William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) online

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Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 38 of 48)
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eldeft fon, John, who was chaplain to Bryan Walton, bifhsp
of Cheiter, died foon after that prelate. His fecond was
Anaftafius, who had alfo thefe additions to that name, Cot-
tonus jackfonus, in memory of Sir Rowland Cotton and Sir
John Jackfon, two dear friends of our author; he was minifter
of Thundridge, in Hertfordihire, and died there, leaving one
fon. His third fon was Anaftaflus too, but without any
addition; he was brought up to trade in London. His fourth
fon was Thomas, who died young. His daughters were Joke
and Sarah, the former of whom was married to Mr. John
Duckfield, rector of Afpeden, in Hertfordihire, into whole
hands fell the doctor's papers, which he communicated to
Mr. Strype. The other married Mr. Coclough, a StafFord-
fhi re gentleman. This lady died in 1656, and was interred
in the church of Munden, in Hertfordihire. 1 he doctor's
fecond wife was likewife a widow, and relict of Mr. Auilin
Brograve, uncle of Sir Thomas Brogiave, Bart, of Hertford-
ihire, a gentleman well verfed in rabbinical learning, and a
particular acquaintance of our author. He had no ifTue by
her. She alfo died before him, and was buried in Munden
church ; where the doctor was himfelf likewife interied near
both his wives.

Dr. Lightfoot's works were collected and publifhecl firil
in 1684, in two volumes folio. The fecond edition was
printed at Amfterdara, 1686, in two volumes folio, con-

[D] The principal of thefe are per- and loofing related not to discipline*

haps his belief, that the fmalleft points bnt todoiilrme. Add to thefe, his mean

in the Hebrew text were of divine in- opinion of the Septuagint verfion; and

ilitution; that the keys were given to Suype reckons that of the uUer re-

Peter alone, exclufive of the other ject.on of the Jews.
s; that the power of binding



taining all his Latin writings, with a Latin transition of
thofe which he wrote in Engliih. At the end of both thefe
editions there is a lift of fuch pieces as he left unfiniihed.
It is the chief of thefe, in Latin, which make up the third
volume, added to the former two, in a third edition of his
works, by John Leufden, at Utrecht, in 1699, fol. They
were communicated by Mr. Srrype, who, in 1700, publifhed
another collection of thefe papers, under the title of " Some
genuine Remains of the late pious and learned Dr. John

L1GNAC (JOSEPH ADRIAN DE) was born at Poitiers,
of a noble family. He published various works, particularly
" Letters to an American concerning BufTon's Natural Hiftory;"
with fome metaphyfical tracts.

LILBURNE (JOHN), a remarkable Englifli entlrufiaft,
was defcendcd from an ancient family in the county of Dur-
ham, where his father was polTeffed of a handiome eilate[E],
efpecially at Thickney-Purcharden, the feat of the family,
upon which he reficled, and had this fon, who was born in
1618. Being a younger child, he was clefigned for a trade ;
and, with no more learning than was requifue in that way,
was put apprentice, at twelve years of age, to a wholefale
clothier in London, of' the puritanical fel, in which he had
been bred. This \vas early; but the youth had a prompt
genius, and a forward temper above his years, which fheweci
itfelf coi fpicuouily, not long after, in a complaint to the city-
chamberlain of his matter's ill-ufage; by which, having ob-
tained more liberty, he purchafed a multitude of puritanical
books, and fpent feyeral days in a week in reading them ; and
became at length fo considerable among his party as to be
confulted upon the boldeft of their undertakings, againft the
hierarchy, while an apprentice.

