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William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) online

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Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 37 of 48)
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letter to Abraham Ortelius, April 5, 1568. 4. " De Ar-
mamentario Romano." Thefe two lafl are printed at the end
of " Hiiloriae Btirannicae Defenfio; written by Sir John
Price, Lond. 1573," 4to. 5. *' Chronicon Walliae, a Rege
Cadwalladero, ufque ad Ann. Dom. 1294," MS. in the
Cottonian library. 6. "The Hiftory of Cambria, now called
"W ales, from Caradoc of Lancarvan, the Regifters of Con-
way and Stratfiur; with a Continuation, chiefly extracted
from Mat. Paris, Nic. Trivet, &c." But he died before it
was quite finifhed. However, Sir Henry Sidney, lord-prefi-
dent of Wales, having -procured a copy of it, employed Dr.
David Powel to prepare it for the prefs, who publifhed it
onder this title : " The Hiftorie of Cambria, now called
Wales; a part of the mod famous yland of Britaine ; written
in the Brytifh language above two hundred years pail: tran-
flated into Englifh by H. Lhoyd, gent, corrected, augmented,
and continued out of Records and beft . approved Authors.
By David Powel, D. E. Lond. 1584.'* 4to. Our author
tranflated alfo, 7. " The Treafure of Health ; containing
many profitable Medicines, written by Peter Hifpanus."

Ta



LIBANIUS. 321

To which were added, " The Caufes and Signs of every
Difeafe, with the Aphorjfms of Hippocrates. Lond. 1585."

LIBANIUS, a celebrated fophift of antiquity, was born
of an ancient and noble family at Antioch, on the Orontes,
in the year 314. Suidas calls his father "Phafganius;" but
this was the name of one of his uncles; the other, who was
the elder, was named Panolbius. His great-grandfather, who
excelled in the art of divination, had publi fried fome pieces
in Latin, which occafioned"his being fuppofed by fome, but.
falfely, to be an Italian. His maternal and paternal grand-
fathers were eminent in rank and in eloquence; the latter,
with his brother Brafidas, was put to death, by the order of
Dioclefian, in the year 303, after the tumult of the tyrant
Eugenius. Libanius, of his father's three fons the fecond,
in the fifteenth year of his age, wiihing to devote himfelf
entirely to literature, complains that he met with fome
" fhadows of fophifts." Then, affifted by a proper matter,
he began to read the ancient writers at Antioch ; and thence,
w r ith Jallon, a Cappadocian, went to Athens; and, refiding
there for more than four years, became intimately acquainted
with Crifpinus of Heraclea, who, he fays, " enriched him
afterwards with books at Nicomedia, andvwent, but feldam,
to the fchools of Diophantus." At Conttantinople he in-
gratiated himfelf with Nicocles of Lacedaemon (a grammarian,
who was matter to the emperor Julian), and the fophiil
Bermarchiu . Returning to Athens, and foliciting the office
of a profeffbr, which the proconful had before intended for
him when he was twenty-five years of age, a certain Cap-
padocian happened to be preferred to him. But being en-
couraged by Dionyfius, a Sicilian, who had been prsfecl of
Syria, fome fpecimens of his eloquence, that were publifhed
at Conftantinople, made him fo generally known and ap-
plauded, that he collected more than eighty difciples, the two
lophiils, who then filled the chair there, raging in vain, and
Pemarchius ineffectually oppofing him in rival orations, and,
when he could not excel him, having recourfe to the frigid
calumny of magic. At length, about 346, being expelled the
city by his competitors, the prasfe6l Limenius concurring, he
repaired to Nice, and foon after to Nicomedia, the Athens
of Bithynia, where his excellence in Ipeaking began to be
more and more approved by all ; and Julian, if not a hearer,
was a reader and admirer of his orations. In the fame city,
he favs, " he was particularly delighted with the friendfhip
of Arittaenetus ;" and the five years, which he patted there,
he ftyles " the fpring, or any thing elie that can be conceived
pleafanter than fpring, of his whole life." Being invited
again to Conftantinople, and afterwards returning to Nsco-

