572;"
of which a new edition was publifhed. by Mr. Mofes Williams,
tinder the title of " Humfredi Lhwd, Armigeri, Britannica?
Defcriptionis Commentariolum : necnon de Mona Infula,
& Britannica Arce five Armamentario Romano Difceptatio
Epiftolaris. Accedunt .^Erae Cambro-Britannicas. Accurante
Mofe Gulielmo, A.M. R. S. Soc. Lond. 17315" 4to. This
was translated into Englifh by Tho. Twyne, who entituled
it, * The Breviary of Britain, Lond. 1753," ^vo. 3- " ^ e
Mona Druidum Infula, Antiquitati fuse reflituta ;" in a

Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 36 of 48)