Thus gifted, he could not think of following his trade;
and, in 1636, being introduced, by the teacher of his con-
gregation, to Dr Baftwick, then a ftar-chamber prifoner in
the Gatehoufe, Baftwick eafily prevailed with him to carry
a piece, he had lately written againft the bimops, to Holland,
and get it printed there. Lilburne, having difpatched the
affair, returned to England in a few months, freighted with
Eaftwick's " Merry Liturgy," as it was called, and a cargo
of other pieces of a fimilar kind. Thefe he difperfed privately

[E] It is worth notice, that he was when the trial was put off by the
the Jaft per fon who joined iffue in the judges; till at laft it was ordered, at
ancient cuftom of a trial by battle. It the king's inflance, by parliament, that
was with one Ralph Auxton, for lands a bill fhould be brought in to take away
of the v;,lue of 200!. per ann. The that trial, in 1641. Rulh wo; th's u Col-
two charrpions Appeared in the court, leclions/' vol. i.
armed esp-a-pie, with fand-bags, &c.


L I L B U R N E. 331

in difguife, till, being be "raved by his aflociate, a fcrvant of
one Wharton, he was apprehended ; and, alter examination
before the council-hoar' 1 und hi^h com miffi on court, to whole
rules he refuse! to conform, he- was found guilty of printing

and publifhmg fevtral feditious hooks, particularly Mr. Wil-
jiam Prvnne's " Nr\vs from Ipfwich" [F], He was con-
demned, Feb. 1647. to he whipt at the cart's tail from the
Fleet ptifon to Old Palace-Yard, Weftrninfter; then fetupon,
the pillory there for two hours; afterwards to be carrie.l
back to the Fleet, there to remain till he conformed to the
rules of the court; alfo to pav a fine of 500!. to the kmcr;
and, lafllv, to give fccurity for his good behaviour. He
underwent this fentence with an undifmayed ohilin-.K-y, utter-
ing manv bold fpeeches at the cart's tail again ft the tyranny
of thebifhops, and tolling many pamphlets trom the pillory,
here, af"er the fear-chamber then lifting had ordered him to
be gagged, he ftamped with his feet. 'J he fpirit he (lie wed
upon this occahon procured him the nick-name- of " Free-born
John" among the friends to the government, and, among his
own mrty, the title of Saint. However, he was loaded witii
double irons on his arms and leg , and put. into one of the
baieu wards; yet, being fufpe&ed as the author of a fire
which broke out near that ward, he was removed into a
better, at the earneft felicitation both of the neighbours and
prifoners, urged thereto from the consideration of their own
fafety; and, bv this removal he ^oimd means to pnblim an-
other piece of his own writing, intituled " The ChriiKati
Man's Trial," '111410, the fame year.

Fie wrote feveral other pamphlets, before the long par-
liament granted him the liberties of the Fleet, Nov. 1640.
After this he appeared, May 3, 1641, at the head of the mob
at Weftrninfter, clamouring for iuftice ap-ainft the earl of

o J o

StrafFord ; and, being feized and arraigned the next day, at
the bar of the houle of lords, for an adault upon colonel
Lunsford, the governor of the tower, was difmifled. The
fame day a vote paffed in the houfe of commons, declaring
the lentence of the ftar-chamber illegal and tyrannical, and
that he ought to have reparation for his fuffenngs and lofles
thereby ; but nothing was done towards it till a decree palled
in the houfe of lords for giving him two thoufand pounds,
April 7, 1646, out of the eflates of lord Cottington, Sir
Banks Windebank, and [ames Ingram, warden of the Fleet.
Yet neither had this any effeft before 1648 ; when, upon a
petition to the houfe of commons, to enlarge the fum, and

[F] He wis Lilhurnt's fe!!ow-rnf- to anfwer interrogatories, as required
feierin the ftar-ch.imber, for rttufing by the oaths ex yiUcio. Rulh worth.