VOL, IX, Y media,



322 L I B A N I U S.

media, being alfo tired of Conftantinople, where he found
Phoenix and Xenobius, rival-iophifts, though he was pa-
tronifed by Strategius, who fucceeded Domitian as praefedt of
the Eaft, not daring on account of his rivals to occupy the
Athenian chair, he obtained permrffion from Gallus Casfar
to vifit, for four months, his native city Antioch, where,
after Gallus was killed in 354, he fixed his refidence for the
remainder of his life, and initiated many in the facred rites of
eloquence. He was alfo much beloved by the emperor Julian,
who h-ard his difcourfes with pleafure, received him with
kindnefs. and imitated him in his writings. Honoured bv

3 j

that prince with the rank of quaeftor, and with feveral epiftles
of which fix only are extant, the hft written by the emperor
during his fatal expedition againft the Pervrans, he the more
lamented his death in the flower of his age, as from him he had
promifed himielf a certain and lading fapport both in the
worfhip of idols and in his own {Indies. There was after-
wards a report, that Libanius, with the younger Jamblichus,
the mafler of Proclus, enquired by divination who would be
the fucceilbr of Valens, and in confequence with difficulty
efcaped his cruelty, Irenceus attefting the innocence of Liba-
nias. In like manner he happily efcaped another calumny,
by the favour of duke Lupicinus, when he was accufed by his
enemy Fidelis, or Fiduilius, of having written an elogium on
the tyrant Procopius. He was not, however, totally neglect-
ed by Valens, whom he not only celebrated in an oration, but
obtained from him a confirmation of the Jaw againft entirely
excluding illegitimate children from the inheritance of their
paternal eftates, which be folicited from the emperor, no
doubt, for a private reafon, fmce, as Eunapius informs us,
he kept a miftrefs, and. was never married. The remainder
of his life he pafTed, as before mentioned, at Antioch, to an
advanced age, amidit various wrongs and oppreflions from
his rivals and the times, which he copiouily relates in his
life, though, tired of the manners of that city, he had thoughts,
in his old age, of changing his abode, as he tells Eufebius.
.He continued there, however; and, on various occafions,
was very ferviceable to the city, either by appeafmg feditions,
and calming the ditlmbed minds of the citizens, or by re-
conciling to them the emperors Julian and Theodofius. That
Libanius lived even to the reign of Arcadius, that is, beyond
the yoth year of his age, the learned collect from his oration
on Lucian and the teftimony of Cedrenusj and of the fame
opinion is Godfrey Qlearius, a man not more refpeclabie for
his exquifite knowledge of facred and polite literature than
for his judgement and probity, in his MS. preelections, in
which, when he was profeiTor of both languages in the

univerilty



LIBANIUS. 323

tmiverfitv of his own country, he lus riven an account of

* o

the life of this fophift.

M'he writings of Libanius [u] are numerous, and he com-
pofed and delivered various orations, as well demonflrative as
deliberative, and alfo many fiflitious declamations and dif-
putations. Of thefe Frederic Morell published as many as
he could collect: in two volumes folio, in Greek and Latin.
In the firfl vol. Paris, 1606, are XI II ;t Exercifes (Progym-
nafmata)? XLIV " Declamations ;" and III " Moral Dif-
fertations," and in thefecond vol. Paris, 1627, are the " Life
of Libanius," and XXXVI other orations, mo ft of them
long and on ferious fubjets. ,

Befides what are contained in thofe volumes, and his
epiilles, ten other works of this fophift have been feparately
pubhihed, moil of them orations, and in the " Exceipta.
Rhetorum" of Leo Allatius, Greek and Latin, Rom. 1641,
8vo, areXXXlX" Narrations," VII " Defcriptions," and
VII more " Exercifes of Libanius, with "Tranflations by
Allatius." His unpublifhed works are, i. Many hun-Jrcd
" EpilHes" yet concealed in various libraries, a mode of
writing in which it appears he excelled by the tefHmony even
of the ancients, particularly L pius and Photius; and of
that the perufal of them will eaiily convince the intelligent
reader ; for they abound with Attic wit and humour, and
every where recommend themfelves by their pointed concife-
nefs no lefs than by their elegance and learning [x]. 2. Se-
veral " Orations," as in a MS. of the Barberini library, of
excellent character, moil correctly written on vellum, from
which Allatius afTerts, that all the publifhed works of Liba-
nius might alfo be given -much more correct and perfect.
3. Various " Declamations, " in die above MS. and alfo ill
the Vatican library. And that there are many MS. epiftles^
orations, and declamations, of Libanius, in the Imperial
library at Vienna, Neflelius has obferved, affirming alfo,
that feveral Greek icholia are frequently inserted in the margin.
Though fo many of the writings of this fophift are preferved^
there is no doubt that many both of his 4< EpiftlesV and " Ora-
tions" have been loft.

[u] The voluminous writings of Bent ley (Differtation upon Phatoris,

Libanius ftill exift ; for the nioft part p. 487.} might jnftly, though quaintly,

they are the vain and idle compofitions obfcrve, that ' you feel, by the empti-

of an oraror, who cultivated the fcience net's and deadnefs of them, that you

of words ; the produdlions of a reclufe converfe with lome dreaming pedant,

fluderitj whofe mind, regard'efs of his with his elbow up->n the deilc." Phc-

contemporaries, was inceffantly fixed tir.s's judgement of Libanius as a writer

on the Trojan war, and the Athenian is, that, " while he afteds to be very

commonwealth. GIBBON. nice and curious, he c'eftroys the fim-

[x] The critics may praife their plicity and elegance of language, and

fubtle and elegant brevity j yet Dr. becomes obfcurc." Cod. xc.

Y 2 LI-



324 L I G A R I U S.

LICETUS, a celebrated phyfician of Italy, was born at
Rappollo, in the ilate of Genoa, 1577. He came, it feems,
into the world before his mother had completed the feventh
month of her pregnancy ; but his father, being an ingenious
phyfician, wrapped him up in cotton, and nurtured him fo,
that he lived to be 77 years of age. He was trained with
great care, and became a very ditlinguifhed man in his pro-
feffion, and was author of a great number of works : of his
book " De Monftris" every body mufl have heard. He was
profefTor of philofophy and phyiic at Padua, where he died
in 1655.

LICIN1US (TEGULA), a comic Roman poet, who
flourished about 200 years before Chritt. His fragments are
collected by Mattaire and H. Stephens; and he is efteemed
by Aulus Geilius as the fourth in rank of the Roman comic
poets.

L1CINIUS (CALvus), an orator and poet, contemporary
with Cicero, compared by fome of the ancients to Catullus.
His orations are praiied by Quinctilian, but no fragments
remain.

LIC1NIUS (CAIUS FLAVIUS VALERIANUS), a Roman
emperor, and elevated to that high dignity from being a
common foldier in the Roman armies. He was conquered
in battle by his rival Conftantine, and by him put to an ig-
nominious death. He was avaricious, licentious, and cruel,
an enemy to letters and the arts, but a good general, and
gallant foldier.

LIEUT AUD ( JOSEPH), an eminent phyfician, born at
Aix in Provence. He became a member of the Academy of
Sciences in 1752, and was appointed fir ft phyfician to Louis
XVI. His molt celebrated works are " Anatomical EfTays,"
" Elements of Phyfiology," &c. Some of his diflertations,
inferted in the memoirs of the Academy, are juflly and highly
efteemed ; and he was in all refpects an ornament to his pro-
feffion, and an amiable and meritorious character. As a
writer, he was forcible and perfpicuous ; as a practitioner,
a greater obferver of nature than bigot to the powers of
medicine.