332 L I L B U R N E.

change the fecurity, as inefficient, he obtained an ordinance
for, 3000!. worth of the delinquents' lands, to be fold to him
at twelve years purchafe; and, in confequence thereof, a
grant for forae part of the fequeftered eftates of Sir Henry
BeHingham and Mr. Bowes, in the counties of Durham
or Northumberland, from which he received about 1400!;
and Cromwell, foon after his return from Ireland, in May,
1650, procured him a grant of lands for the remainder.
This extraordinary delay was occafioned entirely by him-

At firit he enraced on the fide of the parliament, entered

O O 1

a volunteer in their army, was a captain of foot at the battle
of Edge-hill, and remarkably diftinguifned himfelf in the
engagement at Brentford ; where, being taken pnioner, he
was exchanged very honourably above his rank, and rewarded
\vith a purfe of 500!. by the earl of EfTex. Yet, when that
general began to prefs the Scots' covenant upon his followers,
Lilburne quarrelled with him ; and, by Cromwell's intcreit,
was made a major of foot, Oct. 164^, in the new-raifed army
under the earl .of Manchester. In this flaiion he behaved veiy
well, and narrowly efcaped with his life at raifing the liege
of Newark by prince Rupert; but, at the fame time, he
quarrelled with his colonel (King), and accufed him of feveral
mifdemeanors to the earl; whereupon the earl promoted him
to be lieutenant-colonel to his own regiment of dragoons, May,
1644. This poft he fuflained with' iignal bravery at the battle
of Marfton-moor, in July; yet he had, before that, quarrel-
led with the earl, for not bringing colonel King to a trjai
by a court-martial; and, upon Cromwell's accniing his lord-
fhip to the houfe of commons, Nov. 1644, Lilburne fwore
heartily before the committee in fupport of that charge. Nor
did he reft there; for, having procured an impeachment of
high crimes and mifdemeanors to be exhibited at the houfe c*
commons, in Auguft this year, agamic colonel King, which
xvas neglecled, hefirfl offered a petition to the houfe, in 1646,
to bring the colonel to his trial upon that charge; and, re-
ceiving no fat is faction, cad fome reflections in print upon the
earl of Mancheiler, in 1646. For this being called before the
houfe of lords, where that nobleman was fpeaker, he not only
lefufed to aniwer the, interrogatories, but protefted againft their
jttrifdi&ion over him in the prefent cafe; fo that he was frrft
committed to Newgate, and then lent to the tower. Here-
upon he appealed to the. houfe of commons ; and, upon their
deferring to take his cafe into confederation, he charged that
houfe, in print, tiot only with having done nothing of late
years for the general good, but alfo with having made many
ordinances notoriously unjuit and oppreoive. The impreffion


L I L B U R N E. 333

of this piece being feized, he printed another in 1647, entitu-
Jed, " The Oppreffed Man's Oppreilion," declaring, that
the prefent parliament ought to be pulled down, and a new
one called, to bring them to a Uriel: account, as the only means
of faving the laws and liberties of England from utter de-
iiruaion, called, " The Refolved Man's Re'blution." This
-t availing, lie applied to the agitators in the army; and, at
length, having obtained liberty every day to go, without his
keeper, to attend the committee appointed about his bufmefs,
and to return every night to the Tower, he made ufe of that
liberty to engage in fome feclitious practices. For this he was
re-committed to the Tower, and ordered to be tried; but,
upon the parliament's apprehenfions from the Cavaliers, on
prince Charles's appearing with a fleet in the Downs, he
procured a petition, figned by feven or eight thoufand perfons,
to be prefented to the houfe.

Upon this, an order was made to difcharge him from
imprifon merit [G], and to make him fatisfacTion for his
iufferings, Aug. 1648. This was not com pa fled, however,
without a feries of conflicts and quarrels with Cromwell;
who, returning from Ireland in May 1650, and, finding
Lilburne in a peaceable difpofition with regard to the par-
liament, procured him the remainder of his grant for repara-
tions above mentioned. This was gratefully acknowledged
by his antagonift, who however did not continue long in
his peaceable difpofition ; for, having undertaken a difpute in
law, in which his uncle George Lilburne happened to b
engaged, he petitioned the parliament, on that occafion, with
his ufual boldnefs in 1651; and this alterably gave a judge-
ment for fining him in the fum of yoool. to the ftate, and
baniihing him the kingdom. Upon this, before the act,
which paffed Jan. 30, 1651-2, for the execution of that judge-
ment, he crofTed the water to Amfterdam ; where, having
printed an apology for himfelf, he lent a copy of it, with a
letter to Cromwell, charging him as the principal promoter of
the a& of his banifhment. He had alfo feveral conferences
with iome of the royalifts, to whom he engaged to reflore
Charles II, by his intereft with the people, requiring no
more than io,ocol. to compafs it; but little heed was paid to