L1GARIUS (QyiNTUs), lieutenant to Caius Confidius,
and who commanded in Africa as proconiul, behaved fo well,
in his employment, that the inhabitants of the country paf-
fionately defned him for their perpetual governor, when Con-
fidius was recalled. Their requeft was granted; and they
continued very well fatisried with Ligarius's government.
They would have fet him at their head, when they took up
arms in the beginning of the civil war between Caviar and

^-> -CJ

Pompey ; but, as he was deiirous of returning to Rome, he
6 refilled



L I G H T F O O T. 325

refufed to concern himfelf with public affairs. Ligarius
generally oppofed Julius Caefar, who nevertheleis gave nini
his life, after the defeat of Scipio, and of the otiier c ;ptains,
who lighted up the war anew, in Africa, in favour of the
caufe which Pompey had maintained. But, notwithstanding
the pardon, Ligarius continued concealed out of Itah . His
friends, particularly Cicero, employed their utmoft endeavours
in orchr to obtain Ccefar's leave for him to return to Rome;
and thev flattered themfelvcs with the hopes of fucceeding,
when Tubero fet himfelf up exprciTiy for the accufer of
Ligarius. It was then that Cicero {poke in favour of Liga-
rius that admirable oration, which changed, in a very fmgular
ir.anner, the intentions of Julius Caefar. Ligarius was ab~
iolutely acquitted. He was afterwards one of the accomplices
with Brutus and CafTius.

L'iGER (LEWIS), author of various works on agriculture
and gardening, was born at Auxene in 1658, He publilhed
alfo a Paris Guide.

LIGHTFOOT (JOHN), a rnoft learned Engli/h divine,
was the ion of a divine, and born on the sgth of March,
i6o2 ? at Stojce upon Trent, in Stafford (hi re. After having
fin i fried his ftudies at a ichool on Morton-screen, near Con-
gleton in Chefhire, he was removed in 1617, to Cambridge,
and put under the tuition of Mr. William Chappel, then
fellow of Chrift's College there, and afterwards biihop of
Cork in Ireland [Y]. At college he applied himfelf to
eloquence, and fucceeded fo well in it as to be thought the
bell orator of the under-graduates in the univerfity. He alfo
made an extraordinary proficiency in the Latin and Greek ;
but neglected the Hebrew, and even loft that knowledge he
brought of it from fchool. His taile for the Oriental lan-
guages was not yet excited ; and, as for lo^ie, the ftudy of it,
as managed at that time among the academics, was too
quarreliorne and fierce for his quiet and meek difpoiition.

As foon as he had taken the degree of B. A. he left the
univerfitv, and became afiiftant to a ichool at Repton, in
Derby ihire. After he had fupplied this place a year or two,
he entered into orders, and became curate of Norton under
Hales, in Shropshire. This curacy gave an occaiion of
awakening his genius for the Hebrew tongue. Norton lies
near Bellaporr, then the feat of Sir Rowland Cotton, who
was his conflant hearer, made him his chaplain, and took
him into his houfe. This gentleman, being a perfect mailer
of the Hebrew language, engaged Lightfoot in that ftudy ;

[Y] He was a very eminent tutor; More, John Milton, &c. for Lis pupils,
and. befides^ LighU'oot, had Henry Birch's life of Milton.

Y 3 who,



3 z6 L I G H T F O O T.

who, by converting with his patron, foon became fenfible,
that* without that knowledge, it was impoffible to attain an
Accurate underftanding of the Scriptures. He therefore applied
himfelf to it with extraordinary vigour, and, in a little time,
made a creat progrefs in it; and his patron removing, with
his family, to reiide in London, at the requeft of Sir All and
Cotton, bis uncle, who was lord-mayor of that city, he
followed his preceptor thither. But he did not ft ay long
there; for, having a mind to improve himfelf by travelling
abroad, he went with that intention down into Stafford/hire,
to take leave of his father ana mother. Failing through St/r
in that county, he found the place deftitute of a srinifter;
and the prefiing inftances of the parifhioners pi . upon

him to undertake that cure. Here- t , ^ alide his

defign of going abroad, he began to turn his thoughts
upon fettling at home. 1 'uring hi? r:ndcnce at Bailaport,
}ie had fallen into the : in .1 .cc of a gentlewoman who
was of lliam ^rompton, .of Stone -park, efq ; and

now, being in poiTeffion of that living, he married her in
1628. But, notwithftanding this fettlement, his unquench-
able third after rabbinical learning would net fuffer him to
continue there. Sion-college-library at London, he k lew,
was well Hocked with books of that kind. He therefore
quitted his charge at Stone, and removed with his family to
Hornfey, near the city, where he gave the public a notable
fpecimen of his advancement in thofe ftudies, by his " Erub-
him> or Mi feel Is nips Chriilian and Jiuhical," in 1629. ^ e
was now only 27 years of age, and appears to have been well
acquainted with the Latin and the Greek fathers, as well as
the ancient heathen writers. Thefe fir ft fruits of his iludies
were dedicated to Sir Rowland Cotton; who, in 1631, pre-
fented him to the rectory of Afnley, in Stafford (hire.

He feemed now to be fixed for life; accordingly, he built
a ftudy in the garden, to be out of the noife of the houfe ; and
applied himfelf with indefatigable diligence in fearching the
Scriptures. Thus employed, the days pafTed very agreeably;
and he continued quiet and umnolefted till the great change,
which happened in the public affairs, brought him into a
fhare of the admimftration relating to the church; for he
was nominated a member of the memorable afTembly of
divines, for fettling a new form of ecclefiailical polity. This
appointment was purely the eflecl of his diftinguifhed merit [z] ;
and he accepted it purely with a view to ferve hi3 countiy as
far as lay in his power. The non-reiidence, which this

[?.] He had a favourable opinion of vernment, as appears from his debates
the Prefbyterian form of church-go- in that slfemblyt

would



LIGHTFOOT. 327

would necefTarily occafion, apparently induced him to refign
his rectory; and, having obtained the prefentatJon for a
younger brother, he let out for London in 1642. He had
now fatisfied himfelf in clearing up many of the abftrufeft
pafTages in the Bible, and therein had provided the chief
materials, as well as formed the plan, of his ** Harmony ;"
and an opportunity of infpefting it at the prefs was, no doubt,
an additional motive for his going to the capital where he
had not been long, before he was chofrn minifter of St.
Bartholomew's, behind the Royal Exchange. The affembly
of divines meeting in 1643, our autn or gave his attendance
diligently there, and made a diftinguifhed figure in their
debates ; where he ufed great freedom, and gave fignal proofs
of his courage as well as learning, in oppofing many of thofe
tenets which the divines were endeavouring to eftablifh. His
learning recomminded him to the parliament, whole vifitors,
having ejected Dr. William Spurilow from the mailermip of
Catharine-hall in Cambridge, pot Liehtfoot in his room
this year, 1653; and he was alfo prefented to the living ot
Much-Munden, in Hertfordshire, void bv the death of Dr.
Samuel Ward, Margaret- profeffor of divinity in that univer-
fity, before the expiration of this year. Mean while, he had
his turn with other favourites in preaching before the houie
of commons, moil of which fermons were printed; and in
them we fee him warmly preffing the fpeedy fettlement of the
qhurch in the Prefbyterian form, which he cordially believed
to be according to the pattern in the Mount. He was all the
while employed in preparing and publifhing the feveral
branches of his <L Harmony;'* all which were fo many ex-
cellent fpecimens of the ufetulnefs of human learning to true
religion, and he met with great difficulties and difcouragements
of that work, chiefly from that antieruditional fpirit, which
prevailed, and even threatened the deiirucYion of the uni-
%^erfities. In 1655, he entered upon the office of vice-chan-
cellor of Cambridge, to which he was cholen that year,
having taken the degree of doctor of divinity in 1652. He
performed all the regular exercifes for his degree with great
applaufe (A_|, and executed the vice chancellor's office with
exemplary diligence and fidelity; and, particularly at the com-
mencement, fuppiied the place of profeffor of divinity, then
undiipofed of, at an at which was kept for a doctor's degree

[A] His thefis was upon this queftion : It was his opinion, that, after the clofing

" Poll Canenem Scripturaa confignatum of the canon of Scripture, thei ; was

non Cunt novae Revelationes expe<Slan- neither prophecy, miracles, nor extra-

ds." He has written much, in divers ordinary gift:, in the church.
j.\3rts of bis work?, upon this fubjecl.