[G] See the trial, which was printed law, as well as fart. In the fame print,

by him under the name of "Theodoras over his head, appear the two faces

Verax," to which he prefixed, by xvay of a medal, upon one of which were

^of triumph, a print of himfelf at full iufcribed the names cf the jury, and

length, ftandmg at the bar with Coke's on the other thefe words: " John Li!-

Inftitutes in his hand, the hook that he burns favd by the power of the Lord,

made ufs of to prove that flattering and the integrity of his jury, who are

doctrine which he applied, with fingular judges of law as well as fact; Gilober

irefr, to the jury, that in them alone 26, 1649. '*

s infierenc the judicial power of ihe



L I L I E N T A L.

the propofal, manifeftly the effect of chagrin againft Crom-
well, as well as an ill-grounded enthufiaftic confidence. So
that he remained in exile, without hopes of re-vifiting Eng-
land, till the diflblution of the long parliament; upon which,
not being able to obtain a pafs, he returned without one,
June 1057 ; for which, being ieized and tried at the Old-
Bailey, he was a fecond time acquitted by his jury. Crom-
well incenfed bv this contempt of his power, which was
now become defpotic, had him carried to Portfmouth, in
order for tranfportation ; but the tyrant's wrath was averted,
probably, by LJl'ourne's brother Robert, one of his major-
generals, upon whofe bail for his behaviour he was f offered
to return. After this, he fettled at Eltham, inAKent; where
lie pafTecl the remainder of his days in perfect tranquillity,
equally undifturbed and undiilurbing his triumphant competitor.
In this temper he joined the Quakers, and preached among
that feet in and about Eltham till his death, which happened
in that town, Aug. 29, 1657, in his 49th year. He was
interred in the then new burial-place in IVJoorfields, near the
place now called Old- Bedlam ; four thoufand perfons attending
his burial.

Wood gives him the following juil character: " That .he
was, from his youth, much addicted to contention, novelties,
oppofition of government, and to violent and bitter ex-
pieiiions; that, growing up, he became for a time the idol
of the factious people, being naturally a great trouble-world
In all the variety of governments; that he grew to be a hodge-
podge of religion, the chief ring -leader of the levellers, a
great propofaLmaker, and a modeller of Hate, and publisher
of feveral feditious pamphlets, and of fo quarrelfome a dif-
pofition, that it xvas appofitely laid of him, ' that, if there
was none living but he, John would be againft Liiburne,
and Liiburne againil John.' Lord Clarendon having ob-
ierved, ' that he was a perfon of much more confiderable
importance than major Wildman, and that Cromwell found
it absolutely neceflfary to his. own dignity effectually to crulh
him,' concludes his account of him in thefe terms : ' This
inflance of a perfon, not otherwife confidtrable, is thought
pertinent to be inferted, as an evidence of the temper of the
nation; and how far the fpirits at that time (in 1653) were
from paying a fubmiffion to that power, when nobody had
the courage to lift up their hands againft it."

LILIAN TAL (MICHAEL), a Pruflian, and profeffor at
Konigfberg. He was the author of many ingenious works,
and of fon e valuable difTertations, which are found in the
memoirs cf the Academy at Eciliii.


L I L L O.


L1LLO (GEORGE), an excellent dramatic writer, was by
profeiTion a jeweller, and was born in the neighbourhood of
Moorgate in London, Feb. 4, 1693, v. h;re he purfued hi>
occupation for ninny years with the fa i reft and moft un-
blemithed character. He was bred up in the principles of
the Proteftant DiflTenters; but, let his religious tenets have
been what they would, he would have been an honour to any
feet. He was ftrongly attached to the Mules, yet feemcd to
have laid it down as a maxim, that the devotion paid to them
ought always to tend to the promotion of virtue-, morality,
and religion- In purfuance of this aim, Lillo was happy
in the choice of his fubjecls, and flievvcd great power of
affecting the heart, by working up the paffions to fuch a
height as to render the diftreffcs of common and domeflic
lite equally interesting to the audiences as that of kings and
heroes, and the ruin brought on private families by an in-
dulgence of avarice, luft, &c. as the havock made in ftates
and empires by ambition, cruelty, or tyranny. His " George
Earnwell," " Fatal Curiofity," and " Arden of Feverfham,"
are all planned on common and well-known (lories ; yet they
have perhaps more frequently drawn tears from an audience
than the more pompous tragedies of " Alexander the Great,"
" All for Love," &c. particularly the nrft of them, which
being founded on a well-known old ballad, many of the
critics of that time, who went to the hrft reprefentation of it,
formed fo contemptible an idea of the piece in their expecla-
tions, that they purchaied the ballad, fome thoufands of
which were ufed in one day on this account, in order to draw
comparifons between that and the play. But the meiit of
the play foon got the better of this contempt, and prefented
them with fcenes written fo truly to the heart, that they were
compelled to fubfcribe to the power, and drop their ballads
to take up their handkerchiefs.

Lillo, as has been already obferved, was happy in the choice
of his fubje<5ts; his conduit in the management of them is
no lefs meritorious, and his pathos very great. If there is
any fault to be objected to his writings, it is that fometimes
he affets an elevation of ilyle fomewhat above the Simplicity
'of his fubject, and the fuppofed rank of his characters; but
the cuilom of tragedy will {land in fome degree of excufe for
this ; and a ilill better argument perhaps may be admitted
in vindication, not only of our author, but of other writers
in the like predicament, which is, that even nature itfelf will
juftify this condu6t, iince we find even the moft humble
characters in real life, when under peculiar circumftances of
diitrefs, or actuated by the influence of any violent paflions,
will at times be elevated to an aptncis of exprejTion and power


336 LILLO.

of language, not only greatly fuperior to themfelves, but
even to the general language of converfation of perlons of
much higher rank in life, and of minds more perfectly

In the prologue to " Elmerick," which was not acted till
after the author's death, it is faid, that, when he wro'e that
play, he " was deprefled by want," and afflicted by difeafe;
but, in the former particular there, appears to be evidently a
rniitake, as he died pofTeiTed of an eftate of 6cl. a year, befides
other effects to a coniiderable value. The late editor of his
works (Mr. T. Davies), in. two volumes, 121110. 1775,
relates the following ftorv, which, ho\vever, we cannot
think adapted to convey any favourable impreilion of the
perfon of whom it is told: " 6 Towards the latter part of his
life, Mr. Lillo, whether from judgement or humour, de-
termined to put the imcerity of his friends, who profefTed
a very high regard for him, to a trial. In order to carry on
this defign, he put in practice an odd kind of ft rat age m :
he afked one of his intimate acquaintance to lend him a con-
ilderable fum of money, and for this he .declared he would
give no bond, nor any other fecurity, except a note of hand ; the
perfon to whom he applied, not liking the terms, civilly
refufed him.