Y 4



3 23 L I G H T F O O T.

in that profeffion fs]. At the fame time he was engaged,
with others, in perfecting the Polyglott Bible, then in the
prel"> ; which beincr encouraged by Oliver Cromwell, the pro-
tector, became another fubjecl of great joy to our vice-chan-
cellor, who does not fpare to declare it, even with tranfport,
jn his fpeech at t h .e commencement. He alfo takes occafion
to comosiferate the oppretTed ilate of the clergy of the church
of England, and to extol their learning, zeal, and confidence,,
in God

At the Reftoration, he offered to refign the mafterfhip of
Catharine hall to Dr. Spurftow; and, upon his refulal, a
grant of it was made to a fellow otfomc college in Cambridge,
from the cvown, in which the right of prefentation lay. Bur,
as what Lightfoot had done had been rather in compliance
with the neceflity of the times than from any zeal or fpiiit
of opposition to the king and government, fo upon this
occalion he was not without friends. Sheldon, abp. of Can-
terbury, readily and heartily engaged to ferve him, though
perfonally unknown; and, having prevailed with the lord-
chancel'or to flay the proceedings in his office, for the making
out his competitor's patent, procured him a confirmation from
the crown, both of the place, and of his living. Soon after
this, he was appointed one of the ailiitants at the conference
upon the liturgy, which was held in the beginning of 1661,
but attended on!y once or twice ; probably difgufled at the
heat with which that conference was managed. However,
be (tuck clofe to his deiign of perfecting his " Harmony;"
and, being of a ftrong and healthy conflitution, which was
a-flitted by an exa6l temperance, he profecuted his ftudies with
unabated vigour to the laft, and continued to puhlifh, not-
\vithftanding the many difficulties he met witli from the
expence of it[c]. However, not long before he died, iome
pookfellers. got a promife from him to collecl: and me-
thodize his works, in order to print them ; but the execu-
tion was prevented by his death, which happened Dec. 6,



As to his learning in the rabbinical way, he w^as excelled
by none, and had few equals; info much, that foreigners,
whp came to England for ailiftance in their rabbinical ftudies,

[B] The queflions were, i. " Whe- venture to print his works, and that he

thtr the flate of innocency was a (late was obliged to print fonoe of them at

of immortality ?" 2. " Whether et^r- his own expence ;" and Frederic Micge,

ral life i nromifed in the Old Ttfla- in a letter, informed him, tl that there

ment?" Both which he maintained in was not a bonkfeller iu Germany, who

the affirmative. would freely undertake the impreffion

[c] In a letter to Buxtorf, he de- of his Commentary upon the nrftEpiftle

cLi.-es, " that he could fcarce find any to the Corinthians." See thefe letters

bpukfellers in England \yho would ip his wprkSo vol. ILL at the end.

ufually



L I G II T F O O T. 329

ufually made their addrefles to him, as one of the mod emi-
nent fcholars therein. Among thefe were Frederic Miege
and Theodore Haul;, who were peculiarly recommended alto
to Dr. Pocock, with whom our author had a corre-
fpondence: as alfo Dr. Marihal, cf Lincoln-college, in Ox-
ford; Samuel ClarLc, keeper of the Bodleian library; Dr.
Bernard, of St. John's; and the himous Buxtorf; were all
correfpondents of his. !t is true, he is charged wirh main-
taining fome peculiar opinions [D j ; vet thefe arc fuch as are
harmlefs ; and of them he fays himfelf " Innocna, ut fpero,
femper proponent;" and it is certain, that, notwithstanding
his miftakes, if thev be fuch, he is in general the moft in-
genious as well as learned of our Englifn commentators, and
has furnifhed all his fuccelTors in that way W'th a great part of
the fubftance of what we find in their remarks.

The doctor was twice married ; his rlrft wife, already
mentioned, brought him four fons and two daughters. His



Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 37 of 48)