" Soon after, Lillo met his nephew, Mi. Underwood,
with whom he had been at variance fome time. He put the
fame queflion to him, defiring him to lend him money upon
the fame terms. His nephew, cither from a fagacious appre-
heniion of his uncle's real intention, or from genet oilty of
Tpirit, immediately offered to comply with his requeft. Lillo
was fo well pleafed with this ready compliance of Mr. Under-
wood, that he immediately declared that he was fully fatisfied
with the love and regard that his nephew bore him ; he was
convinced that his friendihip w^as entirely difinterefted; and
arTured him, that he fhould reap the benefit iuch generous
behaviour deferved. In confequence of this prornife, he be-
queathed him the bulk of his fortune."

The fame writer fays, that Lilio in his perfon was lufty,
but not tall; of a pleating afpect, though unhappily deprived
of the fight of one eye.

Lillo died Sept. 3, 1739? in the 47th year of his age;
and, a few months after his death, Henry Fielding printed the
following character of him in " The Champion:" ' c He had
a perfect knowledge of human nature, though his contempt
of all bafe means of application, which are the necefTary fteps
to great acquaintance, rcflrained his converfation within
narrow bounds. He had the fpirit of an old Roman, joined
to the innocence of a primitive Chriftian : he was content



%vith his little ftate of life, in which his excellent temper of
mind gave him an happinefs beyond the power of riches ; and
it was neceffary for his friends to have a (harp innght into
his want of their fervices, as well as good inclination or
abilities to ferve him. In fhort, he was one of the bed
of men, and thoie who knew him beft will moll regret his

LILLY (WILLIAM), a famous Englilh aftrologer, was
born at Leicellerfhire in 1602, and was put to fchool at
Afhby-de-la-Zouch, in the fame county, but, his father
not being in cireumftances to give him a liberal education,
after having learnt writing and arithmetic, he was obliged
to quit the fchool. Upon this, being of a forward temper,
and endued with fhrewd wit, he refolved to pufh his fortune
in London, where he arrived in 1620; and, f,-r a prefent
fupport, articled himfelf as a fervant to a mantua-maker, in
the p:uiili of St. Clement Danes. But he got a ftep higher
in 1624, i' 1 tne fervice of a mafter of the falters' company in
the Strand; who, not being able to write, employed him
(among other domeitic offices) as his book-keeper. He had
not been above three years in this place, when, his mailer
dying, he addreiTed and married his miftrefs, with a fortune
of loool. As this match made him his own mafter, he gave
way to his genius, in frequenting fermons and ledlures among
the Puritans. In 1632, he turned his mind to the bafe part
ofailroiogy; and applied to one Evans, a debauched Welfh
parion, who, after praliling that craft many years in Lei-
ceftenliire, had come to London, and, at this time, refided
in Gunpowder-alley. Here Lilly became his pupil, and
made fitch a quick progrefs, that he underftood how " to fet
a figure" perfectly in feven or eight weeks; and, continuing
his application with the utmoft afTiduity, gave the public
a fpecimen of his attainments and fkill therein, in an intimation
that the king had chofen an unlucky horofcope for the Coro-
nation in Scotland, 1633.

In 5634, having got into his hands a manufcript, with fome
alterations of the " Ars Notoria" of Cornelius Agrippa, he
drank the doc~lrine of the magical circle, and the invocation
of ipirits, with unquenchable greedinefs; and became fo mucli
intoxicated, as not only to make ufe of a form of prayer
prefcribed therein to the angel Salmonseus, and to fancy
himfelf a favourite of great power and intereft with that
uncreated phantom, but even to claim a knowledge of, and a
familiar acquaintance with, the particular guardian-angels of
England, by name Salmael and Malchidael. After which,
he treated the myllery of recovering lloien goods, &c. with

338 L I L L Y.

great contempt, claiming a fupernatural fight, and the gift of
prophetical predictions ; all which he knew well how to turn
to good advantage. He was prefently grown into fo much
fame, that, when one Ram fay, the king's clock- maker, being
informed that there was a great treafure buried in the cloifter
of Weftminfter- abbey, obtained the dean's (Dr, Williams,
bilhop of Lincoln) leave to fearch for it with the divining

Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 38 of 48)